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Chatar Singh, Kunwar, of KARJALI; son of Surat Singh.

Chatarsal. There were a couple of leading members of clans who had this name. They came from Kunthawas (Saktawat), and Satola (Choondawat).

Chatrang Tank (Chittorgarh): see CHITRANG TANK.

chatrapati: see CHHATRIPATI.

chatri: see CHHATRI.

chatripati: see CHHATRIPATI.

Chattis-kul-Singar, (Hindi) the ornament or grand focal point, as in the Head of State, a term often used by a BARD in praising his ruler. On his visit to the royal court or to a feudal lord, he recited the family's genealogy and also the deeds of the ruler's forefathers. In Mewar, along with other forms of glorification, a bard used terms such as Hindua Suraj (Sun amongst the Hindus), Gau Brahman Pratipal (Protector of Cows and Brahmans), and Chattis-kul-Singar (Ornament Amongst the 36 Rulers). Not only was this visit meant to keep the ruler informed about the good deeds of his ancestors but also a message that he should also follow suit. After reciting all these exaltations, he would bless the ruler, then take his seat in the Durbar.

chattra, (Hindi) the crown.

chhatri, (Hindi) a memorial, a cenotaph (literally, an umbrella).

Chatur Singh. There were several leading members of clans who had this name. They came from Bari Roopaheli (Mertia Rathore); Bhunas (Baba Ranawat); Kunthawas (Saktawat), and Peethwas (Choondawat).

Chaturban, a SAKTAWAT, one of Sakta's seventeen sons; he and fifteen of his brothers were exiled by their older brother BHANJI.

Chaturbhuj. There were a couple of leading members of clans who had this name. They came from Bemali (Choondawat), and Taloli (Choondawat).

Chaturbhuja, any four-armed god or goddess, mainly linked with Shiva.

Chaturbhuja, a village in the western hills, site of a popular Shiva temple built in the time of Maharana Kumbha (1433-1468).

Chaud Singh, Rawal, thirty-first ruler of Mewar (r. 1138-1148); succeeded Rawal ARI SINGH I; ruled from AHAR. Little is known of his 10-year reign. His son, VIKRAMADITYA (I), succeeded him. See also MEWAR'S LOST GENERATIONS.

Chaugan (Field of Mars), Chittorgarh, an assembly place or parade ground on the fort's southern road, east of the ruins of the HOUSES OF BUNDI AND RAMPURA. It was there that the garrison of Chittor held the military festival of the Dashara. Nearby is a reservoir, 40 m. in length, 20 m. in width, and 14 m. in depth. Prior to it being filled with water, it was lined with masses of immense sculptured masonry.

Chauhans (Cahamanas, Cauhans), a Rajput dynasty that flourished from the 8th to 12th centuries AD. It was one of the four main Rajput dynasties of that era, the others being Pratiharas, Paramaras and Chalukyas. The Chauhans dominated Delhi, Ajmer, Ranthambhor. They were also prominent at Sirohi in the southwest of Rajputana, and at Bundi and Kota in the east. Inscriptions also associate them with Sambhar, the salt lake area in the Amber (later Jaipur) district. Chauhan politics were largely campaigns against the Chalukyas and the invading Muslim hordes. In the 11th century they founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer) in the southern part of their kingdom, and in the 12th century captured Dhilika (the ancient name of Delhi) from the Tomaras and annexed some of their territory along the Yamuna River. Prithviraj III has become famous in folk tales and historical literature as the Chauhan king of Delhi who resisted the Muslim attack in the first Battle of TARAIN (1191). Armies from other Rajput kingdoms, including Mewar assisted him. However, Prithviraj was defeated in a second battle at Tarain the following year. This failure ushered in Muslim rule in North India in the form of the SLAVE DYNASTY, the first of the Delhi Sultanates.

Chaumukha (Adinath) Temple: see RANAKPUR.

Chavand (Chawand) (Choondawat), a town 60 km. southeast of Udaipur via Jaisamand road on the way to the CHOONDAWAT capital of Salumbar. It is just 19 km. west of JAISAMAND LAKE in the heart of the mountainous tract called CHAPPAN. Maharana Pratap Singh I (1572-1597), the Hero of Haldighati, had a country retreat here, and after quitting KUMBHALGARH he made Chavand his new capital around 1578. He died here, January 19, 1597 following a hunting accident. A statue in memory of Pratap Singh and four of his aides, including his Treasurer, Bhama Shah, was raised on a hill where his palace once stood, and Pratap's memorial cenotaph stands on a small island in the middle of a lake with a long walkway to it, bringing historical importance to the small village. The people of the Bhil tribe, proficient archers who used to support Pratap in battles, inhabit the wild countryside of this area. Chavand is a Choondawat jagir of the descendants of Salumbar Rawat Kuber Singh's fifth son, Abhai Singh, their title also being 'Rawat'. During the reign of Maharana Bhim Singh (1778-1828), Abhai received the jagir of Nathera, then of Bhadesar, and finally Chavand. In 1789, Abhai's son, Sardar Singh and Arjun Singh of Kuraber killed Som Chand Gandhi, who was on the side of their longtime enemies, the Saktawats. Sardar Singh also played an important role in securing the backing and loyalty of the Sind mercenaries during the troubled reign of Maharana Ari Singh II, by paying their back wages.

Genealogy: Abhey Singh; Sardar Singh; Roop Singh; Madho Singh; Sobhagya Singh; Guman Singh; Mukand Singh; Khuman Singh.

Chawand (historical town): see CHAVAND.

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