Annual Meeting 2006

November 17-19, 2006

This year's annual meeting will include many events that will be of interest to Fellows of the Society as well as to their colleagues and to the public at large.

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Henry Marshall Tory Medal

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2005 - David J. Lockwood, FRSC

David J. Lockwood, FRSC, is Principal Research Officer at the Institute for Microstructural Sciences of the National Research Council of Canada. He is an internationally renowned authority whose research on the optical properties of solids is characterized by its extreme breadth and outstanding innovation and originality. His seminal work in recent years on quantum confinement effects in semiconductor nanostructures culminated in the definitive observation of quantum-confined light emission in silicon, where previous world­wide efforts over two decades had proved inconclusive. This highly cited work has already lead to numerous new world-wide endeavours in silicon nanocrystal research and technology. His application of inelastic light scattering to elucidate the dynamical properties of quantum dots, superlattices, magnets and phase transitions has produced remarkable new insights into the physics of solids and has placed him amongst the international elite in each of these quite disparate subjects. Lockwood's work has had a broad impact on the development of solid state physics and his research underpins future applications of nanotechnology in areas as diverse as telecommunications and biosensors. Recently, he was awarded the Brockhouse Medal of the Canadian Association of Physicists for Outstanding Achievement in Condensed Matter and Materials Physics.

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2003 - Paul B. Corkum, FRSC

Paul Corkum’s research is characterized by unusual brilliant theoretical insight which has led him to propose and perform the most important recent experiments towards the achievement of creating and measuring "attosecond" laser pulses. The "attosecond" is perhaps the most important time frontier for biology, chemistry and physics. It is the time for a photon to cross a small molecule. Thus visualizing and controlling physical phenomena at the electronic level will require attosecond pulses. Paul Corkum's work in the area of nonperturbative, nonlinear matter-laser interaction has led the way towards this goal. In the past, intense lasers were synonymous to uncontrolled explosion, chaos. Paul Corkum has shown that high intensity lasers lead to useful new tools for measuring and controlling electron and molecular dynamics and for creating the ultimate high speed camera: the "attosecond" pulse. His achievements and innovative ideas have and are having world wide impact on modern laser science research and its applications in the high tech world.

Paul Corkum, FRSC, Senior Scientist and Program Leader of Femto Science at the Steacie Institue for Molecular Science, National Research Council, is an outstanding scientist, an innovative thinker and therefore a leader in the modern scientific world. He is Canada's most creative and original laser physicist.

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2001 - John Bryan Jones, FRSC

John Bryan Jones, FRSC, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, has been a pioneer in developing and applying enzymes as practical catalysts for organic synthesis, which has dramatically extended the boundaries of asymmetric synthesis in previously unattainable and vital directions. The seminal results obtained by his research group have demonstrated the unique benefits that the use of enzymes brings to the production of chiral compounds of broad applicability, including making key intermediates for new drugs, insecticides, and pheromones. From an area that virtually did not exist when he began his highly innovative work in the early 1970s, his creative leadership has spawned one of the most active research fields in all of chemistry. More recently, he has addressed other frontiers of the field. This has included the investigation of the factors controlling the catalytic activities and specificities of enzymes of synthetic value, by combining molecular biology and organic chemistry methods. The same strategy was applied in creating compounds that can act as drugs by inhibiting medicinally important enzymes. Most recently, he has opened up another totally new area - that of gene rating unnatural and novel chimeric enzyme catalysts via highly controlled chemical modification in combination with site-directed mutagenesis. This new strategy is at the cutting edge of the enzyme frontier and permits previously unrealizable control and modulation of enzyme properties and specificity. It has also opened up a wholly new drug strategy by designing enzymes that can eradicate important diseases by seeking-and-destroying the protein or receptor involved in promoting the targeted disease.

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1999 - James K.G. Watson, FRSC

James K.G. Watson, Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, is the world's acknowledged authority on the theory of the vibrations and rotations of molecules, and on the interactions among these motions and those of the electrons in the molecule. He has built the foundation on which all of modern molecular spectroscopy is based, with research which is characterized by originality, clarity, elegance, and completeness. Watson has made many basic and significant contributions to the understanding of molecular symmetry, and to the development of reduced and effective Hamiltonians (energy expressions) for molecules, especially those including the effects of centrifugal distortion on rotation. So pervasive are these contributions that many researchers now refer to the basic energy expression for polyatomic molecules as the "Watsonian", rather than "Hamiltonian". Beyond these foundations, using his remarkable insight into the physics of molecules, Watson has made original contributions to almost every aspect of molecular spectroscopy; he has also become deeply involved with astronomical problems.

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1997 - James Greig Arthur, FRSC

James Greig Arthur, University of Toronto, is a powerful mathematician whose fundamental trace formula is having a profound effect on representation theory and automorphic forms. Arthur is clearly established as the undisputed leader in his field. His work combines harmonic analysis, number theory, Lie group theory, representation theory, and geometry to achieve a deep understanding of basic mathematical phenomena. His recent work and conjectures on Arthur's packets and the local trace formula are major milestones that are setting the direction for research in a central part of mathematics. Overall his research contribution establishes him at the international level as one of a small number of truly significant mathematicians working today.

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1995 - Juan C. Scaiano, FRSC

Juan Scaiano, University of Ottawa, is distinguished by his seminal contributions to photochemistry and physical organic chemistry. Scaiano recognized early the value of laser techniques for the study of organic reactions and was the first to employ these techniques to examine short-lived biradicals and many reactions of free radicals and atomic species, notably those of alkoxyl radicals and bromine, oxygen and fluorine atoms. His interest in microheterogeneous systems has led to landmark advances in our understanding of transient phenomena in micelles, zeolites, vesicles, and most recently in live cells. He has developed many of the laser techniques utilized worldwide and has achieved leadership in the study of two-photon phenomena in organic chemistry, in the reactions of biradicals and carbenes and in reactions in supramolecular systems.

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1993 - Albert E. Litherland, FRSC

Albert E. Lither land, FRS, University of Toronto, has had a distinguished career in the measurement of nuclear energy levels and lifetime, and today is a world leader in studies of negative ions, and the fundamentals of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry with application to rare isotope detection. At Chalk River, he and colleagues obtained the first clear evidence for rotational bands in nuclei and studied high spin states through heavy ion reactions. At Toronto, he investigated the fission of Magnesium-24 and developed a sensitive method for Carbon-14 dating by atom counting. This work has culminated in world interest in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, and to establishment of IsoTrace, a world-class research facility for Carbon-14 dating, Iodine-129 measurements, and investigation of weakly-bound negative ions.

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1991 - Willem Siebrand, FRSC

Dr. Willem Siebrand, National Research Council of Canada, is the 1991 recipient of The Henry Marshall Tory Medal given by The Royal Society of Canada. Dr. Siebrand is distinguished for his contributions to theoretical chemistry, particularly to the understanding of reactions in hydrocarbons from molecular spectroscopy and photochemical kinetics. His work is characterized by an unusual ability to grasp the essence of a problem and provide solutions of unexpected simplicity. He has been an outstanding collaborator with experimentalists, contributing to the solution of such practical problems as the detection and identification of impurities in crystals and the analysis of rate processes in disordered systems. He is best known internationally for his work on radiationless transitions and his introduction of the local-mode concept as a powerful means of studying chemical dynamics. These advances and his many other contributions helped establish Canada as a centre of original theoretical modelling in chemistry.

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1989 - Boris P. Stoicheff, FRSC

Dr. Stoicheff has a worldwide reputation for his basic work in Raman spectroscopy and for his more recent work in laser physics and laser spectroscopy. He is credited with the discovery of the inverse Raman effect from work with lasers in his Raman studies, and for the first observation of thermal shear waves in liquids.

