Accokeek Creek Fort |
Aquia Creek Defenses |
Bacon's Fort |
Fort Beauregard |
Brents Point Battery | Brooke Station Fort | Cannon Branch Fort | Camp Cary | Centerville Fort
Chancellorsville | Chopawamsic Battery | Camp Clifton | Camp Cobb | Cockpit Point Battery
Culpeper Camp | Cuttatawoman (2) | Fort Evans | Evansport Battery | Falmouth Camp
Fredericksburg Battlefields | Freestone Point Battery | Camp Gary | Fort Geary | Fort Germanna
Germanna Ford | Germantown Fort | Hassniunga | Hazel Run Blockhouse | Camp Henry | Fort Hood (2)
Camp Humphreys | Fort Humphreys | Fort Johnston | Kelly's Ford | Landry's Battery | Fort McLean
Mahaskahod | Marlborough Point Battery | Marye's Heights Fort | Mathias Point Battery | Mayfield Fort
Camp Maury | Camp Mercer | Mine Run Earthworks | Mitchell's Ford | Montpelier Camp | Fort Nelson (2)
Norcom's Redoubts | Orange C.H. Camp | Patawomeck | Potomac Creek Battery | Potomac Creek Bridge Forts
Rapidan Station Battery | Rappahannock River Fort | Rappahannock Station | Camp Seldon
Shackaconia | Shipping Point Battery | Signal Hill (1) | Smith's Island Fort | Somerset Battery
Spotsylvania C.H. | Stegara | Talcott Battery | Tanxsnitania | Tauxenent | Todd's Tavern
United States Ford | Waugh Point Forts | White House Point Battery | White Oak Camp | Wilderness
Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia - page 3 | Tidewater Virginia - page 4
James River Area - page 5 | Hampton Roads Area - page 6 | Northwestern Virginia - page 7
Southwestern Virginia - page 8 | Richmond Area - page 9
VIRGINIA CIVIL WAR TRAILS
(Ball's Bluff Regional Park)
(1861 - 1862), Leesburg
Fort Evans, a CSA rectangular fort located one mile east of town overlooking Edwards' Ferry. It was later captured by the Union. Still exists on the grounds of the Rehau Company (group tours by appointment). The Battle of Ball's Bluff occurred near here in October 1861, before any defenses were built. Another website
Fort Beauregard, a CSA fort located two miles southeast of town on Tuscarora Creek. It was later captured by the Union. No remains.
Fort Johnston, a CSA star fort located one and one-half mile west of town. It was later captured and renamed Fort Geary by the Union. Traces still exist on private property.
Traces of CSA trenches still exist in Ball's Bluff Park. A 300-foot long, six-foot deep CSA trench also exists on private property spanning Edwards' Ferry Road.
Lt. John Bacon's Fort
(1755 - unknown), Philomont
A VA colonial militia defense on Colchester Road. It was used as a supply base on the wagon road between Winchester and Alexandria.
(For Defenses of Alexandria and Washington, DC please see page 2)
(1861 - 1863), Centerville
An extant CSA circular fort with extensive earthworks, built after the First Battle of Manassas. Carved and blackened trees were used to resemble cannons (Quaker Guns). There were once six additional CSA earthworks located around the town, but all were abandoned before the Second Battle of Manassas (1862). All were probably reoccupied by Union troops afterwards.
Mitchell's Ford Earthworks
(1861 - 1862), near Manassas Park
CSA earthworks on the south-side of Bull Run along Old Centerville Road that protected the railroad crossing. Private property.
Signal Hill (1)
(1861 - 1863), Manassas Park
A fortified CSA signal station, also known as Wilcoxen Signal Station, located on Signal Hill Road. It was later used by the Union after 1862. This was the location of the first use of the semaphone signalling system.
(Manassas Museum System)
(1861 - 1864), Manassas
Union Cannon Branch Fort (1864) is preserved along the railroad on the western side of town (on a knoll above Cannon Branch near the airport). Confederate Mayfield Fort has been reconstructed along the railroad on the eastern side of town (at 8401 Quarry Road). This is the last remaining of eleven or twelve CSA forts that protected this important railroad junction. It was held by the Union 1862 - 1864. Admission fee.
Nearby is Manassas National Battlefield Park.
Fort Nelson (2)
A Union stockaded encampment.
(1600 ?), Fauquier White Sulphur Springs
A major Manahoac Indian town noted on John Smith's map of 1608.
(1719 - 1721 ?), Germantown
A palisaded settlement of German settlers that moved away from Fort Germanna (see below). Site located along Licking Run.
