Science & Technology in Sweden - December 2004
1.1 SWEDEN'S INTERNATIONAL POSITION
2. KEY STRENGTHS
1.2 SOME GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
1.3 KEY SECTORS
2.1 HIGH LEVEL OF R&D
3. FUTURE CHALLENGES
2.2 EXTENSIVE RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE
2.3 STRONG GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT
2.4 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
2.5 PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
2.6 SUCCESSFUL VENTURE CAPITAL
3.1 START-UP AND SMALL INNOVATION-BASED FIRMS
4. COLLABORATIVE OPPORTUNITIES
3.2 INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
3.3 SUPPLY, USE AND MOBILITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES
4.1 AREAS OF POTENTIAL COLLABORATION
4.2 EXAMPLES OF EXISTING OR RECENT SWEDISH-CANADIAN COLLABORATIONS
APPENDIX 1: LIST OF COMPETENCE CENTRES
APPENDIX 2: SWEDISH S&T ORGANIZATIONS
APPENDIX 3: MAJOR SWEDISH VENTURE CAPITALS & THEIR ASSETS (BILLION $US)
1.1 Sweden's international position
Though a relatively small country, Sweden has long been at the forefront of research and development. For several decades, the Swedish government, committed to strengthening R&D, has set high priorities on scientific and R&D activities. This strong engagement has helped make Sweden a leading country in terms of innovation. Indeed, Sweden is among the highest ranking countries in the world in terms of percentage of GDP being spent on R&D.
For many years, Sweden has been a leading player among OECD countries in terms of its investments in and use of advanced technology. In international comparison, Swedish high-technology manufacturing is relatively large in all high-technology segments, and particularly in telecommunications and pharmaceuticals.
Statistics show that during the entire period 1970-2003, the Swedish national innovation system was among the leading countries in the OECD in terms of generating technological inventions, measured as international patenting in relation to population size. The statistics evaluating countries in terms of triadic patenting, i.e. patents assigned in the three patenting areas USA, EU and Japan, were even more outstanding. Only Switzerland reported a higher rate of triadic patenting.
Furthermore, Sweden ranked either as the first or second country publishing the highest number of scientific publications in the fields of medical science, natural science and engineering in 2001. Sweden was world-leading in medical science and second only to Switzerland in natural science and engineering in terms of the number of publications in relation to its population size.
1.2 Some general characteristics
Sweden is a long and narrow country of about 1612 kilometres long and 323-484 kilometres wide and one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. Indeed, with a population of nine million people, only Finland, Iceland and Norway are less densely populated countries. Nevertheless, the Swedish economy ranks quite high by international comparisons. Last year, Sweden had almost 2 per cent of companies in the Business Week 1000, while Germany with a population ten times as big had just over 4 per cent.
The Global Competitiveness Report, an annual study undertaken by the World Economic Forum, ranks Sweden as the third most competitive country after Finland and United States for the edition 2004-2005. The Growth Competitive Index (GCI) analyses the potential of the world's economies to achieve sustained economic growth over the medium and long term. The index is based on three pillars: the macroeconomic environment, quality of public institutions, and technology. In terms of GDP growth for 2002-2003, Sweden with 1.6 per cent was above the average GDP growth of 0.5 per cent for EU15 but under the OECD average of 2.1 per cent. For the period 1993-2003, with a GDP growth of 2.9 per cent, Sweden ranked in seventeenth position of the OECD countries and in tenth position in the EU15. In 2004, the GDP growth was expected at 3.8 per cent1.
In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterized by a large knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector, an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector, and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organisations both in manufacturing and services dominate the Swedish economy.
1.3 Key sectors
Sweden has a strong presence in both trade and research activities of different business sectors. However, the significant industrial power and high pattern of investment of organisations in the following sectors help Sweden maintain a strong competitive advantage over other countries.
In the Swedish manufacturing sector overall, the engineering industry accounts for more than 50 per cent of total production (including manufacture of transport equipment 17 per cent, electrical equipment 15 per cent, machinery 11 per cent and manufacture of basic metals and fabricated metal products 12 per cent). The advanced manufacturing industry (advanced materials such as precision cutting tools, mining equipment robotics, high speed steel and other speciality steels used in aerospace and medicine) is also prominent in Sweden.