He improved the technique of high resolution Raman spectroscopy to the point where he could resolve rotational Raman spectra of many diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules, the analysis of which provided information about their geometric structures. This work provided the definitive and precise determination of the structure of the benzene molecule. Lately, Dr. Stoicheff and his students have been successful in extending laser spectroscopy to the far ultraviolet region.

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1987 - Keith J. Laidler, FRSC

Dr. Keith J. Laidler, University of Ottawa, is the 1987 recipient of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal of the Royal Society of Canada for his research in chemical kinetics.

Professor Laidler is one of the twentieth-century pioneers in the remarkable progress made in chemical kinetics leading the way in the development of Transition State Theory which provides the modern kinetics theory. Much of this work is distinguished by quantitative mathematical evaluation and development of critical kinetic criteria for the understanding and elucidation of reaction mechanisms.

Professor Laidler's work includes seminal contributions in several areas of the field: gas phase reactions, kinetic aspects of reactivity of electronically excited molecules, and construction of potential energy surfaces for such processes; development of treatments for kinetics and mechanisms for surface reactions and solution reactions, introducing modern concepts of solvation through dielectic polarization effects in the treatment of ionic redox reactions and of reactions producing or consuming ions; gas phase free-radical reactions involving pyrolysis and other thermal decomposition processes; and finally, in more recent years, the kinetics of enzyme-catalysed reactions.

In this work, Dr. Laidler's contributions usually addressed critical points in the development of the subject, and his papers often led to new lines of research development and to new levels of understanding of the problems involved. In the past two decades he has concentrated his efforts on solution reactions and on reactions of biological importance.

He is the co-author of The Theory of Rate Processes, one of the most important books published in the field. It is a volume that almost every physical chemist requires at some time during his work. His abilities and achievements as a teacher and writer, and his concerns for the communication of science are well recognized by his students and his peers. His contributions, which comprise some 250 research publications and nine books, form a cornerstone of the subject, and he is internationally ranked as one of the top three chemists in this field.

Born in Liverpool, England in 1916, Dr. Laidler earned his M.A. and D.Sc. from Oxford and his Ph.D. from Princeton University. He joined the University of Ottawa in 1955 where he is currently Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemistry.

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1985 - Keith U. Ingold, FRSC

Dr. Ingold is distinguished for his spectroscopic studies of the structure of free-radicals in solution and for his investigations of the kinetics, mechanisms, and thermodynamics of their reactions. His research has always been allied with subjects of practical concern. Through his fundamental work on the structures and properties of free radicals, he introduced the novel concepts of "Persistence" and of "Free Radical Clocks." These immediately received widespread recognition and are being applied in many areas of chemistry. From the viewpoint of today's technology his most profound influence derives from his proof almost twenty years ago that phenols and aromatic amines inhibit the autoxidation of organic compounds by transferring their reactive hydrogen (phenolic or amino) to a chain carrying peroxyl radical. Dr. Ingold also became a pioneer in the application of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to the study of the kinetics and thermodynamics of free-radical reactions. The techniques pioneered and/or developed by Ingold have been widely copied and accepted. In the course of his kinetic and thermodynamic studies Ingold became an authority on the use of ESR to identify and provide detailed structural information about carbon-centred and heteroatom-centred radicals. Dr. Ingold is now concentrating his expertise and methods on heterogeneous systems of biological significance, specifically the autoxidative degradation of biological membranes and the role of vitamin E in their protection.

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1983 - Ronald J. Gillespie

The Henry Marshall Tory Medal, for outstanding research in one of the fields of astronomy, chemistry, mathematics or physics, is awarded in 1983 to Ronald James Gillespie, Professor of Chemistry, McMaster University.

Dr. Gillespie has demonstrated how simple physico-chemical methods can be used to obtain vital information about the nature of acidic solvents and about the structure of organic and inorganic solutes in these media. This has led to a better understanding of these solvents and of even more highly acidic systems, now commonly called "super acidic media". His recent work has demonstrated that the HF - SbF5 system is the most acidic that has yet been investigated. The knowledge obtained for these "super acid" media has been applied to organic systems and a number of new carbonium ion species have been discovered and studied in his laboratory. This area of chemistry has been developed into a flourishing new branch of organic chemistry, which is of particular importance to the petrochemical industry. Such rapid expansion in this branch of chemistry has been in no small way attributable to his initial and continuing researches.

In the area of inorganic chemistry, Dr. Gillespie's acid media studies have led to the preparation and characterisation of a new class of compounds of the main group elements, namely polyatomic cations. In these main group element cluster compounds, the principal elements exist in rather novel formal oxidation states, unusual geometrical arrangements, and some of them have unusual properties. Dr. Gillespie's discovery that certain polycations of mercury show metallic properties which are anisotropic has generated considerable interest among solid state chemists and physicists around the world.

In addition, his work on the noble gases continues to be in the forefront of this difficult area of chemistry.

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1981 - Alexander Edward Douglas, FRSC

Alexander Edgar Douglas, FRSC, of the National Research Council of Canada, has been awarded the Henry Marshall Tory Medal for his outstanding work in molecular spectroscopy. Born in Melfort, Saskatchewan, in 1913, he studied in his home province and received his M.A. from the University of Saskatchewan, then a Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University. At NRCC since 1941 his work has been oriented toward spectroscopy, its nature and application. He has established the role of the C3 molecule, important in the evaporation of carbon and other chemical phenomena. He developed the largest spectrograph of the time. His published observations on the anomalously long radiative lifetimes of certain molecular excited states are still referred to as the Douglas Effect. In all his work he has shown his complete understanding of the implications and applications of molecular spectroscopy in other fields such as astronomy and chemistry.

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1979 - N.S. Mendelsohn

Nathan Mendelsohn's contributions to mathematics in Canada as a teacher, administrator, editor, international delegate, 'server-on-committees,' elected officer, board member, and moving force in general are well known. However, impressive as all of this is, his principal contribution is a large amount of important research in combinatorial mathematics.

In 1961, Nathan Mendelsohn contributed to and wrote a very important paper, 'Orthomorphism of Groups and Orthogonal Latin Squares,' in which he constructed five pairwise orthogonal 12 x 12 latin squares. This paper is important as it is the closest anyone has yet come to constructing a projective plan of composite order and as it made clever use of algebra to attack a difficult combinatorial problem. From this point on, his research became increasingly concerned with quasigroups and block designs and their relationship to algebra (mostly from a universal algebra point of view). What makes this work so significant is the number of mathematicians attracted to it. Over the past fifteen years or so, he has turned out a steady stream of extraordinarily innovative papers on Steiner systems and generalizations, orthogonal and perpendicular latin squares, all sorts of block designs, and varieties of groupoids and quasigroups. These papers have attracted so much attention, and so many mathematicians have become interested in the types of combinatorics in them, that it is safe to say that they are the genesis of the branch of combinatorics known today as combinatorial universal algebra (or combinatorial algebra). Outstanding among these papers is 'Orthogonal Steiner Systems,' in which Dr. Mendelsohn cleverly constructs an infinite class of quasigroups (finite, of course) each of which satisfies the two identities x2 = x and x(yx) = y and an algorithm which 'separates' (too technical to develop here) each one into a pair of perpendicular Steiner quasigroups (x2 = x, xy = yx, x(xy) = y). Today the topic of 'separable quasigroups' is still under investigation by quite a few world-class mathematicians. It is probably safe to say that there is not a combinatorialist or universal algebraist in the world who has not heard of Nathan Mendelsohn and that probably very few of them have not quoted at least one of his papers or worked in an area of research which he has helped develop.

Not the least of Mendelsohn's accomplishments has been the establishment at the University of Manitoba of one of the leading groups of algebraists (in lattice theory and universal algebra) in North America and beyond. Also, in view of the widespread influence he has had in mathematical circles in Canada and the many positions he has held in professional societies, one might say that he is due a major share of the credit for the leading role of Canadian mathematicians in research in various areas of combinatorial mathematics today. One, however, is struck by the wide range of his interests: computing and numerical analysis, graph theory, combinatorial designs, and many branches of algebra ranging from classical matrix algebra through group theory to universal algebra. It is a fantastic achievement to have accomplished so much first-class work while carrying a major administrative burden for so long. He is truly a deserving winner of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal.

