Florida Forts

American Forts: East

FLORIDA

Camp Amelia | Amelia Island Blockhouse | Camp Atlantic Beach | Batton Island Fort | Camp Brisbane
Fort Bulow | Fort Capron (1) | Fort Carlos | Fort Caroline | Fort Cartel | Fort Church
Fort Clinch (4) | Camp Cooper | Camp Edgefield | Fort Elena | Camp Eustis | Fernandina Post
Fort Fulton | Fort George (1) | Fort George Island Battery | Fort Guana | Fort Harney (3)
Little Fort | Little Talbot Island Fort | Mayport Battery | Fort Marion | Fort Matanzas | Matanzas Tower
Fort Moosa | Fort Mosé | Camp Moultrie | Fort Moultrie (1) | Fort Moultrie (2) | Battery Nassau
Negro Fort (1) | Fort Peaton | Fort Peyton | Fort Piribiriba | Fort Poza | Fort Quartel | Quesada Battery
Presidio de San Augustin | St. Augustine Arsenal | Fort San Carlos (2) | Fort San Diego
Fort San Fernando | St. Francis Barracks | Fort St. George | St. Johns Bluff Battery | St. Johns Bluff Fort
Fort San Juan | Fort San Juan de Pinos (Pinillo) | Castillo de San Marcos | Fort Santa Maria
Fort St. Mark | Fort San Mateo | Fort Maria Sanchez | Fort Steele | Yellow Bluff Fort

St. Johns River - page 2 | Eastern Florida - page 3
Middle Florida - page 4 | Western Florida - page 5
Central Florida - page 6 | Southern Florida - page 7

FLORIDA'S COASTAL MARITIME TRAIL - FORTS

SEARCH FLORIDA'S PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVES
type "Fort" for "entire collection" search

Last Update: 10/OCTOBER/2006
Compiled by Pete Payette - ©2006 American Forts Network

¤ Colonial Defenses of Fernandina

¤ Fort Santa Maria
(1675 ? - 1686), Old Fernandina
A Spanish fort that protected a Franciscan mission.

¤ Fort San Fernando
(1686 - 1702), Old Fernandina
A Spanish fort destroyed by the SC colonial militia in 1702.

¤ Amelia Island Blockhouse
(1736 - 1742 ?), Old Fernandina
A British outpost built by General Oglethorpe in preparation for an invasion of Spanish Florida. Attacked by the Spanish in 1739.

¤ Fort Carlos
(1740's ?), Old Fernandina
A Spanish fort located on the north central waterfront. The Old Town was fortified by a palisade and two blockhouses on the landward side.

¤ Fort San Carlos (2) (State Historic Site)
(1816 - 1821), Old Fernandina
A Spanish 10-gun earthwork fort with trace remains located at the foot of Estrada Street. It replaced an earlier Spanish water battery that had been captured by American and British settlers during the "Patriots' War" of 1812 to establish the "Republic of East Florida". The United States Army took control from the Patriots after only one day. The Spanish regained the town in 1813. A private army led by Sir Gregor MacGregor seized the new fort in 1817, and successfully defended against the Spanish forces during the "Battle of Amelia Island". The Spanish had erected a four-gun battery nearby on McClure's Hill to bombard the fort. Shortly after the battle, pirate Luis Aury briefly took control of the fort. American troops occupied the fort to drive out the privateers in late 1817, and abandoned the fort shortly after the cession of Florida in 1821.


Fernandina Post
(1818 - 1898, intermittent), near Old Fernandina
The American garrison post and cantonment area for Fort Clinch (4) and earlier posts here. American troops bound for Cuba in 1898 assembled here at Camp Amelia.

Fort Church
(1836), near Old Fernandina
A temporary American fort.

Fort Clinch (4) (State Park)
(1847 - 1900), near Old Fernandina *PHOTOS*
Never fully completed, construction was halted in 1867. Confederates occupied this fort until 1862 when the Union captured it. CSA Camp Cooper (1861 - 1862) was nearby. Several outer batteries defended the sea approach, including CSA Battery Nassau (1861). An unnamed battery was here from 1898 to 1900. Became a state park in 1936. Another website at Nat. Park Service.

