Treaties AMC Home  |  Chiefs  |  Communities  |  Staff    

Treaties Timeline

  • Treaty Timeline Introduction

  • Treaty Timeline List

  • Individual Treaties

  • Treaty Commission Process
        - 2003 Annual Report

  • Historical Indian Treaties

  • Manitoba First Nations Treaties

  • Treaties Timeline

  • Treaty Timeline Introduction

    In Canada, Aboriginal Peoples and various Pre-Confederation and Post-Confederation governments have concluded 68 major treaties. These treaties cover most of Ontario, the Prairie Provinces; and parts of Vancouver Island, Northwest Territories, and Atlantic Canada. In Quebec, there were Treaties of Peace and Friendship, however, these treaties were usually not written down, and are therefore not included.

    The Historical Indian Treaties Virtual Time Line shows in chronological order a selection of the major treaties,from the first Peace and Friendship Treaty in 1725 to the 1930 Adhesions to Treaty 9.

    For each date listed on the time line, a map will appear showing the approximate geographical area of the treaty, along with a short description.
    In addition, various map layers from the National Atlas are used to show the location of Aboriginal and European populations. These maps include Aboriginal Peoples circa 1740 & 1823, New France, British North America, and Canada 1867-1999.

    Treaty Timeline List

  • 15 December 1725
  • 15 August 1749
  • 22 November 1752
  • 10 February 1760
  • 10 March 1760 & 25 June 1761
  • August 1764
  • 22 September 1779
  • 9 May 1781
  • 1783
  • 9 October 1783
  • April 1784
  • 22 May 1784
  • 19 May 1790
  • 7 December 1792
  • 30 August 1796
  • 7 September 1796
  • 21 August 1797
  • 22 May 1798
  • 30 June 1798
  • 1 August 1805
  • 5 September 1806
  • 18 November 1815
  • 17 October 1818
  • 28 October 1818
  • 5 December 1818
  • 9 March 1819
  • 28 November 1822
  • 10 July 1827
  • 9 August 1836 [Saugeen]
  • 9 August 1836 [Manitoulin]
  • 7 September 1850
  • 9 September 1850
  • 13 October 1854
  • 6 October 1862
  • August 1871 - Treaty 1
  • August 1871 - Treaty 2
  • October 1873 - Treaty 3
  • September 1874 - Treaty 4
  • September 1875 - Treaty 5
  • August-September 1876 - Treaty 6
  • September 1877 - Treaty 7
  • February 1889 - Treaty 6, Adhesions
  • June 1889 - Treaty 8
  • July 1905- Treaty 9
  • August 1906 - Treaty 10
  • 1908 to 1910 - Treaty 5, Adhesions
  • 1921 June - Treaty 11
  • 1923 October/November - Williams Treaties
  • 1929 - 1930 - Treaty 9, Adhesions

  • Individual Treaties

    15 December 1725 (two agreements signed)

    After the cessation of the war in Nova Scotia between the Governor of Quebec and the British in New England and Nova Scotia, two treaties were signed, on 15 December 1725, in Boston. These treaties encompassed all of the Aboriginal peoples living in Maine, New Hampshire, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Primarily, under these treaties, the Abenakis, Micmac and Malecite agreed to "forbear all Acts of Hostility, Injuries and discords towards all the Subjects of the Crown of Great Britain and not offer the least hurt, violence, or molestation of them or any of them in their persons or Estates."

    15 August 1749

    Soon after war against England was declared by France on 11 March 1744 and by England against France on 9 April 1744, the war spread to North America. The French, with their native allies, once again made war against the British in Nova Scotia. The war ended in Europe and North America with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle in 1748.

    The 15 August 1749 treaty was a renewal of the 15 December 1725 treaty with the Malecites living along the St. John River. On this date, in Chebucto harbour, several Malecite chiefs and Governor Cornwallis of Nova Scotia agreed to a renewal of the articles contained in the 1725 treaty.

    22 November 1752

    Due to the continued hostility from Micmacs, Governor Cornwallis of Nova Scotia once again sought a renewal of the 15 December 1725 treaty with the Micmac, similar to the treaty made with the Malecite in 1749. In Halifax on this date, Chief Cope of the Shubenacadie tribe (from mainland Nova Scotia), agreed to "renew, confirm and observe the conditions of the Treaty of 1725."

