Definitions of Science Fiction
These definitions of science fiction are for those of you who are not
satisfied with Damon Knight's definition of science fiction, which
appears in the Definitions of Science Fiction rec.arts.sf.written
FAQ: "...[Science Fiction] means what we point to when we say it."
Some of the definitions here have been obtained over the internet in the bad old days where there were no flashy www interfaces to the net, over gopher and ftp links, so not only am I unable to credit the sources I found them, but also I am not exactly sure of their autenticity. Some of the definitions, I think, I got from the gopher server at Lysator. The definitions I have personally extracted from reference works and such are always credited below the excerpt, and I say when I am quoting verbatim or I am paraphrasing stuff taken from conversations etc.
Hope you enjoy this. If you have any more definitions you think would be added here, please send them to gokceNOSPAM @ panix DOT com (remove NOSPAM) , if possible, with the information about where you found it, and I'd be happy to include it in the future.
Total number of definitions = 52 Last Updated on May 25, 1996
Definitions available by
Aldiss, Brian W. Allen, Dick Amis, Kingsley
Appel, Benjamin Asimov, Isaac Bailey, James O.
Benford, Gregory Boyd, John Bradbury, Ray
Bretnor, Reginald Brians, Paul John Brunner
Campbell, John W. Carr, Terry Conklin, Groff
Crispin, Edmund de Camp, L. Sprauge Del Rey, Lester
Dickson, Gordon R. Franklin, H. Bruce
Frye, Northrop Gaddis, Vincent H. Gernsback, Hugo
Goswami, Amit Gunn, James E. Heard, Gerald
Heinlein, Robert A. Herbert, Frank Knigth, Damon
Lundwall, Sam J. Moskowitz, Sam Panshin, Alexei
Pohl, Frederick Rabkin, Eric S. Riley, Dick
Scortia, Thomas N. Shippey, Tom Stableford, Brian
Sturgeon, Theodore Suvin, Darko Toffler, Alvin
Williamson, Jack Wolleheim, Donald A.
Brian W. Aldiss
Science fiction is the search for definition of man and his status in
the universe which will stand in our advanced but confused state of
knowledge (science), and is characteristically cast in the Gothic or
Trillion Year Spree: the History of Science Fiction (London, 1986)
Is it any wonder that a new generation has rediscovered science fiction, rediscovered a form of literature that argues through its intuitive force that the individual can shape and change and influence and triumph; that man can eliminate both war and poverty; that miracles are possible; that love, if given a chance, can become the main driving force of human relationships?
Science Fiction is that class of prose narrative treating of a situation that could not arise in the world we know, but which is hypothesized on the basis of some innovation in science or technology, or pseudo-technology, whether human or extra-terresial in origin.
New Maps Of Hell (London, 1960)
Science fiction reflects scientific thought; a fiction of things-to-come based on things-on-hand.
The Fantastic Mirror-SF Across The Ages (Panthenon 1969)
Modern science fiction is the only form of literature that consistently considers the nature of the changes that face us, the possible consequences, and the possible solutions.
That branch of literature which is concerned with the impact of scientific advance upon human beings. (1952)
James O. Bailey
The touchstone for scientific fiction, then, is that it describes an imaginary invention
or discovery in the natural sciences. The most serious pieces of this fiction arise from speculation
about what may happen if science makes an extraordinary discovery. The romance is an attempt to
anticipate this discovery and its impact upon society, and to foresee how mankind may adjust to the
Pilgrims Through Space and Time (New York, 1947)
SF is a controlled way to think and dream about the future. An
integration of the mood and attitude of science (the objective
universe) with the fears and hopes that spring from the unconscious.
Anything that turns you and your social context, the social you,
inside out. Nightmares and visions, always outlined by the barely
Science fiction is really sociological studies of the future, things
that the writer believes are going to happen by putting two and two
Science fiction is story-telling, usually imaginative as distinct from
realistic fiction, which poses the effects of current or extrapolated
scientific discoveries, or a single discovery, on the behavior of
individuals of society.
Mainstream fiction gives imaginative reality to probable events within
a framework of the historical past or present; science fiction gives
reality to possible events, usually in the future, extrapolated from
present scientific knowledge or existing cultural and social trends.
