There are 18 Central Universities under the purview of the MHRD which have been set up by Acts of Parliament. The details are as under:-
Jawaharlal Nehru University came into existence in 1969 by an Act of Parliament. It is primarily concerned with Post-graduate Education and Research. The University has been identified by the University Grants Commission as one of the University in the Country with ‘Potential of Excellence’. It has 9 schools consisting of 27 centres of studies and 4 special centres. The strength of its teaching and non-teaching staff is 420 and 1297 respectively. 4890 students were on rolls.
For further details visit JNU Home page
University of Delhi was established in February, 1922 as a unitary and residential university. It has 14 faculties, 82 teaching departments and 78 college spread over national Capital Territory of Delhi.
For further details visit University of Delhi Home page
A new State University – Indraprashtha Vishwavidhlaya has come up in Delhi as an affiliating University.
Functioned as a Deemed University since 1962. Acquired the status of a Central University in December 1988 by an Act of Parliament. Imparts education from Nursery stage to Post-graduate and Doctorate levels. It has 29 Departments, excluding the various Centres of Studies and Research, grouped under 7 Faculties. Offering a total of 121 courses at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, in addition to Ph.D Programmes. It has on its rolls a total of 14,000 students, including 97 foreign students from 38 countries. The total strength of the teaching staff is 612 (including 120 for School Sector) and that of the non-teaching staff is 997. Apart from providing training at Postgraduate level in Mass Communication, A.J. Kidwai Mass Communication Research Centre produces material on different educational aspects/subjets for the UGC's INSAT Programme.
The new initiatives taken in the areas of academics include setting up of the various new Centres, including (i) Centre for Jawaharlal Nehru Studies, (ii) Centre for West Asian Studies, (iii) Centre for Dalit and Minorities Studies, (iv) Centre for Spanish and Latin American Studies and (v) Centre for Comparative Religion.
Established in 1985 by an Act of Parliament for introduction and promotion of Open University and distance education system in the Country. Major objectives include widening of access to higher education. During 2005 the University offered 101 programmes and the total number of students registered for various programmes reached over 3,60,000. Its Students ‘Supports Services consist of 48 Regional Centres, six Sub Regional Centres and 1200 Study Centres. IGNOU programmes telecast on National Channel (DD-1) in the morning slot and Gyan Darshan, exclusive education channel. At present, the University has bouquet of six digital channels of Gyan Darshan, Under the Gyan Vani FM Radio initiative, the University has set up 17 Radio Stations. Today IGNOU has set up its study centres and has entered into collaboration with educational institutions in 35 countries.
Distance Education Council (DEC) under IGNOU has the responsibility for coordination and maintenance of standards in open and distance education system in the country.
For further details visit IGNOU Home page http:/www.ignou.edu
Established in 1920 as a fully residential Central University. It has 102 Departments/Institutions/Centers/units grouped under 12 faculties. It also maintains four Hospitals, six Colleges (including Medical, Dental and Engineering Colleges), two Polytechnics and eight Schools. Offers six diploma-level vocational courses exclusively for women. 19,703 students (excluding its secondary schools’ strength) drawn from 25 States of the country are on its rolls. Strength of the teaching staff is 1,457 and that of non-teaching staff is 5,899.
Came into existence in 1916 as a teaching and residential University. It consists of three Institutions – Institute of Medical Sciences, Institute of Technology and Institute of Agrecultural Sciences. It has faculties with 121 academic departments and 4 Inter-diciplinary schools. It maintains a constituent Mahila Mahavidyalaya and three School level institutions. 1000-Bedded Modern/Ayurvedic Medicine Hospital. It has 14, 812 students in the rolls. Teaching staff 1,162 and non-teaching 7,088.
Established in 1974 as one of the premier Central Universities which has been identified as a ‘University with Potential for Excellence’ by the University Grants Commission. The University was established for post graduate teaching and research 22km from the city of Hyderabad on the Old Hyderabad – Bombay road. It has a City Campus – The Golden Threshold- the residence of the late Smt. Sarojini Naidu The University has Eight Schools of Studies and a Centre for Distance Education offering post-graduate diploma in five disciplines. The student strength of the University during the year 2003-04 was 2477 out of which 51 per cent are research students pursuing PhD and M.Phil/M.Tech Programmes in various disciplines. For further details visit University of Hyderabad Home page http://www.uohyd.ernet.in.
An educational institution founded by late Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore in 1921 was declared in 1951, by an Act of Parliament, as an institution of national importance to provide for its functioning as a unitary, teaching and residential University. Its jurisdiction is restricted to the area known as Santiniketan in the district Birbhum, West Bengal. It imparts education from the Primary School level to Post-graduate and Doctorate levels. It has twelve institutes – eight at Santiniketan, three at Sriniketan and one at Kolkata.. It has on its rolls a total of 6,227 students, including its Schools’ strength. The total strength of teaching and non-teaching staff is 550 and 1,400 respectively. Admission is on the basis of merit adjudged through Admission Test.