White House Point Battery
(1814), Fort Belvoir
A temporary US Naval battery with 13 guns and trenchworks, set up to harrass the British fleet sailing downriver after attacking Alexandria. Now called Whitestone Point.
Fort Belvoir (U.S. Military Reservation)
(1918 - present), Fort Belvoir
An Army Corps of Engineers training camp and replacement center, later a demobilization center. Originally named Camp Humphreys. Renamed Fort Humphreys in 1922. Renamed again in 1935. This is the headquarters post of the Army Corps of Engineers. The Engineer School was located here from 1918 until 1988 before transferring to Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. The U.S. Army Engineer Museum was located here until 1989 before also transferring to Fort Leonard Wood. On the post reservation is the archaeological site of "Belvoir", William Fairfax's manor estate built in 1741. It was burned in 1783.
(1600 ?), Colchester
A major Potomeck Indian town noted on John Smith's map of 1608.
Freestone Point Battery
(Leesylvania State Park)
A CSA four-gun battery on the shore of the Potomac River, its remains are along a walking trail. Admission fee.
Cockpit Point Battery
(1861 - 1862), Dumfries
A CSA work located halfway between Freestone Point and Quantico, it consisted of six guns (one heavy gun) in three batteries, a powder magazine, and rear rifle pits, on top of a 75-foot high cliff (Possum Nose). The earthworks and the powder magazine still remain in good shape. Some hut sites can also still be found. Private property. A field battery was located on the actual Cockpit Point, but that site was destroyed in the 1970's for a landfill project.
(1861 - 1862), Quantico
The Confederates had attempted early in the war to try to blockade the Potomac River to Union shipping to Washington, DC. Batteries were built along the river's banks, including several around the mouths of Quantico Creek and Chopawamsic Creek. Shipping Point Battery was located at the present-day site of the Quantico Naval Hospital. Evansport Battery, located downtown (present-day Quantico), was actually two batteries on the river bank, and another 400 yards inland. Chopawamsic Battery was located at the mouth of Chopawamsic Creek. All were destroyed and abandoned by the Confederates in March 1862. The mouth of Chopawamsic Creek has been altered due to the USMC Airfield. A CSA field battery was located where the creek now empties to the Potomac. All of these batteries no longer exist.
(1861), near Mountjoy Store
A CSA training camp located at Clifton Church, about one mile from the present-day intersection of Rts. 611 and 635.
Aquia Creek Defenses
(Aquia Landing Park)
(1861 - 1864), near Aquia Landing
Confederate defenses built here in 1861:
Naval Battery #1 (originally four guns, later seven guns) at Aquia Landing, it was the very first Confederate fortification built in Virginia after hostilities broke out in April 1861. It was built to cover the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad terminus at the steamboat landing, not the ship channel in the Potomac River. At least two of the original guns came from captured stores at the Norfolk Navy Yard. The first engagement with Union ships occurred in May 1861. No remains.
Fort McLean (named after the war) was nearby on the bluff west of the landing, built in June 1861. Still exists on private property near the western end of Thorny Point Road.
Walker's Battery was on a hill one mile south of the boat landing, consisting of four rifled field guns. Took part in the May 1861 engagement. The guns were relocated to Brent's Point in June 1861. Still exists, marked on trail off of Brooke Road at Patawomeck Band Memorial Park.
Brent's Point Battery (four field guns) was across Aquia Creek from the boat landing. Built in June 1861. Remnants still exist on private property.
Marlborough Point Battery (five guns) a field battery. No remains.
Camp Gary (1861) at Aquia Landing.
Aquia Landing was abandoned in March 1862 to Union forces. The first use of nautical mines (torpedoes) in the Civil War occurred here in July 1861 by the CSA.
Union forts built here in February 1863:
Redoubt #1 a 60-foot square moated work on Aquia Creek northwest of the depot, almost directly north of Redoubt #2. Destroyed in the 1950's.
Redoubt #2 (two guns) an 80-foot square moated work at the eastern end of present-day Rt. 630 (Courthouse Road) on Old Fort Lane. Still exists in excellent condition on private property.
Redoubt #3 a 50-foot square moated work on Rose Hill. Destroyed in 2005. Stone monument erected in 2006, located in the Sentinel Ridge neighborhood.
A Union winter encampment site (1862 - 1863) was located between Redoubt #2 and the depot. Traces still remain in the Brooke Ridge neighborhood.