Both genres ordinarily observe the unities and adhere to a
Science Fiction: fiction based on rational speculation regarding the
human experience of science and its resultant technologies.
[Science Fiction is:] a subdivision of fantastic literature which
employs science or rationalism to create an appearance of
Posted to the mailing list SF-LIT, May 16, 1996
As its best, SF is the medium in which our miserable certainty that
tomorrow will be different from today in ways we cant predict, can be
transmuted to a sense of excitement and anticipation, occasionally
evolving into awe. Poised between intransigent scepticism and
uncritical credulity, it is par excellence the literature of the
John W. Campbell, Jr.
The major distinction between fantasy and science fiction is, simply,
that science fiction uses one, or a very, very few new postulates, and develops
the rigidly consistent logical consequences of these limited postulates. Fantasy
makes its rules as it goes along...The basic nature of fantasy is "The only rule is,
make up a new rule any time you need one!" The basic rule of science fiction is
"Set up a basic proposition--then develop its consistent, logical consequences."
Introduction, Analog 6, Garden City, New York, 1966
Science Fiction is literature about the future, telling stories of the marvels we hope to see--or for our descendants to see--tomorrow, in the next century, or in the limitless duration of time.
Introduction, Dream's Edge, Sierre Club Books, San Fransisco, 1980
The best definition of science fiction is that it consists of stories
in which one or more definitely scientific notion or theory or actual
discovery is extrapolated, played with, embroided on, in a
non-logical, or fictional sense, and thus carried beyond the realm of
the immediately possible in an effort to see how much fun the author
and reader can have exploring the imaginary outer reaches of a given
A science fiction story is one which presupposes a technology, or an effect of technology,
or a disturbance in the natural order, such as humanity, upto the time of writing, has not in
actual fact experienced.
Best Science Fiction Stories (London, 1955)
L. Sprague De Camp
Therefore, no matter how the world makes out in the next few
centuries, a large class of readers at least will not be too surprised
at anything. They will have been through it all before in fictional
form, and will not be too paralyzed with astonishment to try to cope
with contingencies as they arise.
Lester Del Rey
... science fiction "is the myth-making principle of human nature today."
Gordon R. Dickson
In short, the straw of a manufactured realism with which the sf writer
makes his particular literary bricks must be entirely convincing to
the reader in it own right, or the whole story will lose its power to
H. Bruce Franklin
We talk a lot about science fiction as extrapolation, but in fact most
science fiction does not extrapolate seriously. Instead it takes a
willful, often whimsical, leap into a world spun out of the fantasy of
In fact, one good working definition of science fiction may be the literature which,
growing with science and technology, evaluates it and relates it meaningfully to the rest
of human existence.
Science fiction frequently tries to imagine what life would be like on
a plane as far above us as we are above savagery; its setting is often
of a kind that appears to us technologically miraculous. It is thus a
mode of romance with a strong tendency to myth.
Vincent H. Gaddis
Science fiction expressses the dreams that, varied
and modified, later becomes the visions and then the realities in
scientific progress. Unlike fantasy they present probabilities in
their basic structure and create a reservoir of imaginative thought
that sometimes can inspire more practical thinking.
By "scientification,"... I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, and
Edgar Allan Poe type of story---a charming romance intermingled with
scientific fact and prophetic vision.
Science Fiction is that class of fiction which contains the currents of change in science
and society. It concerns itself with the critique, extension, revision, and conspiracy of
revolution, all directed against static scientific paradigms. Its goal is to prompt a paradigm
shift to a new view that will be more responsive and true to nature.
The Cosmic Dancers (New York, 1983)
James E. Gunn
Science Fiction is the branch of literature that deals with the effects of
change on people in the real world as it can be projected into the past, the
future, or to distant places. It often concerns itself with scientific or
technological change, and it usually involves matters whose importance is greater
than the individual or the community; often civilization or the race itself is in danger.
Introduction, The Road To Science Fiction, Vol 1, NEL, New York 1977
Science fiction in the hand of character-draughtsman can create a new
contemporary tension-of-choice, new moral decisions, and so indicate
how they may be faced or flunked.