Palli Samgathana Vibhaga, originally established by Gurudev Tagore in Sriniketan in 1922 with the primary objective to bring about regeneration of village life through self-reliance in the village around Santiniketan and Sriniketan, is now one of the Institutes of the University with four Departments – Rural Extension Centre, Silpa Sadana (a pioneering institute in India in developing cottage and small scale industries), Department of Social Work and Palli Charcha Kendra (offering a Ph.D. programme and two PG level courses – in Anthropology and Rural Development – apart from conducting research on various aspects of the life of the rural people).
Established in 1973 at Shillong by an Act of Parliament with the object to disseminate and advance knowledge by providing instructional and research facilities in various branches of learning and also to pay special attention to the improvement of the social and economic conditions and welfare of the people of the hilly areas . The University has its jurisdiction over the State of Meghalaya and has a Campus at Tura. The NEHU presently has 24 academic departments and four centers of studies under six schools. There are 58 under graduate colleges and 8 professional colleges affiliated to the University. The number of students studying for their Master’s Degrees and research students working for their M.Phil and PhD degrees is close to 1700. The faculty strength of the University is over 300. The undergraduate colleges affiliated to the University enroll about 19,500 students For further details write e,mail to the Registrar, NEHU in E.mail address.
Established by an Act of Parliament in 1985 as a teaching-cum-affiliating university with its jurisdiction over the Union Territories of Pondicherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It has 8 Schools, 24 Departments and 9 Centres, and it offers Certificate Course in one discipline, Post-graduate programme in 26 disciplines, M.Tech. in one discipline, M. Phil programme in 23 disciplines, Ph.D. programme in 26 disciplines and PG Diploma programme in 6 disciplines. The University has 41 affiliated institutions of which 27 are located in Pondicherry, 5 in Karaikal, 2 in Mahe, 2 in Yanam and 5 in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Total students strength in these institutions is 21034. Students enrolment in the University is 1538, out of which 312 students belong to SC/ST and women students are 536. University has a faculty strength of 136 teachers and 523 non-teaching staff. 35 Research Scholars have registered for the Ph.D. programme. 68 sponsored Research Projects of topical relevance are in progress.
It was established in 1994 as a teaching-cum-affiliating University with Head quarters at Lumami, Nagaland with the objective to disseminate and advance knowledge by providing instructional and research facilities and to make provision for various integrated courses, innovations in teaching-learning process and to pay special attention to the improvement of social and economic conditions and welfare of the people of Nagaland, their intellectual, academic and cultural development. The University has jurisdiction over the whole of the State of Nagaland and has 25 Departments and 4 Schools of studies with 47 colleges affiliated to it. The University has campuses in Kohima, Lumami and Medziphema (School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development- SASRD). Faculty strength of the University is 109 and Students enrollment is 18,078. For further details may contact E.mail address.
A non-affliliating unitary Central University set up in 1994 under an Act of Parliament. Its aim is to offer employment-oriented and inter-disciplinary courses, mostly at post-graduate level. The University has 12 Departments under 4 Schools of studies and 6 centres of Studies with 79 faculty members and Students enrollment of 648 or further details may contact e.mail address firstname.lastname@example.orgemail@example.com
Established as a teaching-cum-affiliating University on 21.1.1994 with the objective to disseminate and advance knowledge by providing instructional and research facilities in various branches, to take appropriate measures for promotion of inter-disciplinary studies and research in the University and also to pay special attention to the improvement of the social and economic conditions and welfare of the people of the State. The University has its jurisdiction over the districts of Cachar, Karimganj, Karbi, Anglong and Hailakandi in the State of Assam and has 53 affiliated colleges with 24 Departments under 8 Schools of studies and 3 Centres of studies. Total number of teachers is 101 and students on the rolls, including those in affiliated colleges, are 18,078.
For further details may contact: e.mailaddress:.
Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya was set up during the year 1997 by an Act of Parliament with its headquarter at Wardha to promote and develop Hindi language and literature in general. The University started functioning as a camp office in a rented house at New Delhi. The University was shifted from its camp office to its headquarter at Wardha in December, 2003.
The teaching activities of the University started with two courses in the academic session 2002-03. Presently the University is running five MA courses and two M.Phil courses. For further details may contact e.mail address firstname.lastname@example.org
Established as a State University in 1994 at Lucknow, it was notified as a Central University on 10th January 1996. It aims to provide instructional and research facilities in new and frontier areas of learning. It has 5 Schools comprising 8 Departments viz. (1) School of Ambedkar Studies, (2) School of Biosciences and Bio-technology, (3) School of Environmental Sciences, (4) School of Information Science and Technology, (5) School of Legal Studies. Total enrolment of students is 255, including 35 Ph.D. scholars, during the year 2004-05 out of which 95 (i.e. 37.25 percent) belong to the SC/ST category.