Sweden's forest and pulp and paper research is extensive both on a national level and under the European framework program. In 2002, wood products, the pulp-and-paper industry and the publishing and printing industry account for around one fifth of the total manufacturing output.
Information and communication technology
According to the 2003 Information Society Index, compiled by IDC/World Times, Sweden ranks as the world's strongest IT country for the fourth consecutive year. Among the areas where Sweden offers competitive advantages in ICT, one can count internet procurement solutions, mobile wireless solutions & services, Internet, e-commerce, IP Telephony, wireless infrastructure equipment, e-based learning, vehicle telematics, robotics and the online and mobile games industry.
Biotech and life science industries
With 230 biotechnology companies, Sweden has Europe's fourth-largest biotech industry, and the largest in relation to both population and GDP. A great majority of the companies are active in the healthcare area, either producing new pharmaceutical drugs or developing tools for drug research and development. Regional strengths include innovative platform technologies and tools, protein drugs, stem cell research, and small molecule therapies in the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal areas. Eighty-percent of these companies are located around Stockholm-Uppsala and the southern Medicom Valley. The deep tradition in biotech research, strong consolidation in the pharmaceutical sector, booming entrepreneurial activity, excellent research, biotech friendly legislative environment and access to venture capital all contribute to the Swedish biotech industry's vitality.
Environmental industries and renewable energy
Sweden is at the forefront in terms of implementation of measures to protect the environment. In 2003, total expenditure, i.e. capital expenditure and current expenditure combined, on environmental protection by industry amounted to approximately $ 1.6 billion. This amount represents an increase of almost $ 103 million from the previous year. Environmental technologies (water, waste, air pollution control) and renewable energy (biomass and waste-to-energy) are areas in which Sweden holds a significant competitive advantage.
Sweden is one of the countries taking a lead role in the functional foods sector. A study performed by Scottish Enterprise 2002 ranked Sweden first globally in functional foods, due to its comprehensive research and production capabilities. Also, in 2002, Sweden was first to introduce regulations to control health claim language used on food labels.
2. Key strengths
2.1 High level of R&D
Sweden holds a leading position in scientific R&D, unequalled by few. With a Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD) of $US 1,149 per capita in 2002, Sweden invests more resources than any other country in the OECD on R&D and other activities related to the production, diffusion and use of knowledge. In the same year, Sweden ranked the highest in the OECD countries in terms of percentage of GDP being spent on R&D (4.27 per cent).
Unlike other countries, Swedish universities and institutions of higher learning carry out most of the government-funded research. In 2001, research in the higher education sector amounted approximately $ 3.24 billion or 0.83 per cent of GDP. The OECD average was about half of that. Only Israel, with 0.82 per cent of GDP, approaches Swedish numbers. University R&D is dominated by medical research, followed by engineering and natural sciences. Other public sector R&D spending is low by international comparison. The contribution of the Swedish institutes to R&D is one of the smallest in the OECD. In 2001, the total R&D activities carried out by governmental and private R&D institutes corresponded to about three per cent of overall R&D activities in Sweden, which was considerably less than in other European countries.
In terms of structure, the Swedish innovation system is characterized by large industrial groups on one hand and the major universities on the other. Majority of corporate R&D is carried out and financed by the business sector which is dominated by about ten multinational industrial groups such as AstraZeneca, Ericsson, ABB, Volvo and Saab AB. Although the same is true for most OECD countries, the share of business sector financing is particularly high in Sweden. In 2001, 77 per cent of R&D activities (around $ 16 billion) were financed by the business sector, whether carried out in Sweden or elsewhere. The average for OECD countries was a little under 70 per cent in 2001. Japan and Korea were the only countries surpassing Sweden in terms of business sector R&D financing.
2.2 Extensive research infrastructure
Sweden's high level of R&D is supported by an extensive research infrastructure which includes science parks, large universities and research institutes.
The science parks support the transfer of technology and knowledge between the universities and industry. They also provide a large variety of services to new companies in the start-up stage. Today, Sweden has 31 science parks that are established or in start-up or planning stages. Kista Science City, IDEON, Karolinska Institute and Mjärdevi Science Park are the dominant ones.