In its [science fiction's] aim it is bound, by its extrapolation of
science and its use of dramatic plot, to view man and his machines and
his environment as a three-fold whole, the machine being the hyphen.
It also views man's psyche, man's physique and the entire life process
as also a threefold interacting unit. Science fiction is the
prophetic ... the apocalyptic litterature of our particular
culminating epoch of crisis.
Robert A. Heinlein
A handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read:
realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on
adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a
thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the
To make this definition cover all science fiction (instead of "almost
all") it is necessary only to strike out the word "future."
from: Science Fiction: its nature, faults and virtues, in The Science Fiction Novel, Advent, Chicago:1969
Science Fiction is speculative fiction in which the author takes as his first postulate the real world as we know it, including all established facts and natural laws. The result can be extremely fantastic in content, but it is not fantasy; it is legitimate--and often very tightly reasoned--speculation about the possibilities of the real world. This category excludes rocket ships that make U-turns, serpent men of Neptune that lust after human maidens, and stories by authors who flunked their Boy Scout merit badge tests in descriptive astronomy.
from: Ray Guns And Spaceships, in Expanded Universe, Ace, 1981
Science fiction represents the modern heresy and the cutting
edge of speculative imagination as it grapples with Mysterious Time---linear or non-linear time.
Our motto is Nothing Secret, Nothing Sacred.
What we get from science fiction---what keeps us reading it, in spite
of our doubts and occasional disgust---is not different from the thing that
makes mainstream stories rewarding, but only expressed differently. We live
on a minute island of known things. Our undiminished wonder at the mystery
which surrounds us is what makes us human. In science fiction we can approach
that mystery, not in small, everyday symbols, but in bigger ones
of space and time.
Sam J. Lundwall
A simplified definition would be that the author of a "straight"
science fiction story proceeds from (or alleges to proceed from)
known facts, developed in a credible way...
Science fiction is a branch of fantasy identifiable by the fact that
it eases the "willing suspension of disbelief" on the part of its
readers by utilizing an atmosphere of scientific credibility for its
imaginative speculations in physical science, space, time, social
science, and philosophy.
Facts and a concern with change are the stuff that science fiction is
made of; science fiction that ignores facts and change can be made less
frightening and more popular, but inasmuch as it is superficial, stupid,
false-to-fact, timid foolish or dull, it is minor in another and more
important way, and it is certainly bad as science fiction.
... its [science fiction's] attraction lies ... in the unique
opportunity it offers for placing familiar things in unfamiliar contexts,
and unfamiliar things in familiar contexts, thereby yielding fresh insights
The future depicted in a good SF story ought to be in fact possible, or at least plausible. That means that the writer should be able to convince the reader (and himself) that the wonders he is describing really can come true...and that gets tricky when you take a good, hard look at the world around you.
The Shape of Things to Come and Why It Is Bad, SFC, December 1991
If anyone were to force me to make a thumbnail description of the differences between SF and fantasy, I think I would say that SF looks towards an imaginary future, while fantasy, by and large, looks towards an imaginary past. Both can be entertaining. Both can possibly be, perhaps sometimes actually are, even inspiring. But as we can't change the past, and can't avoid changing the future, only one of them can be real.
Pohlemic, SFC, May 1992
That's really what SF is all about, you know: the big reality that pervades the real world we live in: the reality of change. Science fiction is the very literature of change. In fact, it is the only such literature we have.
Pohlemic, SFC, May 1992
Does the story tell me something worth knowing, that I had not known before, about the relationship between man and technology? Does it enlighten me on some area of science where I had been in the dark? Does it open a new horizon for my thinking? Does it lead me to think new kinds of thoughts, that I would not otherwise perhaps have thought at all? Does it suggest possibilities about the alternative possible future courses my world can take? Does it illumunate events and trends of today, by showing me where they may lead tomorrow? Does it give me a fresh and objective point of view on my own world and culture, perhaps by letting me see it through the eyes of a different kind of creature entirely, from a planet light-years away?
These qualities are not only among those which make science fiction good, they are what make it unique. Be it never so beautifully written, a story is not a good science fiction story unless it rates high in these aspects. The content of the story is as valid a criterion as the style.