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1977 - J.C. Polanyi, FRSC

(Bilingual Citation) Ce doit être une source de fierté parmi tous les Canadiens que, dans lew domaine de la science fondamentale concernant la modalité et la vitesse par lesquelles les molécules subissent les réaction chimiques, les contributions de deux Canadiens aient été reconnues specialement par le monde scientifique. Il s'agit de E.W.R. Steacie et J.C. Polanyi, tous deux membres de notre Société.

The outstanding work of Dr. Steacie on the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions provided a deeper insight into the way in which molecules behave as they undergo reaction. Nevertheless, he and other kineticists realized that the depth of their understanding of reaction processes was limited to the extent that their observations did not permit them to ascertain the particular quantum numbers of the reagent molecules that enable them to react, or the quantum numbers of the product molecules as they are formed. Such knowledge would provide not only a greater understanding of reactive processes but also a subtle means of controlling them.

John Polanyi has played a leading role in making this challenging leap-forward in knowledge. As early as 1958 he devised a method which permitted him to observe, by infrared chemiluminescence, the quantum states of nascent hydrogen chloride molecules formed by the reaction of atomic hydrogen with chlorine. Subsequently, his accumulated knowledge of the quantum states of nascent molecules led him to postulate the conditions that would make it possible to produce a chemical laser (light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation). The phenomenon of chemically induced lasing action was subsequently observed, and has since found wide application in many centres throughout the world.

As the result of these and numerous subsequent discoveries he has been recognized as a world leader in the new field of reaction dynamics. His outstanding experimental work, together with his parallel theoretical studies, have continued to bring him many honours both in Canada and abroad. Nevertheless, his personal modesty remains as one of his most enduring characteristics.

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1975 - William T. Tutte

The structural formulae of chemistry provide natural examples of the kind of pattern that became known as a graph. The theory of graphs began in the eighteenth century with Euler's problem about walking over all the bridges in Königsberg. It was stimulated in the nineteenth by Guthrie's problem of deciding whether every possible map on a sphere can be coloured with four colours. The extraordinary ramifications of this problem exercised the ingenuity of many mathematicians, among whom Dr. William T. Tutte is now acknowledged as one of the world's chief experts. In particular, he initiated the fertile idea of assigning to each map a so-called chromatic polynomial, which expresses the number of ways of colouring the map with a given number of colours. Such expressions have surprising properties, some of which he guessed with the aid of an electronic computer and afterwards proved mathematically. He is the author of several books and over seventy papers, some of which have such attractive titles as "The Golden Root of a Chromatic Polynomial" and "The Quest of the Perfect Square". His productivity has continued unabated despite his duties as editor-in-chief of the Journal of Combinational Theory. A few years ago there were rumours that someone had devised a program by which a computer could prove the four-colour conjecture if it is true. It was Tutte who restored the mathematical world to sanity by exposing the inadequacy of the program and summing up the situation in his memorable aphorism, "Put not your trust in computers, for in them is no revelation." Dr. W. T. Tutte is Distinguished Professor of Mathematics in the University of Waterloo.

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1973 - Bertram N. Brockhouse

Bertram Neville Brockhouse pioneered the development of inelastic neutron scattering as a technique to obtain accurate and detailed information concerning the excitations of condensed matter and is still the world leader in this field. This spectroscopy opened up a whole new dimension in solid state physics about fifteen years ago, introducing a level of quantitative understanding that had been completely lacking up to that time.

The basic tool in this work has been the triple axis neutron spectrometer which was perfected by Dr. Brockhouse and which has been copied and used in laboratories around the world. Having created this versatile tool, he has applied it to a wide range of problems of enormous importance to physics. He made the first measurement of the lifetime of short wavelength phonons and the first determinations of time-dependent self and pair-correlation functions in liquids. He provided convincing demonstrations of the existence of phonons and magnons by the first direct measurement of dispersion curves of lattice vibrations and the first direct measurement of the dispersion curves of spin waves. The measurement and interpretation of such dispersion curves is now a central part of solid state physics.

Since 1967, Brockhouse has made his greatest contributions as a senior scientist, illuminating the work of a host of theorists and experimentalists. Nevertheless, he has also continued to be heavily involved in new discovery. Following the prediction of so-called "Kohn anomalies," he was the first to observe them experimentally and to apply the Kohn effect to measure changes in the Fermi surface of lead upon alloying it with tin or bismuth. He also was the first to observe the predicted "in band" resonances in metals that were predicted to occur when a material is doped with an impurity atom which has a mass differing widely from that of the host. Following this discovery, he has become interested in the problems of concentrated alloys with results which promise to have a profound effect on the theory of condensed matter.

In addition to his outstanding contributions to research journals, he is in much demand as a writer of review articles and as a contributor to international conferences and summer schools. As he is a very shy and retiring person, his colleagues at McMaster have difficulty in even discovering the honours that have been heaped on his head. We admire him for his scientific insights, for his absolute integrity, and for his sterling personal qualities. The Royal Society, in honouring him with the Tory Medal, is now joining the large company of distinguished bodies which have recognized the long succession of important discoveries which have been made by this outstanding Canadian, and the great influence he exerted on the development of one of the major fields of research in physical science during the last two decades.

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1971 - Harold E. Johns, FRSC

Head of the Department of Medical Biophysics at the University of Toronto, Professor Johns is uniquely deserving of the Tory medal, the terms of which state: "The award shall be made solely in recognition of outstanding research in some branch of astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, physics, or an allied science. The award shall be based mainly on research carried out in the eight years immediately preceding the award, but the total research contribution of the candidate shall be taken into account." To take into account the career and total research contribution of Professor Johns is to stand in awe of his productivity, brilliance, and versatility.

He was born in China, his father being a teacher of mathematics at the West China Union University. His family returned to Canada four years before his father joined the faculty of McMaster University in 1931. Here the son studied, graduating with a degree in honours physics in 1936. He then enrolled in a graduate programme at the University of Toronto, taking his master's degree in 1937 and his doctorate in low temperature physics in 1939. His promising research work gained him an 1851 Exhibition Science Research Scholarship, tenable at Cambridge, but the war made it impossible for him to take up this award.

Thus it was that Dr. Johns accepted a position as lecturer in the Physics Department of the University of Alberta, and for the war years he served also as lecturer in radar to Air Force and Navy personnel. Beginning his work with x-rays, he acted as official radiographer of aircraft casting for western Canada.

At war's end, he joined the University of Saskatchewan and in the following eleven years his remarkable performance as a researcher, teacher, and author earned him a full professorship and the esteem of his colleagues and fellow citizens. During these years he installed the first betatron in Canada and carried out pioneering research in radiation therapy. In 1951 his energy and reputation led to the installation of one of the world's first two Co60 units in a Saskatoon hospital; that year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the year following a grateful community named him Saskatoon's Citizen of the Year.

Dr. Johns's foremost position among researchers in radiation physics and radiation chemistry led to his appointment, in 1956, as head of the Physics Division of the Ontario Cancer Institute and, in 1958, as professor in the Physics Department and the Department of Medical Biophysics at the University of Toronto. Here he undertook a new line of research, which has also earned him an international reputation in radiobiology. His contributions to knowledge through elegant studies in the ultra-violet photochemistry of nucleic acids have made him a recognized leader in the field. His book Physics of Radiology, now in its third edition, is the standard work on physics as applied to radiotherapy and diagnosis.