Fort Caroline (National Memorial)
(1564 - 1568, 1569 - 1669 ?), Jacksonville *PHOTOS*
Located on the St. Johns River near Beacon Hills. The original fort lasted only a year and a half when the French were driven out by the Spanish in 1565. The Spanish later rebuilt it as Fort San Mateo. The French retook the fort in 1568 and destroyed it. Rebuilt by the Spanish again in 1569. The current structure is a 1964 reconstruction. The original site washed away after 1880 when the river channel was dredged. Fort Caroline Museum Photos


¤¤ Colonial Defenses of the St. Johns River

¤¤ Fort Elena
(unknown dates), Talbot Island
A Spanish fort.

¤¤ Fort San Juan
(1565 - 1568), Little Talbot Island
A Spanish fort built after Fort Caroline was captured, using some of the French guns. Captured and destroyed by the French in 1568.

¤¤ Batton Island Fort
(1567 - 1568), Batton Island
A small Spanish fort or blockhouse, located opposite Mayport at the mouth of the St. Johns River. Attacked and destroyed by the French in 1568 in retaliation for the Fort Caroline massacre.

¤¤ Fort Piribiriba
(1703 - 1705), Duval County
A Spanish four-bastioned wooden fort built after the British invasion of 1702, located at the mouth of the St. Johns River. Undetermined location, possibly Fort George (San Juan) Island .

¤¤ Fort George (1)
(1736, 1740), Fort George Island
An earthwork enclosed within a palisade, built by General Oglethorpe as temporary headquarters in his invasion of Spanish Florida. Also known as Fort St. George. The trace of an older fort (Fort Piribiriba ?) was located here when Oglethorpe first came to the island. Another work was built here during the second British invasion in 1740. The exact site has not been determined, but was probably near Mt. Cornelia.

¤¤ Quesada Battery
(1793 - 1800 ?), Duval County
A Spanish two-gun battery at the mouth of the St. Johns River, with a two-story barracks and a powder magazine. Undetermined location. Abandoned before the "Patriots' War" of 1812.


¤¤¤ Civil War Defenses of the St. Johns River

¤¤¤ Fort Steele
(1861 - 1862, 1864), Mayport
A Confederate log fort at St. Johns Point, one mile east of town. It was abandoned as the Union forces arrived in 1862, but not used by them until 1864. The site was excavated in the 1990's.

¤¤¤ Little Talbot Island Fort
(1861 - 1862), Little Talbot Island
A Confederate breastwork was located here early in the war.

¤¤¤ Yellow Bluff Fort (Historic State Park)
(1862 - 1865), New Berlin
A Confederate earthwork fort near Dames Point. Abandoned by the CSA shortly after it was built, and immediately before the Union came ashore the next day. Occupied by the Union in 1863. Strengthened and enlarged by the Union in 1864, consisting of a magazine, two stockades, rifle pits, and a signal tower. Abandoned after the war. Five cannon remain. The site was deeded to the state in 1950.
(info provided by ENS Will Ritcher III, USNR)

¤¤¤ St. Johns Bluff Fort
(1861 - 1865), near Beacon Hills
A Confederate earthwork fort west of the Ribaut Memorial site. Captured by the Union in 1862 and 1863. It was captured by the Union again in 1864, and used as a signal station until 1865.


¤ COAST and TEMPORARY HARBOR DEFENSES of JACKSONVILLE

¤ Fort George Island Battery
(1917 - 1919), Fort George Island
An unnamed battery was located here across from Mayport Naval Station.

¤ St. Johns Bluff Battery
(1898 - 1899), Jacksonville
An unnamed concrete two-gun battery was built east of the site of Fort Caroline. A temporary field emplacement (two 5-inch BL seige rifles, later two 7-inch BL seige howitzers, with timber magazines) was originally emplaced at the site of the old CSA battery nearby. The concrete battery, now located on private property, is one-third mile southeast of the Ribaut Memorial. It is in excellent condition, with an interpretive signpost.