    10 February 1760

    In 1756, Britain and France were at war again. After February 1760, when the British had captured Quebec and effectively ended French power in North America, the Aboriginal peoples quickly decided to seek out the British to make peace. Some of the first to do so were the Passamaquoddys and Malecites. In Halifax, on 23 February 1760, they signed a treaty acknowledging "King George III as sovereign and accepting blame for having broken the peace."

    10 March 1760 & 25 June 1761

    After the fall of French domination in North America the Micmac, also decided to seek out the British to make peace. They agreed to "recognize British dominion over Nova Scotia and promised not to molest in any way his Majesty's subjects."

    August 1764

    The era of treaty making in Upper Canada began in 1764. In the period 1764 to 1862, there were many treaties signed, in which possession of land covering most of what is now southern and eastern Ontario was surrendered by the Aboriginal population. The Royal Proclamation Act, 1763, established Indian Country (the interior of British North America). On these lands the Crown claimed sovereignty but it also decreed that these lands were to be considered the possession of the Aboriginal peoples who lived on these lands.

    The first treaty transferring possession of land was concluded by Sir William Johnson at Fort Niagara August 1764. This four mile strip along the Niagara River was surrendered by the Six Nations, Chippewa and Mississauga.

    22 September 1779

    The last Peace and Friendship Treaty was signed on 22 September 1779 with the Micmac. During the American Revolution (1775-76), the Americans encouraged Micmacs to attack British settlers. One such attack occurred when some Micmacs attacked a trading post on the Miramichi River. The British, however, were quick to react and quickly quelled the attack. The remaining hostile Micmacs agreed to "accept the blame for the attack and to promise that in the future they would protect English settlers."

    9 May 1781

    During and after the American Revolution, there was an influx of loyalists into British territory around Fort Niagara. Due to the increased population, Frederick Haldimand, Governor of Quebec proposed the establishment of agricultural settlements around major military forts. In the Fort Niagara area this posed several problems due to the existence of the 1764 Treaty.

    A new treaty was negotiated on 9 May 1781, where the Mississaugas (the Six Nations had relinquished their claim to this land) accepted "300 suits of clothing as payment for a four-mile strip along the Niagara River from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie." Later in 1787, this area was expanded to include Niagara Township, and portions of Stamford, Willoughby and Bertie Townships.

    1783 [Indian Officers' Land]

    In 1783, a grant of land was made to officers of the British Indian Department. These officers, Alexander McKee, Matthew Elliott, William Caldwell, and Henry Bird, convinced the Huron and the other chiefs around Detroit, to grant them an area "seven miles square, fronting on the south shore of the Detroit River, directly opposite Bois Blanc Island." This land was granted to these officers in lieu of past services given "in the decade of touchy Indian relations which followed the American Revolution."

    9 October 1783 [The Crawford Purchases]

    After the American Revolution, the Governor of Canada, Sir Frederick Haldimand, was faced with several problems. First, an influx of loyalists from the United States, and second an angry Aboriginal population. They were upset over the American and British peace treaty which failed to mention either Indians or their ownership of the land, and they failed to provide provisions to protect Indian land in the new republic. To combat these problems, Governor Haldimand ordered all Indian agents to attend Indian councils and begin negotiations to purchase land from the Indians. On 9 October 1783, Captain William Crawford negotiated with several Mississauga chiefs, in exchange for guns, gunpowder, 12 laced hats and red cloth, the sale of land from "Toniato or Onagara River

    (on the St. Lawrence River) to a river in the Bay of Quinte within eight leagues of the bottom of the Bay including all the islands, extending back from the lake so far as a man can travel in a day."

    April 1784 [St. Regis and Oswegatchie]

    Governor Haldimand's decision to settle loyalists along the upper St. Lawrence, the north shore of Lake Ontario and the Niagara peninsula, made it necessary for the Governor to make further purchases in order to maintain a connected area of settlement along the St. Lawrence River. In April 1784, the government acquired land on the St. Lawrence River from Point Baudet to Toniato Creek, from the Mohawks at St. Regis and the Onondagas of Oswegatchie. These two groups had claimed this land during the French regime.