The Mizoram University, with its headquaters at Aizawl, was established as a teching and affiliating university with effect from the 2nd July, 2001.
The academic activites of the University are presently carried out through its sixteen teaching departments and one constituent college. The total number of students enrolled in these departments and the constituent college is 1,187 and the teaching and non-teaching staff during the year 2004-2005 was 124 and 234 respectively. Besides, the University has 28 affiliated colleges located in the State of Mizoram. The number of students studying in these affiliated colleges is 5,579.
The aim of Maulana Azad National Urdu University is to promote and develop Urdu language and to impart vocational and technical education in Urdu medium through conventional and distance education system. The University was established in 1997 by an Act of Parliament. Its Administrative head quarters has been set up at Hyderabad and has five Regional Centres at Delhi, Patna, Bangalore, Bhopal and Dharbhanga. The University has so far established 84 Study Centres spread over in 14 States of the Country.
National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) is an autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission in 1994 NAAC’s responsibility is to assess and accredit institutions of higher education that volunteer for the process, based on prescribed certain criteria. NAAC’s process of assessment and accreditation involves the preparation of a self -study report by the institution, its validation by the peers and final decision by the Council. 122 universities and 2486 colleges/ institutions have been accredited by NAAC so far. For further details may see NAAC Website: www.naac-india.com
According to the University Grants Commission Act 1956, the right of conferring or granting degrees shall be exercised only by a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, or a State Act, or an Institution deemed to be University or an institution specially empowered by an Act of the Parliament to confer or grant degrees. Thus, any institution which has not been created by an enactment of Parliament or a State Legislature or has not been granted the status of a Deemed to be University, is not entitled to award a degree.
The Act also provides that no institution, other than a University, established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, or a State Act shall be entitled to have the word ‘University’ associated with its name in any manner whatsoever. Under the Act, the contravention of its provision are punishable with fine. Apart from the fine prescribed, any attempt to cheat the public by offering unauthorized degrees by ineligible institutions would also attract the appropriate provisions of the criminal laws.
To curb the functioning of the Fake Universities/Institutions and, to create awareness amongst the public and the students alike, the UGC issues Press Releases, at the beginning of each academic session, advising aspiring students not to pursue higher education courses with such institutions. It is emphasized that these fake institutions have no legal entity to call themselves as University/Vishwvidyalaya and to award ‘degree’ which are not treated as valid for academic/employment purposes. A list of fake Universities/Institutions identified by University Grants Commission is as under:-
1 Maithili University/Vishwavidyalaya, Darbhanga, Bihar.
2 Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, Varanasi (UP) Jagatpuri, Delhi.
3 Commercial University Ltd. Daryaganj, Delhi.
4 United Nations University, Delhi.
5 Vocational University, Delhi.
6 Delhi Vishwa Vidyapeeth, 233 Tagore Park, Model Town, Delhi – 110 009.
7 ADR-Centric Juridical University, ADR House, 8J, Gopala Tower, 25
Rajendra Place, New Delhi 110 008
8 Badaganvi Sarkar World Open University Education Society, Gokak, Belgaum (Karnataka)
9. Handwriting University India, No. 16 Church Road, Basavangudi, Bangalore - 560 004.
10. St. John’s University, Kishanttam, Kerala.
11 Kesarwani Vidyapeeth, Jabalpur (MP)
12 Raja Arabic University, Nagpur.
13 D.D.B Sanskrit University, Putur, Trichi, Tamil Nadu.
14 Mahila Gram Vidyapith/Vishwavidyalaya, (Woman’s University) Prayag,
15 Indian Education Council of U.P. Lucknow (UP)
16 Gandhi Hindi Vidyapith, Prayag, Allahabad (UP)
17 National University of Electro Complex Homeopathy, Kanpur.
18 Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose University (Open University) Achaltal, Aligarh (UP)
19. Uttar Pradesh Vishwavidyalaya, Kosi Kalan, Mathura (UP)
20. Maharana Partap Shiksha Niketan Vishwavidyalaya, Pratapgarh (UP)
Open University System
The advances in information and communication technology provide great opportunities to enhance teaching and learning in higher education by both on-campus and distance education. Even disabled students who are denied access to traditional institutions, and all those who require updating of their knowledge and life-long education can now be benefited by the modern facilities of communication. They also provide increased access to information sources and facilitate communication among researchers and teachers and the building of networks of institutions and scholars.
Through the open universities and distance learning initiatives, mechanisms are in place to upgrade skills at regular intervals and develop new competencies. People's needs of lifelong learning are constantly expanding. Higher education institutions are offering learning opportunities to satisfy these diverse demands. Ready access and flexibility are the hallmarks of these initiatives.
