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Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. Behaviour can be conscious or unconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. In animals, behaviour is controlled by the endocrine system and the nervous system. The complexity of the behaviour of an organism is related to the complexity of its nervous system. Generally, organisms with complex nervous systems have a greater capacity to learn new responses and thus adjust their behaviour. Human behavior (and that of other organisms and mechanisms) can be common, unusual, acceptable, or unacceptable. Humans evaluate the acceptablity of behaviour using social norms and regulate behaviour by means of social control. In sociology, behaviour is considered as having no meaning, being not directed at other people and thus is the most basic human action. Behaviour should not be mistaken with social behaviour, which is more advanced action, as social behaviour is behaviour specifically directed at other people. Animal behaviour is studied in comparative psychology, ethology, behavioural ecology and sociobiology.

Behaviour as used in computer science is an anthropomorphic construct that assigns “life” to the activities carried out by a computer, computer application, or computer code in response to stimuli, such as user input. Also, "a behaviour" is a reusable block of computer code or script that, when applied to an object (computer science), especially a graphical one, causes it to respond to user input in meaningful patterns or to operate independently, as if alive.

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