    22 May 1784 [Between the Lakes Purchase]

    Governor Haldimand purchased land along Grand River for 1 843 Joseph Brant's followers of the Six Nations and associated tribes. A tract six miles wide on each side of the river was purchased from the Mississaugas on May 22, 1784. This area was known as Tyendinaga township.

    19 May 1790 [The McKee Purchase]

    In order to regularize land entitlement in this region, Alexander McKee, now a member of the Land Board of Quebec convened an Indian Council in Detroit, May 1790, with some 27 chiefs of the Ottawa, Chippewa, Potowatomie, and Huron Indians. The chiefs agreed to sell a large area of land, stretching from Detroit to the Thames River valley and along the Lake Erie shoreline for 1 200 pounds in Quebec currency. As well, two Indian reserves, were established, the Huron Reserve and Huron Church Reserve.

    7 December 1792 [Between the Lakes Purchase]

    The government purchased this land from the Mississauga to enhance the original purchase for the Six Nations along the Grand River. This purchase covered an enormous area - about 3 million acres. The Mississauga were paid in goods worth 1 180.74 Quebec pounds.

    30 August 1796 [Chenail Ecarte (Sombra Township) Purchase] 7 September 1796 [London Township Purchase]

    Alexander McKee purchased for the government 12 miles square on the St. Clair River from the Chippewas of Chenail Ecarte. The land was surrendered for 800 pounds in Quebec currency paid as goods. This area eventually became known as Sombra Township.

    At the same McKee was negotiating for Sombra Township, he also was negotiating with the Chippewas of the Thames River for more land. The Crown purchased 12 miles square at the forks of the Thames/St. Clair rivers for 1200 pounds in Quebec currency. This area was called London Township. It was the intention of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe to establish London as the capital of Upper Canada.

    21 August 1797 [Land for Joseph Brant]

    Prior to the division of the old Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada, it was recommended by the Land Board of Quebec to grant Chief Joseph Brant a parcel of land as a reward for his military services to the Crown.

    Joseph Brant finally selected a parcel of land, where the present day City of Burlington is located in 1795. Lieutenant Governor Simcoe directed the purchase of this land from the Mississaugas for 100 pounds on October 24, 1795. Ultimately, the final agreement was signed 21 August 1797 once the required 100 pounds in goods had been obtained in England.

    22 May 1798 [Penetanguishene Harbour]

    Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, after visiting the Georgian Bay area in 1793, was interested in establishing a harbour at present-day Penetanguishene. At this location, he wished to build a British military naval presence on Lake Huron. Negotiations with the Chippewas of the Lake Simcoe-Matchedash Bay were quickly initiated.

    On May 19, 1795, Simcoe met with the Chippewas at York, where they agreed to "relinquish the northern tip of the peninsula at Penetanguishene, including the island in Penetanguishene Harbour, in return for goods valued at 101 pounds in Quebec currency." The formal treaty was signed 22 May 1798, after Simcoe had left Canada.

    30 June 1798 [St. Joseph Island]

    Lieutenant-Governor Dorchester contrary to the Simcoe, decided not build a garrison at Penetanguishene, but on Saint Joseph Island. In April 1796, Major Doyle was sent to the island to establish the 12-man garrison, where it was hoped Indians would come to trade, instead of at Michilimackinac in American territory.

    Soon, the Chippewas who claimed this island, demanded payment. Colonel Alexander McKee of the land board completed the negotiations 30 June 1798. For 1 200 pounds worth of goods, the Chippewas relinquished their claim to the island.

    1 August 1805 [Toronto Purchase]

    Due to the growth of York, and since it was the seat of government, Lieutenant-Governor Peter Hunter, decided that it was time to settle the land dispute over this tract of land, referred to as the Mississauga Tract. It was also an opportune time to commence negotiations with the Mississaugas, since Joseph Brant's was no longer the land agent for the Mississaugas.

    The Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs, William Claus, negotiated and at Credit River, 31 July 1805 the Mississaugas relinquished 250 800 acres of land that included York for 1000 pounds Quebec currency worth of goods. Further land was acquired from the Mississauga Tract to expand the Toronto Purchase in 1818 and 1819.

    5 September 1806 [Head-of-the- Lake-Purchase]

    At the same time William Claus, the Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs was negotiating for the Mississauga Tract, he was also meeting with the Mississauga over the Head-of-the-Lake tract.