Introduction--SF:Contemporary Mythologies (New York, 1978)
Eric S. Rabkin
A work belongs in the genre of science fiction if its narrative world is at least
somewhat different from our own, and if that difference is apparent against the
background of an organized body of knowledge.
The Fantastic In Literature (Princeton University Press, 1976)
At its best, science fiction has no peer in creating another universe of experience,
in showing us what we look like in the mirrorof technological society or throught the eyes of
Critical Encounters (New York, 1978)
Thomas N. Scortia
... [science fiction has] the humanistic assumption that the laws of
nature are amenable to the interpretation of human logic and, more
than this, amenable to logical extrapolation.
A revealing way of describing science fiction is to say that it is part of a literary mode
which one may call "fabril" "Fabril" is the opposite of "Pastoral". But while "the pastoral"
is an established and much-discussed literary mode, recognized as such since early antiquity,
its dark opposite has not yet been accepted, or even named, by the law-givers of literature.
Yet the opposition is a clear one. Pastoral literature is rural, nostalgic, conservative. It
idealizes the past and tends to convert complexities into simplicity; its central image is the
shepherd. Fabril literature (of which science fiction is now by far the most prominent genre)
is overwhelmingly urban, distruptive, future-oriented, eager for novelty; its central images is
the "faber", the smith or blacksmith in older usage, but now extended in science fiction to
mean the creator of artefacts in general--metallic, crystalline, genetic, or even social.
Introduction, The Oxford Book of Science Fiction, (Oxford, 1992)
True science fiction [is] fiction which attempts to build logically coherent imaginary
worlds based on premises licensed by the world-view of contemporary science.
(very slight editing from his GOH speech, ConFuse 91)
Science fiction is essentially a kind of fiction in which people learn more about how
to live in the real world, visiting imaginary worlds unlike our own, in order to investigate by
way of pleasurable thought-experiments how things might be done differently.
(from his GOH speech, ConFuse 91)
What is authentic about genuine science fiction, is that the science fiction writer
should not stop with just saying: Well, the plot needs this to happen, therefore I'll just do it
and I'll invent an excuse for it being able to be done. Proper science fiction ought to require
people to begin to explore the consequences of what they've invented. And thus, I think that
science fiction is, in a real sense, capable of being scientific. Not in the sense that it can
foresee the future of science, but it can adopt a kind of variation of the scientific method
itself, it does feel compelled to explore the consequences of hypotheses and the way
things fit together.
(from an interview on Science in SF, ConFuse 91)
A science fiction story is a story built around human beings, with a human problem
and a human solution, which would not have happened at all without its scientific content.
Definition given by: William Atheling Jr., (James Blish) in The issue at Hand: Studies in Contemporary Magazine Fiction (Chicago, 1964)
It [science fiction] should be defined as a fictional tale determined by the hegemonic
literary device of a locus and/or dramatis personae that (1) are
radically or at least significantly different from empirical times, places, and
characters of "mimetic" or "naturalist" fiction, but (2) are nonetheless--to the extent
that SF differs from other "fantastic" genres, that is, ensembles of fictional tales without
empirical validation--simultaneously perceived as not impossible within the
cognitive (cosmological and anthropological) norms of the author's epoch.
Preface, Metamorphoses Of Science Fiction, (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1979)
SF is, then, a literary genre whose necessary and sufficent conditions are the
presence and interaction of estrangement and cognition, and whose main formal
device is an imaginative framework alternative to the author's empirical
Chapter 1, Metamorphoses Of Science Fiction, (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1979)
By challenging anthropocentricism and temporal provincialism, science
fiction throws open the whole of civilization and its premises to
"Hard" science fiction ... probes alternative possible futures
by means of reasoned extrapolations in much the same way that good
historical fiction reconstructs the probable past. Even far-out fantasy
can present a significant test of human values exposed to a new
environment. Deriving its most cogent ideas from the tension between
permanence and change, science fiction combines the diversions of novelty
with its pertinent kind of realism.
Donald A. Wolleheim
Science fiction is that branch of fantasy, which, while not true to present-day knowledge,
is rendered plausible by the reader's recognition of the scientific possibilities of it being possible
at some future date or at some uncertain point in the past.
"The Universe Makers"
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