Aquia Landing became a major Union supply depot in 1862 - 1863 until the Gettysburg campaign forced its abandonment. A new supply depot was established in 1864 at nearby Belle Plains Landing on Potomac Creek during the Wilderness campaign, but it too was soon abandoned in favor of a new depot at City Point on the James River as the Union forces moved south towards Richmond and Petersburg. The Aquia Landing Depot site is now a Stafford County park and beach. The actual battery sites are on private property nearby.
Potomac Creek Archaeological Site
(1300 - 1615 ?), near Marlboro Point
A Potomeck Indian palisaded village, called Patawomeck, of the Late Woodland period, was located at Indian Point, where Accokeek and Potomac Creeks converge. It was abandoned before white settlement began in the area in 1635. Noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Pocahontas was kidnapped here by Samuel Argall in 1613, and brought back to Jamestown by ship. Site was excavated in 1965.
A CSA training camp.
Brooke Station Fort
(1863 - 1864), Brooke
A Union 75-foot square moated work. Still exists on private property.
Accokeek Creek Fort
(1863 - 1864), near Brooke
A Union redoubt protecting the railroad bridge.
Potomac Creek Bridge Defenses
(1863 - 1864), Daffan
The Union protected the vital Potomac Creek railroad bridge with a 30-foot square redoubt on the high ground, a two-gun oblong 40-yard closed work, a blockhouse on the south bank of the creek, a semi-circular work to cover the blockhouse (still exists, private property), and a palisade toward the river at the end of the bridge.
Waugh Point Forts
(1862), Waugh Point
Two CSA earthwork batteries covering the entrance to Potomac Creek, located on the south shore opposite Indian Point.
Potomac Creek Battery
(1861), near Belvedere Beach
A CSA shore battery on the eastern side of Passapatanzy Creek, covering Fooke's Landing and the entrance to Potomac Creek.
Mathias Point Battery
A partial earthwork battery that was constructed by the Union Navy to prevent the Confederates from fortifying this point on the Potomac River, but were driven off before construction was complete. The site was not used thereafter by the Confederates, due to constant shelling by the Navy.
(Upper) Cuttatawoman (2)
(1600 ?), near Popcastle
A palisaded Rappahannock Indian town located on Lamb's Creek at the Rappahannock River, which was noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Site excavated in 1965.
Fort Hood (2)
(1862), near Fredericksburg
Located on the Rappahannock River just downriver from the city, very close to Cosner Park, one mile upstream from the mouth of Massaponax Creek. Also known as Talcott Battery. It was a seven-gun CSA earthwork built to prevent Union gunboats from proceeding upriver. The Union captured it a month after it was built, but did not remove the guns. The earthworks still remain in good condition, but overgrown. Site located on private property.
White Oak Encampment
(1862 - 1863), White Oak
A large Union encampment area. Camp Seldon (1863) was also here. Of interest here is the White Oak Museum which has a reconstruction of the crude log huts, and artifacts and exhibits of all the military encampments of the area. Admission fee.
(1600 ?), near Falmouth
A major Manahoac Indian town, north of Lauck's Island, possibly on Falls Run, noted on John Smith's map of 1608. Probably only a hunting camp, not an actual town. Smith's party wounded and captured Amoroleck here, brother to the chief of Hassniunga, who then described in detail the territory to the west, which was not explored by Smith.
Rappahannock River Fort
(1676 - 1682), Falmouth
A VA colonial militia blockhouse built near the falls (rapids) on the north-side of the Rappahannock River.
(1861), near Chatham Heights
A CSA training camp near Claiborne's Run, between present-day Ferry Road (Rt. 606) and White Oak Road (VA 218).
(1862 - 1863), near Falmouth
A large Union encampment area, encompassing several sites.
(Fredericksburg - Spotsylvania National Military Park)
(1862 - 1864), Fredericksburg
Located in town on Marye's Heights were the CSA two-gun Double Lunette Battery (or Marye's Heights Fort) (1862 - 1863), briefly captured by the Union in the May 1863 battle, CSA one-gun Landry's Lunette Battery (1862 - 1863), converted to two guns in 1863, and CSA Norcom's Redoubts (1863) two one-gun works on Byram's Hill (now part of Mary Washington campus). All earthworks on Marye's Heights survived the war, but were plowed under by the 1880's. Also in town are about five miles of extant CSA earthworks (1862 - 1863) from Lee's Hill to Hamilton's Crossing at Hazel Run. Admission fee.
Also once located in town was Confederate Camp Mercer (1861 - 1862), a training camp located at the former Mercer Square, the town's former fairgrounds before the Civil War.
Union works were the Hazel Run Blockhouse (1862), a one-story wooden structure with loopholes, located on the west-side of the railroad on the south-side of the creek, and also two other similarly built blockhouses located at the Middle Pontoon Crossing (1862, built on a wharf, destroyed by a flood) and the Upper Pontoon Crossing (1862 - 1863). No remains.