Dr. Johns, by virtue of his intellect, energy, and love of research, has shown how one man can magnify his creative influence: not only has he made outstanding contributions to our knowledge of cancer and techniques for treating it, but his enthusiastic presence and love of teaching have also inspired his students to achieve new levels of excellence in research. His clarity of mind and desire to communicate the excitement of science pervade his lectures, and many of Canada's leading scientists in radiation physics and radiation biology are his former students.

The admiration of his colleagues in this country and abroad has been expressed in the many honours he has been accorded. He has served as president of the Canadian Association of Medical Physicists and as associate editor of Radiation Research, and he has received honorary degrees from the University of Saskatchewan and McMaster University. He has had conferred on him the Roentgen Award by the British Institute of Radiobiology, the Medal of the Canadian Association of Physicists, and the Charles Mickle Fellowship.

With a record so distinguished and with the promise of a career that will continue to be filled with rich achievement, it is more than fitting, indeed it was inevitable, that the Royal Society of Canada should confer the Henry Marshall Tory Medal on Harold Elford Johns.

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1969 - William G. Schneider, FRSC

It gives me very great pleasure to present to you Dr. William George Schneider, the unanimous choice of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal Committee for the Medal Award for 1969.

Dr. Schneider is one of Canada's most distinguished physical chemists. He has won international recognition for his contributions to our understanding of intermolecular forces and molecular properties. Through his classic work on virial coefficients the importance of quadrupole interactions was clearly demonstrated for non-spherical molecules. His investigations of molecular complex formation led to the discovery of weak hydrogen bonding with II-electron donor molecules. This work has contributed markedly to our understanding of the mechanism of base-pairing in DNA and related systems. He is particularly famous for his studies in high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which have resulted in a large number of important contributions to structural chemistry, proton exchange behaviour, and hydrogen bonding. More recently he has concentrated his research efforts on luminescence and photoconduction in single crystals of aromatic hydrocarbons; as a result our understanding of the mechanism of energy transfer and II-electron conduction in these materials has been greatly enhanced.

Dr. Schneider has published over 120 scientific papers characterized by a very high level of scientific creativity. In addition he is co-author of one of the most important books in the field of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Dr. Schneider has received many honours for his outstanding work. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, of the Royal Society of Canada, and of the Chemical Institute of Canada. He is a recipient of the Chemical Institute of Canada Medal. Honorary Doctors' degrees have been conferred upon him by the University of Alberta, Laurentian University, Memorial University, and York University.

But Dr. Schneider is more than a great scientist; he is also a distinguished scientist-statesman. In the period 1963-7, he advanced from director of the Pure Chemistry Division at the National Research Council to vice-president (scientific), and in 1967 he became the president of the National Research Council. This is a tribute to the very high esteem in which he is held by the scientists of this country.

Mr. President, I present Dr. William George Schneider that you may award him the Henry Marshall Tory Medal of the Royal Society of Canada.

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1967 - Israel Halperin

I have the honour to present to you for the Henry Marshall Tory Medal, Dr. Israel Halperin, Professor of Mathematics in the University of Toronto.

Dr. Halperin received his bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of Toronto, where his particular mentor was Professor W. J. Webber, and his doctorate, in 1936, from Princeton University, where he studied under that prince of mathematicians, Professor John von Neumann. In his doctoral dissertation, Dr. Halperin made a fundamental advance in the spectral theory of ordinary differential operators, and the resulting paper is still quoted in all the standard works.

Returning to Canada in 1939, he joined the staff of Queen's University, where, except for service in the Canadian Army during World War II, he remained until 1966, when he moved to Toronto. During this period, a series of more than fifty lucid papers flowed from his pen in the field of functional analysis, his particular specialties being von Neumann-algebras and continuous geometries, in which branches he is one of the leading and most productive workers. He has further demonstrated his leadership in the mathematical community of Canada by the training and inspiration he has given to the many graduate students who have studied under his direction.

Mr. President, it is a privilege for me to present Dr. Israel Halperin as recipient of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal.

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1965 - Henry E. Duckworth, FRSC

I have the honour to present for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal, Henry Edmison Duckworth, Professor of Physics and Dean of Graduate Studies at McMaster University.

Born in Brandon, Manitoba, in 1915, Harry Duckworth received his elementary education in Winnipeg and went on to the University of Manitoba to obtain his B.A. degree in 1935 and his B.Sc. in 1936. Following these years of formal education, he taught public school briefly and then joined the staff of United College as lecturer in physics. As he began teaching physics, his own interest in the subject became aroused and he decided in 1940 to go to the University of Chicago to begin serious training as a physicist. So seriously was this quest taken that he earned his Ph.D. degree at Chicago in 1942.

After receiving his Ph.D., Duckworth returned to Canada, spending a brief time at N.R.C. in Ottawa and then two years at McMaster, where he worked in H. G. Thode's mass spectroscopy laboratory and built his first Dempster mass spectrometer for precision mass measurements. In 1945 he took this instrument with him to the University of Manitoba, where he served as Assistant Professor for the academic session of 1945-46.

In the spring of 1946, he accepted a position as Associate Professor at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. During his five years at this institution, he began to be known as an experimentalist of the first rank and formed many friendships, which have been invaluable to him as his interests broadened to include the scientific community at large.

In 1951, McMaster was able to persuade him to return to Canada, bringing with him the mass spectrometer he had built at Wesleyan. His appointment came at a time when McMaster was just beginning to build up a full-scale graduate school and the university in general, and his colleagues in physics, in particular, owe a tremendous debt to his sound judgment and the high standards of excellence he sets for himself and others. The various steps in his career are succinctly labelled by the series of honours and responsibilities showered on him: election to fellowship in the Royal Society of Canada in 1954; Chairman of the Physics Department 1956-61; editor of the Canadian Journal of Physics 1956-61; Dean of Graduate Studies at McMaster 1961-65; member of the Council of the National Research Council (1961-) ; member of the Defence Research Board Panel on Electronics Research (1960-); Chairman of the Canadian Committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP); Secretary of the International Committee on Nuclidic Masses of IUPAP; Chairman of the Editorial Board, Canadian Journal of Physics; President of Section III of the Royal Society of Canada.

Through all this period he has maintained a prolific publication record, with over seventy research papers to his credit. He has also contributed through a Cambridge monograph and numerous review articles on the subject of mass spectroscopy. His well-known textbook on Electricity and Magnetism and his consulting duties as the Advisor on Scientific Books for Holt, Rhinehart and Winston Inc. attest his interest in the provision of up-to-date textbooks for university physics courses. His interest in popularizing physics for the layman is demonstrated most effectively in his most recent publication, a father-and-son team effort entitled Little Men in the Unseen World. The text of this book has been provided by Harry Duckworth, senior, while the cartoon-like illustrations have been created by Harry Duckworth, junior, who has just completed his B.Sc. degree at McMaster and goes next fall to Yale to embark on Ph.D. studies in biochemistry.

During 1963, Duckworth's new large mass spectrometer came into its own. With a radius of curvature of nine feet, this large Dempster-type instrument has been producing the most accurate nuclide mass measurements available in the world. The provision of one part in 108 is such as to reveal exciting new discontinuities in the mass surface and is providing very valuable data for an understanding of nuclear structure. In particular, recent work on the masses of the samarium, gadolinium, and neodymium nuclei in the region of 90 neutrons excited considerable interest at the Paris Conference in 1964 and has initiated several other investigations in various laboratories.

In awarding this medal to Professor Duckworth, the Royal Society finds itself in the large company of those who, over the last decade, have honoured this outstanding Canadian. Our best wishes go with him as he completes the McMaster era of his career and joins the staff of the University of Manitoba as vice-president in charge of academic development. We look forward to seeing the unfolding of a "Duckworth era" in the life of his Alma Mater.

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1963 - Harry Lambert Welsh

I have the honour to present for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal Harry Lambert Welsh, Chairman of the Department of Physics, University of Toronto.