In terms of universities, Sweden has, in relation to the size of its population, the largest university system in the world. Among Sweden's flagships technology universities are the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Chalmers University in Gothenburg, Linköping University, Lund University, Uppsala University and Luleå Technical University. These universities and the Karolinska Institute form part of the Competence Centres Programme, which is of a long-term effort to strengthen the important link in the Swedish innovation system between academic research groups and industrial R&D. A list of the 28 Competence Centres can be found in Appendix 1.
Government research funds are allocated partly through grants paid directly to universities and university colleges, and partly through grants to research councils and authorities. The research councils support research in all scientific fields by granting money to the different research institutes. A complete list of the Swedish research councils and foundations as well as Swedish research institutes can be found in Appendix 2.
The extent to which the Swedish economy is diversified is illustrated by the number of internationally competitive clusters which include information and communication technology (ICT), engineering, life sciences, automotive, energy and food industries.
2.3 Strong government commitment
The Swedish government declared in its budget bill for 2004 that it wanted to increase the number of research-related companies. In pursuit of this objective, the government decided that it would place particular emphasis on areas in which Sweden is internationally competitive, and made a spending commitment of $ 17.9 million to applied industrial research in the IT/telecommunications sector.
Corporate taxes are low (28 per cent) in Sweden compared to other industrialized countries. This policy of low corporate taxes aims to generate strong incentives to re-invest capital in the firms, in order to stimulate further innovation and growth in established firms. On the other hand, taxes on dividends to shareholders are high, as are personal income taxes. These measures have favoured capital accumulation in large established firms but they have restrained radical innovation and industrial renewal often found in SMEs. Indeed, the Swedish tax system is unfavourable to new small entrepreneurial firms by taxing these companies at the same rate as individuals.
2.4 International cooperation
While international cooperation is becoming increasingly important. Sweden can already count on an extensive network in the research field as it maintains close links with its neighbouring countries. For instance, Sweden is part of the Medicom Valley cluster (markets pharmaceutical & biotech in the south of Sweden and in Denmark), the Öresund university consortium (includes 14 universities, 140 000 students and 12 000 researchers in the south of Sweden and Denmark) and the Internet-Bay (marketing portal for Internet, area between Umeå in the north of Sweden and Vasa in the north of Finland).
Sweden also has an extensive network of international contacts through individual researchers and research groups and is member of a number of international research organisations in natural science and technology (ESA, EU, CERN, ESO, ESRF, EMBL, IIASA, etc.). The traditional cooperation with the US, which is especially extensive in medicine and natural sciences, has been accompanied by intensified European cooperation due to Sweden's membership in the EU. In the ICT field, institutional cooperation with the US is based, inter alia, on the Swedish-financed Wallenberg Laboratory at Stanford University.
2.5 Public-private partnership
Technology-based, public-private partnerships between R&D intensive manufacturing industrial groups and public agencies have been decisive to the development of the Swedish national innovation system since World War II. For many years, these public-private partnerships have determined the pace and pattern of technological development within R&D sectors and subcontractor structures.
These partnerships have also helped to address public needs, and have provided a long-term basis for substantial R&D investment in export markets. This culture of high investment in R&D has made Sweden very competitive.
2.6 Successful venture capital
In the early nineties, Swedish venture capital market was quite small and institutionally underdeveloped. As in most OECD countries, Sweden's venture capital and seed-financing increased rapidly in the later half of the decade. Sweden was among the countries that experienced fast growth in volumes of venture capital. In 2002, the Swedish venture capital market was the largest in the OECD, in relation to GDP.
Today, the Swedish market boasts about 100 venture capital firms managing funds of $US 14 billion, compared to almost none ten years ago. While the proportion of high-tech sector investments was 30 per cent among European private equity funds during 2002, Swedish fund investments in either the ICT sector or in life science projects amounted to 60 percent. A list of major Swedish venture capital and their assets is reproduced in Appendix 3.
3. Future challenges
Sweden's national innovation system has great potential compared to most other OECD countries. Nevertheless, the Swedish science and technology sector needs to overcome some weaknesses in order to stay competitive and keep a leading position in terms of innovation.