    A final agreement was signed 5 September 1806. After much discussion William Claus agreed to allow the Mississauga to retain the land and fisheries at the mouths of Credit River, Sixteen Mile Creek and Twelve Mile Creek. Ultimately, the crown gained for 1000 pounds currency 85 000 acres of land.

    18 November 1815 [Lake Simcoe Land]

    In 1811, an offer was made to the Chippewa of the Lake Simcoe region for the purchase of more land. The Crown wished to acquire 250 000 acres between Lake Simcoe and Penetanguishene to assist the fur traders of the Northwest Company, who had been complaining about American fur traders interfering with trade in the area.

    A formal agreement was negotiated on June 8 and 9, 1811, by William Claus and Chief Yellowhead, the Chippewa spokesman. The Chippewa accepted 4000 pounds currency in goods. However, due to the outbreak of the War of 1812, the goods from Britain didn't arrive until 1815, where a new council was convened and signed 18 November 1815 at Kempenfelt Bay on Lake Simcoe.

    17 October 1818 [Lake-Simcoe-Nottawasaga Purchase]

    Due to the success of recent negotiations for large tracts of Indian Land, William Claus met with the assembled Chippewas October 1818, to negotiate for 1.592 million acres of their land to the west of Lake Simcoe. The treaty was signed 17 October 1818.

    Chief Yellowhead, who led the Chippewa delegates, agreed to sell the land for an annuity of 1200 pounds of currency in goods. In this agreement, there was no mention of how the annuity was to be distributed.

    28 October 1818 [Ajetance Purchase]

    After William Claus had completed the Lake Simcoe-Nottawasga Purchase, he began negotiations with the Mississaugas of Credit River for 648 000 acres of land to the south. Ajetance, Chief of the Credit River, agreed to the surrender of the land, except for three reserves at the mouth of the Credit River, in return for goods to the value of 522 pounds, 10 shillings annually.

    5 December 1818 [Rice Lake Purchase]

    During the War of 1812, the British realized that they needed to encourage immigration from Britain to the interior of Upper Canada. Subsequently, they began negotiations with the Mississaugas of the Rice Lake and Rideau River areas. William Claus at Smith's Creek (now Port Hope), 5 December 1818 began negotiations by telling the chiefs present "that the King was buying the lands in order to provide for the settlement of his children." Instead of paying the Mississauga a lump sum, a new payment was devised where the King "does not mean to do as formerly to pay to you at once, but as long as any of you remain on the Earth to give you Clothing in payment every year, besides the presents he now gives you." In return for an annuity of 740 pounds per year (10 pounds per person

    9 March 1819 [The Rideau Purchase]

    Similar to the Rice Lake Purchase, another agreement was signed on 9 March 1819, by the land agent John Ferguson with 159 Mississaugas of the Bay of Quinte region and 98 from the Kingston area who claimed this huge tract of land known as the Rideau Purchase Tract. The Mississaugas agreed to sell this tract of land covering 2.748 million acres for an annuity of 642 pounds, 10 shillings, to be paid at a rate of 50 shillings per person.

    28 November 1822 [Long Woods Purchase]

    Although initial negotiations for this tract of land began in October 1818, it wasn't until 20 November 1822 that the chiefs of the Chippewa agreed to sell this tract of land, covering almost 552 190 acres for an annuity of 600 pounds in currency.

    Two areas of reserved land were set aside for the Chippewas, along the northerly shore of the Thames River and near the source of Big Bear Creek.

    10 July 1827 [Huron Tract Purchase]

    Besides the Long Wood Purchase, the Crown wished also to purchase a larger tract of land known as the Huron Tract. John Askin, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs at Amherstburg, who also negotiated the Long Woods Purchase, negotiated with the Chippewas of Chenail Ecarte, the Ausable River, and St. Clair River for this tract.

    A final agreement was signed 10 July 1827, when the Crown acquired some 2 756 960 acres of land for 1 375 pounds currency.

    9 August 1836 [Saugeen]

    The annual meeting of the distribution of presents for the Indians of the north and west in August 1836, provided Sir Francis Bond Head, the Lieutenant Governor, with the opportunity to negotiate with the estimated 7000 gathered on Manitoulin Island.