Born in Aurora in 1910, Harry Welsh set out for Toronto to find his own place in the sun in the year when the revolutionary papers of Schrödinger and Heisenberg were shaking the foundations of physical theory. These were great days to be a physicist working in an important centre of atomic spectroscopy and Harry Welsh was quickly caught up in the excitement. After obtaining his B.A. in 1930 and his M.A. in 1931, Welsh went to the University of Göttingen where he spent two years studying under the direction of Professor Franck and at the same time learning to appreciate European culture. While two years in Germany, reinforced recently by a sabbatical year in Paris, are insufficient to make a good Canadian into a good European, the Common Market may feel quite satisfied that its musicians, chefs, and vintners have won a fervent supporter among Canadian physicists.

In 1933 Welsh returned to Toronto to carry on research on the hyperfine structure of atomic spectra and, at the same time, to develop his grasp of both experimental and theoretical spectroscopy. After obtaining his Ph.D. in 1936, he remained on the staff of the Department of Physics, being successively appointed Assistant Professor in 1942, Associate Professor in 1948, Professor in 1953, and Chairman of the Department in 1962. Throughout this period, except for a two-year interlude while carrying on operational research for the Canadian Navy, he has been actively engaged in a study of the structure of atoms and molecules through the technique of spectroscopy.

Professor Welsh's most important research activities date from his return to the University of Toronto after the war. His major effort in the immediate post-war years was in the field of Raman spectroscopy. Here he developed new techniques which allowed gas phase Raman spectroscopy to become a significant and active field of research, rather than a scientific curiosity. Not only have his own investigations been most fruitful, but also I believe it is true to say that, in all research laboratories engaged in investigations of Raman spectra, investigations developed by Professor Welsh and his students are now in use.

Undoubtedly, the most important achievements of Professor Welsh are his studies of molecular interactions. Here Professor Welsh entered a field wherein many earlier investigators had left a great mass of data which was of little scientific value, since most of it lacked system and purpose. Professor Welsh investigated the spectra of simple, well-defined systems. He devised new techniques to obtain his data and he investigated most thoroughly many different aspects of the same system. As a result of his research, a whole new range of phenomena has been discovered, and particularly startling results have been obtained from the spectra of hydrogen as a high pressure gas, as a liquid, and as a solid. These results have been given a satisfactory theoretical treatment by theoretical physicists working in collaboration with Professor Welsh. It is probably true to say that, fifteen years ago, data on intermolecular forces obtained from spectroscopic investigations were regarded as unreliable and non-definitive. Now, under the direction of Professor Welsh, the spectroscopic method has become a most powerful tool for investigating intermolecular forces in simple and theoretically important systems.

Professor Welsh's research has been carried on in the best traditions of university scholarship. Teaching students to do research by both precept and example, he has multiplied his skills over and over, until today scientific laboratories the world over are reaping the rewards of his labours. Any superficial counting of his numerous research publications will fail to give any true measure of the significance of his contribution to the physics of our generation.

Professor Welsh has already been honoured by many as a research physicist, as a teacher, and as an administrator. In 1961, the Canadian Association of Physicists gave him their highest award, the medal for achievement in physics. In 1962, he was elected to Fellowship in the Royal Society of London. We honour both ourselves and Professor Welsh in presenting him with the Henry Marshall Tory Medal.

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1961 - R.M. Petrie, FRSC

Mr. President, I have the honour to present for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal, Robert Methven Petrie, Director of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory Royal Oak, British Columbia. Dr. Petrie is internationally known for his spectroscopic studies of stars.

Born in Scotland, Dr. Petrie came to Canada while very young and received his schooling in British Columbia, as well as his bachelor's degree from the University of that province. In his youth, astronomical enthusiasm was so strong that even before he entered university, he began in 1924 to spend his summers as a volunteer assistant at the observatory of which he is now Director. During the period 1928-35 he received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and was an instructor there. At Michigan he worked to great effect on the development of celestial kinematography which has now produced spectacular motion pictures of the seething gases of the sun. There, too, began his interest in problems of spectroscopy which he has continuously pursued to great advantage. Since 1935 Dr. Petrie has worked at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, rising in rank to the post of Director in 1952.

Among his areas of research are the atmospheric motions of stars, and the determination of the accurate magnitudes of the components of spectroscopic binary stars from profiles of spectral lines. These data have led to an improvement on the important mass-luminosity relation first established by Eddington. He has also devoted time to determining the distances of the very hot stars, and to a calibration of the radial-velocity measurements to ensure that they are measured on the same scale as measures made in our own solar system. (This study has involved the establishment of criteria to distinguish luminosities of giant and dwarf stars.) The highly precise wavelength determinations made by Dr. Petrie have been incorporated in the reports of the International Astronomical Union and are now universally accepted as standard.

One of his main projects, the dynamics of the galaxy, a programme of many years' duration, which carries on the well-known earlier work by J. S. Plaskett and J. A. Pearce, is in the final year of completion. The observations are already made, and will yield an improved understanding of the structure of our galaxy.

During his directorship Dr. Petrie has energetically added to the facilities and equipment so that this forty-year old observatory has most modern facilities for research, including a new 48-inch reflecting telescope of superior design.

In addition to his extensive research programmes and administrative work, Dr. Petrie has given generously of his time to serve various scientific organizations. He is a Vice-President of the International Astronomical Union, the first Canadian to be so honoured. He is also Vice-President of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and has served as President of Section III of the Royal Society of Canada (1956), as President of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (1955-56), and as Vice-President of the American Astronomical Society (1954-56).

It is my happy privilege to present Robert Methven Petrie for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal.

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1959 - Henry George Thode, FRSC

I have the honour to present to you for the Henry Marshall Tory Medal Henry George Thode, Vice-President of McMaster University and one of Canada's most distinguished scientists.

Harry Thode was born at Dundurn, Saskatchewan, not far from where we are meeting tonight. He has never lost his love for his native province and its boundless prairie lands. After obtaining his B.Sc. and M.Sc. at the University of Saskatchewan, Harry Thode went to the University of Chicago where, under the direction of Professor Freed, he obtained his Ph.D. for his work on magnetic susceptibilities.

After a brief teaching period at Pittsburgh, Dr. Thode joined Professor Urey's group at Columbia. It was there that he became interested in isotope separation and laid the foundation for his extensive work in this field.

In 1939 Dr. Thode joined the staff of McMaster University. His outstanding ability and boundless energy led to accelerated promotion; associate professor 1942, full professor 1944, Director of Research 1947, Principal of Hamilton College 1948, and Vice-President of the University in 1958. While this may seem an impressive record it cannot fully convey the real significance of Dr. Thode's contribution to McMaster. His infectious enthusiasm and his unlimited generosity in helping other scientists, combined with his insistence that research should be a vital part of every university professor's responsibility, have been largely responsible for the excellence of McMaster's growing science departments.

When, during the war, the National Research Council became involved in the Atomic Energy Project, Thode was asked to develop the mass spectrometers required for deuterium analysis. His first 180° instrument, already in production at that time and still in operation, was the forerunner of a large number of mass spectrometers of various designs constructed by his students at McMaster and by his graduates in many parts of Canada, the United States, and Europe. In the hands of Dr. Thode and the chemists and physicists he has trained, measurements of isotopic abundances have been used to shed light on many difficult problems of chemistry, geology, and physics. These include the mechanism of bond formation in organic molecules, photosynthesis, the sulphur cycle, geologic age determinations, variations in isotopic abundances in nature, neutron capture cross-sections, and the fission process. His investigations are described in some eighty research papers and in books and annual reviews.

With the development of nuclear reactors and the consequent availability of many types of radioactive isotopes, Dr. Thode was one of the first to urge that Canada should begin using these isotopes for medical research. As a result of his efforts, some of the pioneer Canadian work on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders with radioactive iodine was carried out in the laboratory of the Hamilton Medical Research Institute. Today, while McMaster has no medical school, it does have an active Medical Research Department and supervises a large iodine treatment centre at St. Joseph's Hospital.