3.1 Start-up and small innovation-based firms
As mentioned previously, the Swedish innovation system is dominated by large industrial groups such as AstraZeneca, Ericsson, ABB, etc. However, many Swedish-owned multinationals have been bought out by foreign firms. AstraZeneca is now a Swedish-British consortium, Saab AB is 35 per cent owned by BAE systems (UK), Stora, now Stora Enso, is partially owned by Finns, etc. The technological dominance of large and increasingly foreign-owned industrial groups that are less inclined to invest in production in Sweden may become a threat to future Swedish technological renewal and innovation performance. Furthermore, many small and medium size companies passed to the hands of foreign-owners due to the inheritance tax provisions of the tax system. Since small firms generally show higher rates of radical innovativeness than larger ones, the rates and growth of knowledge-intensive SMEs are critical to Swedish innovation system renewal. It becomes an imperative to stimulate industrial renewal through start-ups and growth in small innovation-based firms.
According to a prominent businessman managing a small venture capital, different factors explain the lack of start-up and growth of small-medium sized enterprises in Sweden. For around 50 years, the business climate within Sweden that has seen the Social Democrats in power for most of that time was not favourable to SMEs. Various laws and regulations such as the 3:12 rules and the inheritance tax, limited how SMEs could proceed and severely restricted their actions. For the government, new small companies created a higher risk of tax evasion and were more difficult to control. Although changes have occurred, this business adverse climate has had an impact on the evolution of Swedish entrepreneurship, quite low by international comparison.
Sweden has a low level of bankruptcy, something which Rolf Åbjörnsson, one of Sweden's most well-known bankruptcy officers, explained as a signal of a non-risk taker economy (Dagens Industry, 2004-11-08). According to Åbjörnsson, a healthy economy has more bankruptcies than what is found in Sweden. Different actors and elements can be blamed: companies are afraid to hire more or to expand, people's attitude towards risk given the generous social safety net, etc. Nevertheless, Åbjörnsson believes that the banks are the ones which make it worse. Indeed, banks are tough and demanding when comes to the question of risk. As a consequence, small companies have difficulty to get loans, to invest and to grow.
Regarding the regulations, the businessman interviewed believes that although the taxes are high by international standards, they do not prevent innovation. However, things get more difficult when companies grow and employ more than 25 employees. Then, bureaucracy characterized by severe and strict regulations comes into play.
Changes are also needed in the way that start-ups obtain seed money. Start-up firms lack financial support from both the Swedish government and venture capital groups. Majority of venture capital groups are only interested in financing firms in later stages, after the period of high risk, often just before companies become public.
The government has started to realize that changes are needed. However, changes cannot happen overnight. It will take time before these changes of attitude concretely affect laws and regulations. Furthermore, one cannot expect a sudden increase of entrepreneurship in Sweden. Although the government can encourage a more entrepreneurial climate through different measures, entrepreneurship is still something part of people's nature.
In spite of this rather unfavourable business climate, there have been some successes. For instance, in the mid-1990's, Sweden developed the first free newspaper concept (Metro) into a major multi-nation business. Sweden was also the first country in Europe to launch a non-incumbent telecom operator from scratch, now in 21 countries.
3.2 Industrial research
As the Swedish universities carry out most of the government-funded research, the contribution of the Swedish industrial R&D institutes is one of the smallest in the OECD. This raises expectations for co-operation between universities and the rest of the society. However, rather little incentives encourage such collaboration in the universities, and the university functions for this are underdeveloped.
At the same time, many of the few large corporations responsible for a very high proportion of all R&D research (77 per cent) have tremendously reduced their R&D investments. To stay competitive, the Swedish R&D system cannot any longer rely so heavily on the business sector both for its financing and for applied research. Indeed, such dependence makes the Swedish R&D system too vulnerable.
Industrial research institutes need to be developed as a major supplement to universities and other higher education institutions in order to improve the quality of applied industrial research, make better use of R&D and reduce the dependence on the business sector. Larger and more focused research institutes can act as a link between academic research and that of the business sector.
At the same time, Sweden faces new challenges as more companies carry their research abroad. Indeed, between 1995 and 2001, delocalized investments in research passed from $ 1.05 billion to $ 4.2 billion, a 300 per cent increase. Around 26 percent of Swedish companies carry their research abroad, compared to 10 per cent in United States. The Swedish R&D environment needs to counteract this trend by staying attractive and at the cutting-edge of the industry.