    To the Saugeen Indians of the Bruce Peninsula, the Ojibwa agreed to relinquish claim to 1.5 million acres of land known as the Saugeen Tract. The only payment was a promise to assist and protect Indians who took up residence on the Bruce Peninsula.

    9 August 1836 [Manitoulin]

    The other agreement made at the annual meeting of the distribution of presents for the Indians of the north and west in August 1836 concerned the purchase of Manitoulin Island.

    Once again, Sir Francis Bond Head persuaded the 16 chiefs of the Ottawa and the Chippewa to "simply give the twenty-three thousand Islands, which constituted the Manitoulin chain to the Crown." Once again, there was no promise of payment, but the agreement implied that the Crown would provide protection to the Indians, who decided to give up their traditional way of life for a more sedentary life on the island.

    7 September 1850 [Robinson-Superior Treaty]

    Interest in Indian lands along the north shores of Lake Superior and Lake Huron began in the 1840's as many mining companies began to send prospectors, surveyors and engineers into the region. Each mining company had to apply to the Crown land department for a license. Many Aboriginal people who lived there began to complain to the Crown, that their claims to the land were being ignored. At the insistence of Lord Elgin, Governor General of Canada, William Benjamin Robinson was given a budget of 7500 pounds currency to buy as much land as possible. The Robinson-Superior Treaty, 7 September 1850 was negotiated with the Chippewas of the Sault Ste. Marie area and gave the Crown, "the shoreline of Lake Superior, including islands from Batchewana Bay

    to the Pigeon River, inland as far as the height of land." For the first time, the various chiefs were given a schedule of reserves set aside for them. These chiefs were allowed to chose from the 3 reserves offered.

    9 September 1850 [Robinson-Huron Treaty]

    Two days after William Robinson had negotiated the Robinson-Superior Treaty, he negotiated with Chief Shinguacouse and the Lake Huron Chippewa Indians for the Lake Huron shoreline, "including the islands, from Matchedash Bay to Batchewana Bay and inland as far as the height of the land." The individual chiefs who signed the Robinson-Huron Treaty, 9 September 1850, were presented with a schedule of 21 reserves. Each chief agreed not to interfere with mining operations or prospecting in the ceded areas, and was entitled to the "full and free privilege to hunt over the territory now ceded by them and to fish in the waters thereof as they have heretofore been in the habit of doing." In both Robinson treaties, the Indians received an initial immediate payment of 7500 pounds currency

    13 October 1854 [Robinson-Huron Treaty]

    Also called the Saugeen Surrenders, negotiations for this land became increasingly difficult. The Saugeen Indians of the Bruce Peninsula, led by Chief Wahbahdick, and other Ojibwa chiefs, with support from the Ojibwa of Newish, initially refused to relinquish entitlement.

    The government threatened that if they did not agree the Crown would be unable to guarantee protection from the white settlers moving into the area. After tense negotiations the chiefs reluctantly agreed to surrender the peninsula in exchange for "the interest on the principal sum arising out of the sale of the land." Five reserves were to be set aside in perpetuity.

    6 October 1862 [Manitoulin Island Treaty]

    Manitoulin Island as envisioned was meant to be place of settlement for various Aboriginal peoples living in southwest Ontario in order "to assist Indians in their progress toward civilisation." By 1862, only 1200 (as opposed to the 200 living on the island in 1836) had settled on the island in 12 villages, the primary villages being Manitowaming and Wikemikong. As with the case with the Saugeen, population pressures from white settlers, particularly on the local fisheries, necessitated a new treaty. The government argued that the 1836 treaty should be revoked since not enough Aboriginal people had moved to the island. Regardless of Aboriginal opposition, the island was surveyed without their approval. After the survey, William Spragge, Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs, called for a

    general council at Manitowaming in the fall of 1862. Eventually, all the Aboriginal agreed to sell except for the Wikwemikong who retained ownership of the eastern peninsula on the island.