Dr. Thode has been the recipient of many honours. He was elected a Fellow of this Society in 1943 and has since served as President of Section III and is at present Vice-President of the Society. In 1946 in recognition of his contributions to the war effort he was honoured by being made a Member of the British Empire. In 1954 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London; in 1955 he received an honorary D.Sc. degree from the University of Toronto; in 1957 he was awarded the medal of the Chemical Institute of Canada and in 1958 he was granted an honorary LL.D. by his Alma Mater, the University of Saskatchewan.

During the last two years, much of Dr. Thode's enthusiasm and energy have been directed towards the construction of the McMaster Research Reactor, the first university reactor to be built in the British Empire. Not only has he been responsible for obtaining the necessary funds, but he has personally been concerned with many of the details of its construction. This new instrument will enable him to integrate many of the active research programmes which he has initiated and directed. He will now be able to demonstrate in a convincing manner one of his deep-felt convictions: that the artificial lines which have been drawn between physics and chemistry should be less clearly defined and that students in these fields of knowledge could more appropriately have only one designation—physical scientists.

Mr. President, in recognition of the many and varied contributions which Dr. Thode has made to science, I am happy to present him to you for the Henry Marshall Tory Medal.

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1957 - Carlyle Smith Beals

I have the honour to present for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal, Carlyle Smith Beals, Dominion Astronomer. Dr. Beals has pursued his scientific career to renown on the east coast, on the west coast, and latterly in the heart of Canada at the Dominion Observatory, Ottawa. For his researches of a highly precise nature into some of the little understood and strange classes of stars in the sky he has won world-wide recognition.

A native of Nova Scotia, where he took his undergraduate work at Acadia, he proceeded to Toronto and to the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, for higher degrees. After a year as assistant professor at his first alma mater, he was appointed astronomer at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. There his skill in instrument design and application, and his thorough knowledge of precise astrophysics, enabled him to make major contributions in his field of study. His early work on the spectra of Wolf Rayet stars, followed by investigation on the P Cygni stars, was the beginning of our understanding of these objects which are so different from normal stars. From these he proceeded to fundamental work on the amount of interstellar gas and dust in space, with studies of the strengths of the interstellar lines of calcium and sodium with increasing distance. His great research patience is well illustrated by a photograph of 25 hours' exposure that he took with the great 73-inch Victoria telescope to unfathom the mysteries of the curious star H.D. 190073.

His outstanding career has already been recognized in many ways, among them his election as president of Section III of this Society, as Fellow of the Royal Society of London, as vice-president of the American Astronomical Society, as president of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, and as the recipient of an honorary doctor of science degree from Acadia.

Not the least of his honors was his appointment as Dominion Astronomer in 1946, at which time he relinquished his position of assistant director of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. His versatility has been well shown in his latest post, where of necessity his interests were broadened into fields such as geophysics, allied to astronomy. His zeal for other researches than his own special stars has been extended with important results to such worthy projects as the search for meteor craters over Canada. Under his guidance the Dominion Observatory has gained increased strength.

Mr. President, it is now my happy privilege to present Carlyle Smith Beals for the award of the Tory Medal.

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1955 - Edgar William Richard Steacie

Dr. Steacie, from his years as a student, has continuously and consistently devoted himself to original research in the manner to which all members of this Society aspire. Dr. Steacie was born in Westmount, Quebec, on the auspicious date December 25, 1900. His undergraduate studies were pursued at McGill University, where he continued graduate studies as a National Research Council student, and received the doctorate in 1926. Later on he broadened his experience and training in England and on the Continent.

After a distinguished career at McGill, Dr. Steacie joined the National Research Council as Director of the Division of Chemistry. At both institutions he has carried on a formidable programme of research in that branch known as chemical kinetics. His researches and those of the students he trained and inspired have brought renown to themselves and prestige to their institutions. His contributions to the chemistry of photosensitized reactions are original and fundamental. His book on free radical reactions is everywhere recognized as the authoritative work in the field.

Dr. Steacie's contributions do not end with research and training. His qualities of leadership have brought him to the councils and the chairs of learned societies and national scientific bodies. In 1949 he was elected President of the Chemical Institute of Canada, this year he is President of our own Society; he serves on the Defence Research Board, and the Atomic Energy Control Board; in 1950 he was appointed a Vice-President of the National Research Council and, since 1952, has been President of that institution.

As an administrator Dr. Steacie's contributions to science continue. His initiation of the post-doctoral fellowship plan is of lasting value. Although President of the National Research Council with many duties, his activities as a chemist are not curtailed as shown by the continuous flow of his scientific papers.

Dr. Steacie's many contributions have been widely recognized. In 1948 he was elected to the Royal Society of London; in 1949 he was awarded the gold medal of the Professional Institute; in 1953 he received the medal of the Chemical Institute. His wartime services brought recognition in the form of an O.B.E. No less than eight universities have conferred upon him honorary degrees.

Mr. Chairman, Section III is proud to present Dr. Steacie for the Henry Marshall Tory Medal.

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1953 - Gerhard Herzberg, FRSC

Dr. Gerhard Herzberg, today one of Canada's leading physicists, was born in Hamburg, Germany, in 1904. He received his early training there and subsequently studied physics at the Darmstadt Institute of Technology where he obtained his Dr. Ing. degree in 1928. From 1928 to 1930 he carried out postdoctorate work at the universities of Göttingen and Bristol where he held a research studentship. In 1930 he was appointed Privatdozent (lecturer) and senior assistant in the Physics Department of the Darmstadt Institute of Technology.

Due to the then shortsighted policy of the Nazi régime toward its outstanding scientists, he was not reappointed. What appeared to be a misfortune for the Herzbergs proved fortunate for Canada. Dr. Herzberg came to the University of Saskatchewan on a Carnegie guest professorship in 1935. He later was made a research professor of Physics, a position he held until 1945.

In 1945 Dr. Herzberg was offered the post of Professor of Spectroscopy at the Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago. Such an invitation could not reasonably be declined, but it is, nevertheless, an indication of the liking and regard the Herzbergs have for Canada that they took the first opportunity that was comparable to Dr. Herzberg's attainments to return. In 1948 he was made Principal Research Officer with the National Research Council, and in 1949, Director of the Division of Physics.

Dr. Herzberg is distinguished for his work on atomic and molecular spectra. He has contributed greatly to the determination of the structures of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. He has been prominent in the study of forbidden transitions, and has recently observed the quadrupole rotation vibration spectrum of hydrogen. He has identified CH+ as a constituent of the interstellar medium, and has produced the nuclear bands of comets in the laboratory. His three books on atomic and molecular spectra are internationally known as standard works on the subject.

In 1939 Dr. Herzberg was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada; in 1950 he received the Médaille de l'Université, Liège, Belgium; and in 1951 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society, London.

There is more to be said than this. Dr. and Mrs. Herzberg grew up in an old and proud culture. They had attained a place of eminence and prestige in that culture. What was, for them, an unfortunate turn of the wheel brought them to Canada, a new and growing country; a country which, according to the writings and speeches of my good friend Professor Lower, has not yet worked out a distinct cultural pattern. The Herzbergs did not complain. They saw much to admire in this new and growing country. Where they could not admire they were tolerant, sympathetic, and helpful.

Mr. President, the Fellows of Section III have no alternative to naming Dr. Herzberg as deserving of the highest recognition for his outstanding work as a scientist, because of his fine personal qualities, his sincere modesty in regard to his own achievements, and because he is a downright good fellow. It gives the members of Section III the utmost satisfaction to present you, Dr. Herzberg, for the Henry Marshall Tory Medal.