3.3 Supply, use and mobility of human resources
Innovation and production are highly dependant on human resources. Issues related to demography, job creation and use and supply of qualified human resources are crucial to the long-term competitiveness of innovation systems.
Sweden, as other OECD countries, needs to secure a large enough future supply of highly qualified people to the Swedish labour force, together with an improved use and mobility of existing human resources. In Sweden, the mobility of human resources is not high by international standards. Besides, individuals have experience, knowledge and skills which, through interaction with new environments, can generate new ideas and innovations. For this reason, greater incentive to switch between jobs and tasks should be developed.
The Swedish taxation system imposes the highest burden of the OECD countries, and is a clear disincentive for highly-qualified people to come to Sweden. Both multinationals and small and medium size companies looking to recruit professionals from overseas have difficulty to attract them because of the high tax burden. While the government has introduced a programme under which certain highly qualified foreign people can obtain an exemption, the system is perceived as complicated, inconsistent and unpredictable.
4. Collaborative Opportunities
Sweden has good record of research collaboration with other Nordic countries. It also makes the effort to build and extend research collaboration with Canada, the United States, United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Sweden's science and technology sector provides opportunities of research collaboration and bench marking in different areas.
4.1 Areas of potential collaboration
For Canadian companies, the main areas of potential collaboration are in the tertiary and service industries.
- Information and communication technology
- Life Sciences
- Environmental Technologies (Energy & environment)
- Advanced Materials
- Polar / environmental / atmospheric studies
- Functional foods
4.2 Examples of existing or recent Swedish-Canadian collaborations
- Genome Canada and the Karolinska Institute
- The Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (KTH) and Chalmers University in Gothenburg have longstanding collaboration with numerous research centres in North America and Europe.
- Cooperation via satellite projects in atmospheric and environmental studies/research
- Polar research collaboration through the International Artic Science Committee (IASC)
- Energy technology research collaboration via the International Energy Agency (IEA)
- Scientist in Umeå and British Columbia collaborate to protect to protect our forests against stress and pests
- Professors from Linköping University and the Karolinska Institute work in collaboration with Professors from the University of Toronto and the University of Montreal to investigate and find treatments to the Sjogren's syndrome and CMV infections. These diseases have severe effects, particularly on unborn and newborn children.
- Dr Vladislav Orekov at the University of Gothenburg works together with the Structural Genomics Consortia led by Dr. Aled Edwards in Toronto to speed up and improve the mapping of proteins in human and other genomes.
ALPMAN, Marie, Astra Zeneca bromsar FoU-raset, Dagens Industry, 10 March 2004
Global Competitiveness Report 2004-2005, World Economic Forum http://www.weforum.org/
Innovative Sweden, A strategy for growth through renewal, The Ministry of Industry, Employment and Communications and The Ministry of Education, nDs 2004:36, October 2004
Invest in Sweden Agency
Report 2004-05, Business and Investments Opportunities, May 2004
Functional foods http://www.isa.se/templates/Normal____2018.aspx
Food and Food Technology, Sweden - innovator in a changing food industry
MARKLUND, Göran et al., The Swedish National Innovation System 1970-2003, a quantitative international benchmarking analysis, Vinnova analysis, March 2004
News release: Swedish team partners with Canada to work on worldwide leading-edge forestry genomics project, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and Genome Canada
OECD in Figures, Statistics on the member countries, 2004 Edition, www.oecd.org
OLSSON, Inga-Lill, Snapshot of Sweden's S&T in 2001, February 2001
Nordic International (London), Working Paper Commissioned by Canadian Embassy in Denmark: "Science and technology in the Nordics"
ROOTS, Ragnar, Forskningen också på väg ut, Veckans affärer, nr 49, 29 November 2004
STENEBERG, Kristofer, Så här få konkurser är skadligt, Dagens Industry, 8 November 2004
www.swedepark.se (list of all Swedish science parks)
The official gateway to Sweden
Fuelling functional food
Appendix 1: List of Competence Centres
Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg
Combustion Engines Research, CERC*
Environmental Assessment of Product and Material Systems, CPM
High Speed Technology, CHACH
High Temperature Corrosion, HTC*
Railway Mechanics, CHARMEC