    August 1871 - Treaty 1

    The policy of Canada after Confederation towards Aboriginal peoples was to proceed with treaty making as a requirement for the settlement of the western lands from Manitoba to the Rocky Mountains. The 60 year period of treaty negotiations following Confederation resulted in 11 numbered treaties. Common to all numbered treaty negotiations was the "surrender of large tracts of land in return for annual cash payments and other benefits." As stated in the 1996 Royal Commission, Aboriginal peoples involved generally believed that they were "sharing the land, not surrendering the land." In August of 1871, negotiations for land encompassing most of Manitoba (as of 1870) were initiated and completed after hard and difficult bargaining. The Ojibwa at Portage withdrew from the negotiations

    and did not sign the treaty. Land was surrendered in exchange for annuities, schools and reserves based on a formula of 160 acres per person.

    For more information on Manitoba First Nations Treaties, click HERE.

    August 1871 - Treaty 2

    In August of 1871, negotiations for land encompassing an area, starting from the southern tip of Lake Winnipeg, and running southwest to the United States border. This land at the time was part of the Northwest Territories (as then defined). In a similar pattern to Treaty 1, land was surrendered in exchange for annuities, schools and reserves based on a formula of 160 acres per person.

    For more information on Manitoba First Nations Treaties, click

    October 1873 - Treaty 3

    Treaty 3 is sometimes also referred to as the Northwest Angle Treaty. The Northwestern Ojibwa occupied this land from Rainy River to the Lake of the Woods. The Ojibwa would not allow use of their land or waterways without fair compensation. This made treaty negotiations difficult and the government conceded many more rights to the Ojibwa than in Treaties 1 and 2. All succeeding treaties contained many of the provisions provided for in Treaty 3 such as provisions for domestic animals, farming equipment, annuities, clothing and education.

    For more information on Manitoba First Nations Treaties, click

    September 1874 - Treaty 4

    Treaties 4, 5 and 6 concerned the Aboriginal groups situated on the prairies, who laid claim to parts of the western plains. The Crown wished to have access to this land to increase western expansion of settlement.

    Indian Commissioner Morris was the chief negotiator for the Crown. He requested "that the Queen's subjects be allowed to come and settle among them and farm the land." In return the Crown "would protect them from encroachment from settlement." Negotiations broke down twice with the Assiniboin and the northern Saulteaux, but eventually, they accepted the terms of Treaty 3, as communicated to them by the Ojibwa. Treaty 4 was signed in September 1874.

    For more information on Manitoba First Nations Treaties, click

    September 1875 - Treaty 5

    Commissioner Morris was again was the chief negotiator for the Crown in September 1875. A treaty in the vicinity of Lake Winnipeg was necessary so that new settlers could have undisturbed access to navigation by water. This land was largely occupied by the Swampy Cree.

    The provisions of Treaty 5 differed from those of Treaty 3 in one respect: land was to be provided for on the basis of 160 acres per family (and not per person as in Treaty 3).

    For more information on Manitoba First Nations Treaties, click

    August-September 1876 - Treaty 6

    Negotiations for Treaty 6, between the Crown and the Assinboin and the Cree, occurred during a time when the Aboriginal population feared the effects of starvation, the loss of land and the scourge of smallpox.

    The provisions of Treaty 6 as negotiated differed little from those of Treaty 3, except, provisions were added relating to "relief in the event of famine, help for the indigent, grain provisions for three years, and medical aid." Treaty 6 was signed August-September 1876 between the Crown and the Plain and Wood Cree and other groups at Fort Carleton, Fort Pitt and Battle River.

    For more information on Manitoba First Nations Treaties, click HERE.

    September 1877 - Treaty 7

    Commissioner David Laird negotiated Treaty 7 at Blackfoot Crossing with the nations of the Blackfoot Confederacy. The Blackfoot Confederacy were feared because they were willing to defend their territory if necessary by arms. Therefore, in order to protect existing settlement, the Crown negotiated with the assistance of the newly established North West Mounted Police, who had established good relations with the Blackfoot.

    Negotiations were relatively straight forward and an agreement was quickly completed. In Treaty 7, the Blackfoot were promised that their reserve land would not be taken away without their consent and guaranteed their right to hunt over the open prairie.

    February 1889 - Treaty 6, Adhesions

    There were several adhesions to Treaty 6, by Aboriginal groups not signatories to the original treaty signed in 1876. These adhesions resulted in the extension of the original treaty boundary to include later signatories. These later signatories adhered to the terms of the original treaty.