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1951 - Thorbergur Thorvaldson, FRSC

I have the honour to present for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal, Dr. Thorbergur Thorvaldson, Professor Emeritus at the University of Saskatchewan, and a distinguished Canadian chemist of international repute. Although born in Iceland, he received all his early education in the province of Manitoba, graduating from the University of Manitoba with honours. After graduation he proceeded to Harvard where he studied under the direction of T. W. Richards and G. P. Baxter. His studies in thermochemistry and atomic weight determinations with these distinguished American chemists gave him those ideals of accuracy and thoroughness which have characterized his many researches since. He received his doctorate in 1911 and was awarded a travelling fellowship, which enabled him to spend a year at the University of Liverpool with F. G. Donnon and a year at Dresden with R. Luther. After another year at Harvard he joined the staff of the University of Saskatchewan where he served as Assistant Professor, Head of the Department of Chemistry, and Dean of the College of Graduate Studies.

In the 1920's he began his researches on the chemistry of cement with special reference to the action of sulphate waters on concrete and the methods of increasing the resistance of cement to chemical attack. On the practical side he found that Na2SO4 was chiefly responsible for the disintegration of cement and developed a steam curing treatment to render the cement more resistant. He also found that high silica cements were more resistant to the action of sulphates. His fundamental work on the preparation and the physico-chemical properties of the pure components of cement has brought him international recognition. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1926 and President of Section III in 1943. The Governor of Iceland conferred on him a knighthood of the Order of the Falcon and the University of Manitoba awarded him the degree Doctor of Science. On the occasion of his recent retirement from the chair in Chemistry at the University of Saskatchewan, a special issue of the Canadian Journal of Research, containing articles by some of his former students and distinguished colleagues, was dedicated to him in recognition of his contribution to science. Although retired from teaching, he is actively engaged in research as indicated by his recent publications.

It is fitting that the Royal Society should honour this distinguished scientist and teacher.

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1949 - Harold Scott Macdonald Coxeter, FRSC

I ask permission to present Professor Harold Scott Macdonald Coxeter in absentia for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal. Professor Coxeter is one of the most distinguished members of the staff in Mathematics of the University of Toronto. He was born in London, England, in 1907 but was sent early in World War I into the country, where he came to the notice of Professor Neville, who arranged to have a colleague, Professor Robson, tutor him and supply him with problems which developed his ingenuity and powers of invention. He won a Cambridge Entrance Scholarship in 1925 but worked by himself at his home in London another year before entering Cambridge, from which he took his B.A. in 1929 and his Ph.D. in 1931, being awarded the Smith's Prize in the latter year for a published paper on "The Polytopes with Regular-Prismatic Vertex Figures," supported by other papers in manuscript form. He was appointed Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, for the three-year period 1931-4, which was extended to cover 1934-5 as well. He spent the first and third years of his Fellowship at Cambridge, but the second and fourth at Princeton. The following year he continued his research at Cambridge, but in the fall of 1936 he joined the staff in Mathematics at Toronto as Assistant Professor. He was promoted to an Associate Professorship in 1943 and a Full Professorship in 1948. He was visiting Professor at Notre Dame during a good part of the spring term in 1947 and at Barnard College for four months in the spring of the present year. He was offered the headship of the Department of Mathematics at one of the provincial universities in England.

His early work was on polytopes, which are the analogues in ndimensions of polygons and polyhedra in 2 and 3 dimensions. This work was made possible by reason of an intuitive appreciation of the relations which hold in space of many dimensions but are only made manifest fully by the use of Algebra. He has since become interested in abstract group theory, and most of his later work springs from a combination of intuition and competence in handling the tools of a logical discipline.

He has published 36 papers by himself and five more in collaboration with others. In addition he has written three books and supplied the chapter on Polyhedra in Rouse Ball's Mathematical Recreations and Essays. His books are entitled Non-Euclidean Geometry, Regular Polytopes, and The Real Projective Plane.

His undergraduate lectures at Toronto deal with both metrical and projective geometry, and his graduate and seminar courses range over aspects of geometry, group-theory, and the theory of numbers. He is the Editor of the Canadian Journal of Mathematics and has done much to give it its international and strongly developed research character.

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1947 - Eli Franklin Burton, FRSC

I have the honour of presenting to you, for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal, Professor Eli Franklin Burton, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to Physics. A graduate of the University of Toronto in 1901, he has served his Alma Mater with great distinction since taking his Bachelor's degree. His first appointment was as Fellow in Mathematics but the following year he joined the Department of Physics, which he now directs. In 1904 he was awarded an 1851 Exhibition Scholarship and proceeded to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he was appointed to a studentship. The next two years he spent in the Cavendish Laboratory with the late Sir J. J. Thomson, and it was during this period that he became interested in the physics of colloids. In 1906 he returned to Toronto, and for more than forty years has given kind and stimulating guidance to generations of students, in both their undergraduate and postgraduate years. During these many years he was associated with the work of developing the largest university physics department in Canada. As Director of the McLennan Laboratory since 1932 he has enlarged the fields of research in his department by establishing divisions of electronics, geophysics, and electron microscopy, as well as encouraging the continuation of original work in colloids, low temperature physics, and spectroscopy.

Doctor Burton's early contributions were in radioactivity and special mention should be made of his pioneer experiments (in collaboration with the late Sir John McLennan) concerning "penetrating radiations" in 1902. These investigations were followed by his fundamental researches on the physical properties of colloids, which were later embodied in his well-known treatise on this subject.

During the First World War he took an active part in the location and purification of helium from Canadian sources, a project of considerable importance at that time and which later was of value in establishing the cryogenic laboratory in the Physics Department at Toronto.

In 1938 Professor Burton directed the construction of the first electron microscope in North America, and with the collaboration of his students has made outstanding contributions in its development and use. His book describing the electron microscope and its application as an instrument of research has been widely used by those who are interested in this field of investigation. Many of his former students who collaborated with him now occupy prominent positions in electron microscopy both in Canada and in the United States.

A member of many scientific committees, and a director of Research Enterprises Limited, Professor Burton has exerted a wide influence on Canadian Physics, especially during the recent war, as an active, stimulating, and enthusiastic member of the National Research Council of Canada. His outstanding leadership in inaugurating special courses for radar officers for the British Navy, the training of hundreds of radio mechanics for the Royal Canadian Air Force, and the many important secret researches carried out in his laboratory during the recent war, have brought great distinction to himself, his colleagues, and his Alma Mater.

Professor Burton has not only made valuable contributions to science through his researches, but as the author of many books has made available to others his knowledge of those special fields of investigation for which his laboratory is well known.

It is with great pleasure, Mr. President, both as a former student and as a friend, that I present to you Professor Burton, doyen of Canadian physicists, for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal.

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1946 - John Stuart Foster, FRSC

I have the glory to present for the award of the Henry Marshall Tory Medal, John Stuart Foster, MacDonald Research Professor of Physics at McGill University.

This year's medallist first attracted the attention of scientists in the year 1921, when he was appointed National Research Fellow in Physics at Yale University. He held this appointment for three years. During this period, the apparatus and methods were developed which later were exploited to disclose the exact way in which spectral lines are split by an external electric field. The theory of this effect in the helium spectrum was written under an International Research Fellowship at Copenhagen. The medallist has, in short, built the apparatus, made the observations, and written the theory for a new chapter in Physics. This clear break into a hitherto confused field was further exploited by the McGill group. This young group made the standard investigations on the Stark effect in rare gases, metallic spectra, simple molecular spectra, and stellara spectra of B-type stars.

Along with the above-mentioned researches has gone the gradual development of methods for investigating effects due to combined electric and magnetic fields. This difficult work has been successful only at McGill; and will be set forth in a joint paper to appear shortly.

Another undertaking carried out by a select group was concerned with the quantitative spectrographic analysis for trace elements in biological material; and the application of Buch methods to several specific problems in Biology and Medicine.

A further distinct phase of research is represented by results recently obtained at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Ultra high frequency antenna equipment was here designed. This included the invention of the best high-speed radar scanner yet developed.