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
Research Centre for Radiation Therapy
Bio- and Chemical Sensor Science and Technology, S-SENCE
Information Systems for Industrial Control and Supervision, ISIS
Noninvasive Medical Measurements, NIMED
Luleå University of Technology
Integrated Product Development, Polhem Laboratory
Minerals and Metals Recycling, MiMeR
Amphiphilic Polymers from Renewable Resources, CAP
Circuit Design, CCCD
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
Bioprocess Technology, CBioPT
Customer Driven High Performance Production Systems, Woxéncentrum
Electric Power, EKC*
Fluid Mechanics for Process Industry, Faxén Laboratory
Inorganic Interfacial Engineering, Brinell Centre, BRIIE
Parallel and Scientific Computing Institute, PSCI
Speech Technology, CTT
Surfactants Based on Natural Products, SNAP
User-Oriented IT-Design, CID
of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala
Wood Ultrastructure Research Centre, WURC
Advanced Software Technology, ASTEC
Surface and Micro Structure Technology, SUMMIT
Appendix 2: Swedish S&T organizations
Swedish research councils and foundations
Government agency to support the innovation system
The Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems
Research Councils under the Ministry of Education
Swedish Research Council2
The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Sciences
The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Spatial Planning and Agricultural Sciences
Swedish National Space Board (Rymdstyrelsen)
SSF The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
KK The Foundation for Knowledge and Competence
MISTRA The Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
STINT The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education
Vardal Stiftelsen (healthcare and allergy research)
RJ The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation
KAW Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (private)
EU R&D Council (coordinator of EU funding)
Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA)
KVA The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
KSLA The Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture & Forestry
Swedish Research Institutes
Civilian Government Research Institutes:
VTI The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute
SMI The Swedish Institute for Infectious Diseases
SP The Swedish National Testing and Research Institute
SVA The Swedish Veterinary Institute
IPM The Swedish Institute for Psychological Factors and Health
Defence Research Institutes:
FOI The Swedish Defence Research Agency
Industrial Research Institutes:
STFI-Packforst (pulp & paper, graphic, media, or Packaging and logistics)
IVF (production and egineering)
YKI (surface chemistry)
SICS (computer science)
IFP-Sicomp (fibres, textiles, plastics and rubbers)
SiQ (quality) (Swedish only)
ITM (applied mathematics)
JTI (agricultural engineering)
CBI (cement and concrete)
SBI (steel construction)
ACREO (microelectronics and optics)
Swedish LCD Center (liquid crystal displays)
SveBoFo (rock engineering)
Appendix 3: Major Swedish venture capitals & their assets (billion $US)
In life science
|ScandinavianLife Science Vent.||240|
|H&B/Life Equity Capital||190|
Canadian Embassy in Stockholm
PO Box 161 29
SE-103 23 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of International Trade
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K1A OG2, Canada
1-800-267-8376 (toll-free in Canada)
(613) 944-4000 (in the National Capital Region and outside Canada)
Communications and Marketing Branch
Second Floor, West Tower
C.D. Howe Building
235 Queen Street
K1A 0H5, Canada
Tel.: (613) 947-7466
Fax: (613) 954-6436
Invest in Sweden Agency
World Trade Center
Klarabergsviadukten 70 B6
P O Box 90
SE-101 21 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 8 402 78 00
Fax: +46 8 402 78 78
National Research Council Canada
NRC Corporate Communications
1200 Montreal Road, Bldg. M-58
Canada K1A 0R6
Phone: (613) 993-9101 or toll-free 1-877-672-2672
TTY number: (613) 949-3042
Fax: (613) 952-9907
Swedish Embassy in Ottawa
377 Dalhousie St
K1N 9N8, Canada
Tel.: (613) 241-8553
Fax: (613) 241-2277
The Industrial Research Assistance Program
Building M55, Montreal Road
Phone: (613) 993-5326
Fax: (613) 952-1086
Public Inquiries E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1 Nordea, Economic Outlook, February 2005
2 The Research Council has been divided into four fields which promote and support basic research in their respective areas by distributing grants for various projects and research appointments. These four councils are: the Scientific Council for humanities and social sciences, Scientific Council for medicine, Scientific Council for natural and engineering sciences and Committee for Educational Science. Special research councils are being set up in two areas: the Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Sciences and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Spatial Planning and Agricultural Sciences.