    The later signatories to Treaty 6 were the Cree and others of the Wood Cree tribe who "agreed to all terms, conditions, covenants and engagements of whatever kind enumerated" in Treaty 6. The adhesions were signed on 11 February 1889 at Montreal Lake.

    June 1889 - Treaty 8

    The impetus for Treaty 8, was the gold rush in the Klondike (1898), and the increase in economic activity in the region. The resulting influx of miners and others severely damaged the economic sustainability of many Aboriginal groups.

    In response the Crown "declared that no time should be lost by the Government in making a treaty with these Indians for their rights over this territory." Treaty 8 was signed with "the Chipewyan and Cree Indians of Fort McMurray and the country thereabouts, having met at Fort McMurray, on this fourth day of August, in this present year 1889.

    July 1905- Treaty 9

    Treaty 9, also known as the James Bay Treaty, comprised an area of about 90 000 square miles of the provincial lands drained by the Albany and Moose river systems. This area was occupied by the Ojibwa and the Cree.

    In July 1905, it was agreed in Council by the Government of Canada to admit to treaty any Indian whose hunting grounds cover portions of the Northwest Territories lying between the Albany River, the District of Keewatin and Hudson Bay, and to set aside reserves in that territory. Due to the absence of Aboriginal peoples of Abitibi, from the treaty in 1905, additional clauses were added, in August 1906.

    August 1906 - Treaty 10

    Due the creation of the new province of Saskatchewan in 1905, it was necessary to negotiate a new treaty with Aboriginal populations living in northern Saskatchewan who had not yet relinquished title to an area of 85 000 square miles. This treaty provided for the "setting aside of reserves of an area not to exceed one square mile for each family of five, for the payment at the time of the making of the Treaty of $32.00 in cash to each Chief, and $22.00 to each headman, and $12.00 to every other Indian of whatever age, and the payment every year thereafter of $25.00 to each Chief, $15.00 to each headman and $5.00 to every other Indian of whatever age."

    For more information on Manitoba First Nations Treaties, click HERE.

    1908 to 1910 - Treaty 5, Adhesions

    There were many adhesions to Treaty 5, by Aboriginal groups living in Northern Manitoba; the last adhesions occurring in the period 1908 to 1910. The last adhesions were signed at York Factory, August 10th, 1910 between the Crown and the Reindeer Lake chiefs and councillors. Adhesions are additional treaties signed with groups not signatory to the original treaty. All adhesions added new claimed land to the original treaty.

    1921 June - Treaty 11

    When oil was discovered at Norman Wells, the Crown quickly sent a commissioner to the area to negotiate a treaty, in Mackenzie River country, when the Aboriginal groups in the area threatened to keep further petroleum companies out of the area. Eventually, a treaty was signed with the Slavey, Dogrib, Loucheux, Hare and other Indians, inhabitants of the territory. In return for not prohibiting settlement, the Aboriginal groups "shall have the right to pursue their usual vocations of hunting, trapping and fishing throughout the tract surrendered as heretofore described, set aside reserves for each band, the same not to exceed in all one square mile for each family of five." As well "His Majesty reserves the right to deal with any settlers within the boundaries of any lands reserved for any band as He may see fit."

    1923 October/November - Williams Treaties

    The William Treaties are a series of treaties, covering a huge land area in Central Ontario from the Quebec border along the Ottawa River to the Lake Ontario shoreline. Signatories to the treaties were the Mississauga Indians of Rice Lake, Mud Lake, Lake Scugog and Alderville; and the Chippewa Indians of Christian Island, Georgina Island and Rama. The William Treaties negotiations involved both the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario. The Williams Treaties were different in many respects from other treaties in that they did not secure hunting and fishing rights nor did they guarantee possession of reserves. This has led to serious problems. For example, areas covered by the Williams Treaties overlapped with the Rice Lake Purchase (in which these rights were guaranteed).

    1929 - 1930 - Treaty 9, Adhesions

    The adhesions to Treaty 9 were signed with Ojibway Indians and the Swampy Cree in Northern Ontario at Trout Lake on the 5th day of July, 1929; at Windigo River on the 18th day of July, 1930; at Fort Severn on the 25th day of July, 1930; and at Winisk on the 28th day of July, 1930.

    Map sources & information from