¤ Mayport Battery
(1942 - 1944), Mayport
A four-gun 155mm battery was located here on St. Johns Point.

¤ Camp Atlantic Beach
(1942 - 1945), Atlantic Beach
The headquarters of the Temporary Harbor Defenses of Jacksonville in WWII.


Fort San Diego
(1730's - unknown), Ponte Vedra Beach
A Spanish palisaded and fortified ranch, with two bastions, armed with five guns, increased to 11 guns in 1740. Captured by the British in 1740. Now the site of a golf course, east of Palm Valley.

Fort Guana
(1790's), South Ponte Vedra Beach
A Spanish fort. Attacked and destroyed by the GA state militia in 1795.

Fort Mosé
(1739 - 1763, 1797 - 1821 ?), St. Augustine
A Spanish settlement of Africans, many of whom escaped enslavement in the English colonies of Carolina and Georgia. Also known as the "Negro Fort" (1). Also spelled Moosa by the British. After it was briefly occupied and then destroyed by the British in 1740, it was rebuilt. Rebuilt again in 1756. A protective wall was built across the neck in 1762, connecting to Fort Ayachin. The settlement was officially known as El Pueblo de Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mosé. It was the first Free-African settlement in North America. In 1763 the Africans abandoned the settlement and relocated to Cuba with the rest of the Spanish colonists of St. Augustine. The British dismantled the fort in 1775. Rebuilt by the Spanish in 1797 and 1808. Artifacts and displays are at Castillo de San Marcos. Another website at the Nat'l Park Service | Another NPS website

Fort Ayachin ?
(1730's, 1760's), St. Augustine
A Spanish fort southwest of Fort Mosé, at the edge of the marsh facing the San Sebastian River. Connected to Fort Mosé by a defensive wall in 1762.

Fort Quartel
(1575), St. Augustine
A Spanish fort on the north bank of the Matanzas River, northeast of the city, near the present-day Vilano Bridge. Also spelled Cartel.
A British battery was here in 1740.

Fort Maria Sanchez ?
(1797 - 1800 ?), St. Augustine
A Spanish fort located adjacent to a powder magazine (near Maria Sanchez Lake ?). Transferred to the United States in 1821. The powder magazine was destroyed after 1860.

Castillo de San Marcos (National Monument)
(1672 - 1900), St. Augustine *PHOTOS*
St. Augustine was the first permanent white settlement in the United States. This is the site of nine earlier wooden forts, all Spanish, dating back to 1565. The site of the original 1565 work has been recently excavated, just north of the castle. The second and third sites in 1566 were on Anastasia Island. The fourth site was near the Old City in 1572. The fifth fort (near the Old City) in 1578 was destroyed by Sir Francis Drake in 1586. The sixth fort (wooden) in 1568 was named Fort San Juan de Pinos (Pinillo), and was closer to the original site. The seventh (1586), eighth (1604), and ninth (1653) sites were close to the present fort. English pirates sacked the ninth fort in 1665. Rebuilt in 1666, it was then destroyed by the English in 1668.