The Open University System was initiated in the country to augment opportunities for higher education as an instrument of democratising education and also to make it a lifelong process. The first open university in the country was established by the state government of Andhra Pradesh in 1982. In 1985, the central government established the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU).
Indian Gandhi National Open University
The IGNOU designed, developed and delivered high quality academic programmes in the Humanities, Sciences and Social Sciences as well as in professional areas like Computer Applications, Education, Engineering, Management, Nursing and Tourism. The University has currently -101 programmes comprising 900 courses to offer. Most of the University’s programmes are structured on modular pattern, leading to the award of certificates, diplomas and degrees.
The enrolment in the university has been rising rapidly. From less than 4,000 students in 1987, the enrolment rose to over 1,60,000 in 1998 and is currently about 13,11,145 The University has a vastly heterogeneous student body: demo-graphically diverse (age, gender, region, social background, etc.); educationally dis-advantaged (most of them without the traditional qualifications for entering into higher education and who have had no other opportunities to make up for the lost time); and economically weak (large majority belonging to low and lower middle income groups). Most of these students are in the lower rungs of their career looking for opportunities to improve their qualifications, professional competence and/or in acquiring new skills.
The University has demonstrated that modern communication technologies can be effectively harnessed in providing access to educational opportunities and that high technology need not necessarily be a high cost medium. The University has, at its inception, set up Audio-Video production facilities with the generous support provided by the Governments of UK and Japan. These facilities were substantially augmented with a major grant given by the Government of Japan. The current Electronic Media Production Centre is a state-of-the-art technological facility that significantly enriches the university’s learning packages. The media packages of the university are transmitted on the nation-wide television network as well as through selected radio stations. A dedicated, satellite-based teleconferencing network is being developed on an experimental basis in cooperation with the Indian Space Research Organisation for providing interactive teaching- learning support to distance education programmes offered by open universities in India.
EDUSAT the first Indian satellite built exclusively for serving the educational sector. is a collaborative project of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU), Department of Space Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It is mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for the country. It strongly reflects India’s commitment to use space technology for national development, especially for the development of the population in remote and rural locations.
For the delivery of various services to its students, the IGNOU has developed a nation-wide network of 48 Regional Centres 6 Sub-Regional Centres and over 1,271 Study Centres, all over India.The Study Centres and Work Centres are located generally with existing educational or training institutions who have made their facilities and services available to the IGNOU students.
Distance Education Council (DEC)
The IGNOU is also a national level apex body for distance education. Distance Education Council has been established as a statutory authority under the IGNOU Act. The DEC is responsible for promotion, coordination and maintenance of standards of open and distance education system in the country.
The apex body role envisages the establishment and development of an Open University Network by sharing the intellectual and physical resources within the distance education system among different institutions and enriching the system by extending its outreach, on the one hand, and ensuring the quality standards of its programmes of education and training, on the other. In discharging its responsibility, the Distance Education Council also provides development funding to open universities and distance education institutions from the funds placed at its disposal by the Central Government. The DEC has been supporting all the State Open Universities (SOUs) since eighth plan and Distance Education Institutions (DEIs) of conventional universities since ninth plan.
Presently, there is one National Open University (IGNOU), eleven (SOUs) and a number of DEIs in different states.
Open University Network
The Distance Education Council (DEC) has taken several initiatives to develop the Open University Network. The programmes developed and produced by IGNOU are extensively used by the State Open Universities in the country. Efforts have also been made to evolve common standards for the products as well as processes (programme structure, credits, examination, grading, etc.) to facilitate student mobility across programmes as well as institutions through systems of credit transfer. Steps have also been initiated of credit transfer. Steps have also been initiated to frame norms and standards for the design, development and delivery of programmes in specific fields and to ensure their quality.
Cost Effectiveness and Pertinence
The Open University programmes have proved to be highly cost-effective. The current indications are that their cost is much lower than the cost normally incurred by the traditional system on comparable programmes. The open universities arrive at lower costs through economies of scale since a part of its fixed cost will get distributed over a larger number of students.
The open universities in the country have generally developed their programmes and courses with a view to ensure that they are relevant to the economic and employment needs. Most of their programmes are very different from those offered by the traditional universities. They are designed and developed in several modules to assist the potential students to choose such modules. as they perceive, are relevant to their needs. On their part, the universities have also sought to diversify their course provisions and developed high quality multi-media open learning curriculum designed to meet the academic, technical and vocational needs of diverse student groups. A notable feature of these programmes especially those in the technical, vocational and professional areas is the close linkages with the industry and other employer groups, not only in designing and preparing the learning packages, but also in the delivery of various services to the students at the work place.
The open university programmes offered by IGNOU have received international attention and recognition.