A significant aspect of the work outlined above lies in the fact that it has admitted graduates to the best laboratories in Europe and America. At these centres, the young scientists have continued their researches with international recognition.

In recognition of Dr. Foster's accomplishments, he has been awarded the following honours: Member of Council of American Physical Society; Fellowship in the Royal Society of London; Levy Medal of the Franklin Institute.

At the present time, Dr. Foster soars about the summits of his scientific imagery. It is therefore reasonable to think that, on the completion of his current cyclotronic project at McGill, new discoveries will emerge from his own endeavours and his fruitful guidance.

Sir, it is now my happy privilege to present John Stuart Foster.

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1945 - Otto Maass, FRSC

It is my honourable task to present as Henry Marshall Tory Medallist, Otto Maass, MacDonald Professor of Physical Chemistry and Chairman of the Department of Chemistry at McGill University, General Director of the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Assistant to the President of the National Research Council, Director of Chemical Warfare and Smoke of the Department of National Defence.

Our medallist tonight is a good illustration of a remark of the late Dr. Lash Miller. When asked to define physical chemistry, Miller replied that it comprised whatever was of interest to the professor of physical chemistry at that moment. One realizes the truth of this when one glances at the long list of Maass's published papers—over 150 in all—covering all aspects of this subject. His work ranges from highly precise measurements of physical and chemical properties to studies of pulp and paper technology. It includes such classic researches as his calorimetric determination of the heat of wetting and his extraordinary measurements on gases at the critical temperature. In all, however, one can see the same experimental skill and scientific imagination. Maass has, however, one characteristic that distinguishes him from most practitioners of his art—an apparent fondness for hazardous experiments. Most of us would study critical state phenomena in glass capillaries or in steel apparatus; Maass works in liter glass flasks.

All this is but one side of his career. From the outbreak of war, he has played the leading role in placing chemical research in Canada at the disposal of the government. After his visit to England in 1940, he initiated the programme of research in high explosives which has had spectacular success. He was the driving force behind the development of the Chemical Warfare organization in the Department of National Defence; and he played a major part in the establishment of its tremendous experimental station at Suffield. His contributions after he became director of Chemical Warfare cannot be discussed as yet, but those of us who have had the honour of serving under him know well what he has accomplished.

Mr. President, I present, in absentia, Otto Maass

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1944 - Frank Allen, FRSC

In this second year of award of this new medal the Royal Society of Canada honours itself in recognizing his fine contributions to science and awarding the Tory Medal to Professor Frank Allen, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D., FRSC, retiring Head of the Department of Physics of the University of Manitoba. In pursuing through many years a series of original scientific researches of high merit, with his life-time of teaching and propagation of science forming a very effective background, Dr. Allen has proved himself eminently worthy of this high distinction. In a certain field of physical science which he made peculiarly his own, and as a professor taking the higher scientific learning to new provinces in the Canadian West, he has been a hardy and active and faithful pioneer for the major part of his active life.

Born in New Brunswick in 1874, son of the Rev. John S. Allen and Charlotte Newcombe Tuttle, it is known by some and should be known by more that our Medallist stems from the same family as the famous American astronomer, Simon Newcombe. He received his early education in New Brunswick public schools and colleges and graduated as B.A. at the University of New Brunswick in 1895, and took the M.A. in 1897. For three years he was Principal of a County Grammar School in New Brunswick, and then proceeded to postgraduate work at Cornell University, where he took the Ph.D. degree in 1902.

The University of Manitoba, so its friends will know, traversed many tribulations before it could arrive at its present high and eminent estate. The year 1900 was a stepping stone upwards when the University obtained power "to give instruction and teaching in several faculties and different branches of knowledge" in addition to the instruction already proceeding in affiliated colleges. A few years later, 1904, four new chairs in the natural and physical sciences, including physics, were founded, and our Tory Medallist of today was selected as the first Professor of Physics. In 1924 the University of Manitoba honoured him with Honorary LL.D. degree for his quarter of a century services to science and education.

The present year is a notable one for Professor Allen in that it marks the completion of forty years' tenure of the professorship of Physics at his University; and it is interesting to observe that the donor of this medal, Dr. H. M. Tory, and Professor Allen were admitted to the Royal Society of Canada at the same time in 1909. These two and Dr. H. T. Barnes are the earliest elected Fellows of Section III.

Under the terms of award of this medal, the Medallist "must have made and published outstanding contributions as a result of his own researches in physical science." Professor Allen's experimental researches, conducted by himself and with his students, have related to the subjects of optics and acoustics, and especially to a border region of physics and physiology, which Allen himself opened as a pioneer. One scientific journal called his work the discovery of a new method which had long been desired. Of this last it is possible to say that there was an originality of method in his researches pertaining to the physical senses of sight, hearing, touch, and taste. Professor Allen entered this field in a method reducing to quantitative measurements what had previously only been considered qualitatively. His studies led to his linear logarithmic law relating to sense perception, which does indeed help our thinking, in that it is a quantitative and not merely a qualitative or guess-work regard of certain sensory actions. His work was a touchstone to the thinking and experiments of quite a number of other researchers and writers in other countries.

But there is also the background, as there should be. Throughout his long career Professor Allen has unselfishly devoted himself with much labour to promoting many movements for the advancement of science in his adopted province in this Dominion. His teachings have not been confined exclusively to the University but have extended to popular and semi-popular lectures outside. Always he maintained high standards, and with marked modesty and sincerity of purpose; fine results have been achieved which are already evident and will become more so in the future. Our Medallist's published papers giving accounts of his experiments are numerous, but he has also written popular books and articles of both specific and general scientific interest. He has served on many scientific committees and boards, and all who have served with him will know of his honesty of purpose and steadiness to pursue only policies of soundness and worth. He never sought any personal advantages for himself. When a fuller history of scientific education in the Dominion of Canada comes to be written, scores of years hence, and the diffusion of the higher learning is traced from the older to the newer provinces, the name of the Tory Medallist of this year will find a high and honoured place.

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, it has been recommended that the Henry Marshall Tory Medal in this year of 1944, be bestowed on Professor Frank Allen. This recommendation has been approved by the Council and endorsed by the Fellows of the Society. It is a great pleasure to me as an old friend and fellow worker on many scientific bodies with Professor Allen to present him to you to receive this high distinction.

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1943 - John Lighton Synge, FRSC

The green hills of Ireland have produced and nurtured from time immemorial the transcendental British generals, the transcendental literati both in poetry and in prose, and the transcendental geniuses in mathematical physics. Professor Synge belongs to the last class although his family name suggests one of the other groups. He is the modern representative of the honoured lineage of Sir William Rowan Hamilton, James Thomson, G. F. FitzGerald, and Sir Joseph Larmor.

Professor Synge belongs to the class hard to limit by a name. We call him an applied mathematician at Toronto; or he may be called a mathematical physicist. If it were not for the duality attached to the word physical, he might well be called a physical mathematician. In short he is one of the few people who make mathematics do useful work for solids, liquids, gases, and the great expanse we call space.

John Lighton Synge was born in Dublin in 1897 and received his M.A. degree at Dublin in 1921 and his D.Sc. in 1926. After a short time as lecturer in Trinity College, Dublin, he came to the University of Toronto as Assistant Professor of Mathematics which position he held from 1920 to 1925. He then returned to his Alma Mater where he became Fellow and Professor of Natural Philosophy, a professorship which he held for the next five years. Ample evidence of the favourable impression that Professor Synge made at the University of Toronto is found in the fact that he was persuaded to return to the University of Toronto as Professor of Applied Mathematics in 1930. He is a member of the Mathematical Society of America and the London Mathematical Society, the Royal Irish Academy, of which he was treasurer in 1929. He has been a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada for some years and during the present year has been given the signal honour of election to the Royal Society of London.