The present structure, Castillo de San Marcos (also called El Presidio de San Augustin), was built with coquina (shells and stone) beginning in 1670, and is the oldest masonry fort in the U.S. The fort was rebuilt or reconfigured in 1738, 1752, and 1762. The seawall was built in 1696. The Hornwork was built in 1706, rebuilt or modified in 1746 and 1776. The Tenaille was built in 1791. The Cubo was built in 1704, rebuilt or modified in 1718, 1738, 1775, 1797, 1808, and 1819. The Rosario was built in 1718 as an earthwork, rebuilt or modified in 1720 (portion in stone), 1740, 1761 (all stone), and 1776. A watchtower was built at the inlet in 1738, rebuilt in 1770 and 1824. An outer battery was built at the inlet in 1740. The fort was held from 1765 - 1783 by the British and called Fort St. Mark. (Note: Not to be confused with the American Fort St. Marks (1818 - 1824) in St. Marks.) The British made improvements to several of the outworks in 1775 and 1776 (Fort Moultrie (1) on the Cubo), with two outer redoubts in 1776 to the south, and built four additional outer redoubts in 1781 to the south of the fort. The Spanish rebuilt two of the redoubts in 1797 and 1806. The Americans occupied the fort from 1821 - 1900, with the Confederates briefly holding it in 1861 - 1862. The fort was known as Fort Marion from 1825 until 1942, when the original Spanish name was restored. It was used as a prison for Seminole Indians in 1836, and again from 1886 - 1894 for Apache Indians. One 8-inch rifled Rodman was emplaced here in 1897 for target practice. It was dismounted in 1898. A temporary sand-covered timber reveted battery with two sand-covered timber magazines was built in 1898 - 1899. The Castillo was declared a National Monument in 1924. Admission fee. CIVIL WAR PHOTO 1 || CIVIL WAR PHOTO 2

St. Francis Barracks
(1765 - 1900, 1907 - present), St. Augustine
The garrison post for Fort St. Mark/San Marcos/Marion. The buildings were originally built by the Spanish in 1735 as a chapel and convent. Converted to military use first by the British (1765 - 1783), and then the Spanish. Became American in 1821. Rebuilt in 1832. Transferred to the state in 1907 for use by the FL National Guard. Still in use today at 108 Marine Street. Nearby is the St. Augustine Arsenal at 82 Marine Street, also part of the Barracks complex.
Camp Eustis (1836) was located just to the south.

Fort Capron (1)
(1820's), St. Augustine
A temporary American fort. Location undetermined.

Fort Poza
(1740), Anastasia Island
The British five-gun seige battery employed in the 1740 attack of St. Augustine.

Little Fort
(1763), St. Augustine South
A British fort located on the Matanzas River four miles south of St. Augustine.

Fort Moultrie (2)
(1823 ?), Moultrie
A Federal fort located at the Buena Vista Plantation on the Matanzas River, five miles south of St. Augustine. The manor house was fortified, later a fort (camp) was built. Also known as Camp Moultrie.

Fort Peyton
(1837 - 1840), Fort Peyton
A Federal wooden fort and blockhouse on the south-side of Moultrie Creek, west of Moultrie. Seminole Chief Osceola was captured here under a white flag of truce in 1837.

Fort Harney (3)
(1830's), near St. Augustine
A Federal fort located five miles southwest of town.

Fort Peaton
(1864), near St. Augustine
A CSA post located seven miles from the city. Exact location undetermined.

Camp Brisbane
(1830's), St. Johns County
A Federal camp located on the Matanzas River at St. Joseph's Plantation (location ?).

Fort Matanzas (National Monument)
(1736 - 1821), near Summer Haven
A coquina fort known as Matanzas Tower, completed in 1742, on Rattlesnake Island. The British occupied it from 1765 to 1783. The Americans did not consider the fort to be of any military value. The site had been fortified by the Spanish since 1569 with a wooden blockhouse, rebuilt and improved several times over the years. A National Monument since 1924. Library of Congress link

Fort Fulton
(1840), St. Johns County
A Federal fort located on Pelicier Creek near Matanzas Inlet.

Camp Edgefield
(1836), near Colfax
A Federal camp. Abandoned after two days.

Fort Bulow
(Bulow Plantation Ruins State Historic Site)
(1835 - 1836), Bulowville
John Bulow's home was fortified with cotton bales, and a small fort was later built by troops in front of the house. Bulow protested at first the presence of the troops on his property. Abandoned after three weeks, it was later burned and destroyed by Seminoles.


St. Johns River - page 2 | Eastern Florida - page 3 | Middle Florida - page 4
Western Florida - page 5 | Central Florida - page 6 | Southern Florida - page 7

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