Extensive CSA and Union earthwork trench lines and gun pits were/are located on the surrounding battlefields in various locations, including Chancellorsville (1863), Wilderness (1864), Todd's Tavern (1864), and Spotsylvania Court House (1864). Admission fee.
A Spanish-American War training camp. Probably located on the Fredericksburg Battlefield in the Hamilton's Crossing / Prospect Hill area, or possibly at the fairgrounds.
Kelly's Ford Earthworks
(1863), Kelly's Ford
Union rifle pits and trench lines still exist along the north-side of the Rappahannock River, located on the grounds of the Inn at Kelly's Ford. Traces of CSA earthworks still exist on the south-side of the river.
(1862 - 1865), Remington
CSA earthworks (1862) are located on the north bank of the river upstream of the railroad bridge. They were captured by the Union in November 1863. A Union stockaded encampment was then later built near town. (To the north of here is a Fort Union Drive.)
A CSA training camp at Clayton's Old Field on the west-side of Mountain Run (west of Blue Ridge Ave.). Site was also used as part of the Union winter encampment in 1863 - 1864. Most of the site is now part of Yowell Meadow Park. A stone monument (1971) is here commemorating the 1775 mustering site of the famous Culpeper Minute Men.
(1863 - 1864), Culpeper County
The main body of the Union Army of the Potomac spent the winter in various locations across the county. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia originally planned to winter here, but after the battles of Kelly's Ford and Rappahannock Station, they were forced across the Rapidan River into Orange County.
(1600 ?), Richards Ferry
A major Manahoac Indian town on the Rappahannock River, about one mile upriver from the Rapidan River, noted on John Smith's map of 1608.
United States Ford Earthworks
(1863), United States Ford
CSA / Union earthworks still remain on the south-side of the Rappahannock River, one and one-half miles downriver from the Rapidan River. Private property, no vehicular access.
(1600 ?), Germanna
A major Manahoac Indian town on the north bank of the Rapidan River, noted on John Smith's map of 1608.
History of the Germanna Colonies
(1714 - 1719 ?), Germanna
German immigrants settled here on the banks of the Rapidan River. The site of the stockade and blockhouse was probably built over by Governor Spotswood's manor house (1722 - 1750), which also no longer exists, but was recently excavated. A new visitors center was built in 2000 near Germanna Community College. PHOTO LINK
Germanna Ford Earthworks
Extensive CSA trenches and gun pits (two lines) still exist on the south-side of the Rapidan River, mostly within the present-day campus of Germanna Community College.
Mine Run Earthworks
(1863), near Locust Grove
Extensive CSA and Union earthwork trench lines were constructed along both sides of Mine Run. Almost all of the Union works were destroyed by the Confederates after the battle. Traces remain of the CSA works in wooded areas. Private property.
Rapidan Station Battery
(1863 - 1864), Rapidan
A CSA earthwork on the north bank of the Rapidan River protected the railroad crossing.
Orange Courthouse Encampment
(1863 - 1864), near Orange
The main winter encampment area of the CSA Army of Northern Virginia, located north and east of town with extensive earthworks along the Rapidan River from Liberty Mills to Mitchell's Ford.
(1863 - 1864), Montpelier Station
The winter encampment site of elements of the CSA Army of Northern Virginia is located on the wooded grounds of Montpelier, President James Madison's former plantation (1760). Excavated in 2002. Hut sites are still evident. Guided tours can be arranged at the Montpelier Visitor Center.
(Hampstead Farm Archaeological District)
(1864), Old Somerset
Traces of three CSA gun pits still exist on high ground along the Rapidan River west of town along VA 20 and Rt. 609. This battery protected the road from the Liberty Mills river crossing (VA 231) to Gordonsville and the railroad junction. It was attacked and captured by Union cavalry in December 1864. Private property.
(1600 ?), Scuffletown
A major Manahoac Indian town noted on John Smith's map of 1608. A burial mound on the Rapidan River was excavated in 1980, but the actual townsite has never been found with certainty.
Smith's Island Fort
(1725 - unknown), near Madison
A fort and stockade built by German settlers after moving away from the Germanna settlement. Site located on the north side of the Robinson River at White Oak Run near Hebron Lutheran Church (1726), north of town. The White Oak Run was originally known as Smith's Run, and there was once an island at the convergence of the two rivers, hence the name.
Northern Virginia II - page 2 | Central Virginia - page 3 | Tidewater Virginia - page 4