SOAP and handout created by Susan Cline
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Help for the Speedy Speaker:
Techniques for Slowing Down a Fast Rate.

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Slow Down and Smell the Daisies...

Reducing the rate of a client can be one of the most challenging vocal behaviors to remediate (Markus 11/29/99). Rate itself, as a suprasegmental aspect of speech production, is difficult to assess. Colton and Casper note that excessively fast rates (as well as unusually slow speaking rates) can be "suggestive of neurological involvement or may simply be a reflection of personality" (225). Moya Andrews points out that our emotional states change the rate of our speech in differing ways (74). Studies have shown that listeners may even misperceive those with rapid rates of speech as angry or upset.

At any rate, our rates of speech help to make us unique, making your voice distinctive from other speakers. Yet at times, a rapid speech rate can point to accompanying vocally abusive behaviors, which can result in adverse effects. Those who speak very quickly are often the ones who live "life in the fast lane", so to speak. This population includes those with hyperfunctional vocal fold disorder (Stemple, et al. 205), excessive laryngeal tension, extrinsic muscle tension, as well as those who perform hard voice onset. People presenting with these types of voice disorders may need therapy to slow down their speaking rate to a more normal speed. The following is a synopsis of some techniques that may be used in reducing rate.

The first method, the "unhinging" method (a.k.a. the Open Mouth Technique) can be instrumental in a number of ways. This technique can be quite useful with someone who has tension in the external muscles and who is hyperfunctional. Once the muscles of the jaw release, other muscles will, in theory, release as well. This technique may also be used for clients with an excessively fast rate. When using this method, the clients are instructed to open their mouths, allowing an "unhinging" of the jaw. The actual motor act of articulation is slowed down; therefore, the client’s rate will drop as a result.

Another technique that could be used with clients with a rapid speaking rate is the Chewing Technique. This technique works in the same way as the "unhinging" method, or Open Mouth Technique, in that it slows down the actual motor act of speech articulation; therefore, will have definitive effects on rate. The client is asked to act as if they are "chewing" their words. The clinician then "weans" the client off this type of speech toward a more normal, slower speech.

Another method of reducing rate is the use of a metronome that ticks at different speeds. The metronome is an effective facilitator of reduced speaking rate in that it uses rhythm to induce a new "speaking rhythm". It also is dynamic in that the metronome can be decreased incrementally as the client is able to match the speed of the ticking over various sessions. This also makes for a good data measurement tool in that the client’s progress can be charted in terms of the speed of the metronome.

A pacing board is something that the client runs his or her hand over while speaking. It is useful in reducing rate because it reminds the client to focus on slowing down. The clinician and client can create and adapt pacing boards to the particular client’s needs. For example, the client may start with an utterance they use frequently, such as "Honey, when is dinner going to be ready?" printed on their board. There may be a strip of velcro along the bottom of the board, creating a sort of resistance for the client when running his or her hand along the board. This is used in therapy sessions until a more appropriate speaking rate is established. A good means of ensuring carry-over for this technique is to create a "pacing reminder" for the client’s daily use. Here again the client’s individual needs should be taken into consideration. For example, a client may wear a piece of unusual jewelry as a pacing reminder. In our case, we developed a velcro watch band that the client could run his finger over during speech. This proved to be very effective in reducing rate.

Other facilitating techniques for reducing rate involve establishing good abdominal breathing, speaking "on the breath", and using continuous phonation during speech. Relaxation techniques are also very helpful with these clients, who usually present with a number of other factors, such as stress and personality characteristics that make them high-risk candidates for other voice disorders.

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Keep reading for an example of a therapy session utilizing these methods.

Client: Speedy Gonzalez
Date: 12/4/99
Diagnosis: rapid speech rate
Clinicians: Juli Eason and Susan Cline

S

Mr. Gonzalez came into DSHS today concerned about his fast speech rate. He has been employed as an auctioneer for the past 10 years and is in the process of changing occupations. He hopes to gain employment as a telephone sex therapist and feels that his fast speaking rate lessens his chance of being hired for this position. He is an energetic, 33-year old single man, who feels that slowing his speech rate may also help him slow down his hectic lifestyle. He came to the DSHS to assess his rate and determine a means of slowing him down.

O

Mr. Gonzalez’s objective data for today was as follows:


Measures: Findings:
f0 97 Hz (male norm 100-150 Hz)
words per minute 275 (norm 150 wpm)

A

Mr. Gonzalez seemed very receptive to the suggestions the clinicians made regarding slowing his rate. He was instructed in abdominal breathing, speaking on the breath, and relaxation exercises to increase his awareness of his breathing. He did quite well with this, especially when the clinicians told him to use the time when others are speaking to take a full breath before beginning to talk. The clinicians also introduced several facilitating techniques for slowing his rate, such as the use of a metronome or a pacing board during continuous phonation, the chewing method to decrease muscle tension, and the unhinging method to slow his rate. He did best with the facilitating technique "unhinging" method in conjunction with the use of a pacing board. Mr. Gonzalez received a handout that outlines the unhinging method for his use at home. Mr. Gonzalez has a nice, low resonant male voice which will be helpful in gaining employment in the sex therapy field. He is quite motivated to slow his rate for this reason; therefore, the clinicians believe that he is a good candidate for use of the unhinging method as a facilitating technique.

P

The clinicians will continue to see Mr. Gonzalez once every other week while monitoring his spontaneous speech rate by making unscheduled telephone calls to his home. They will make a velcro watch band for Mr. Gonzalez to wear so he can run his finger over the velcro as a reminder to slow his speech rate. The clinicians will use audio and video recorders during subsequent sessions for Mr. Gonzalez to take home to practice the slower rate elicited in the therapy room.

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References:

Boone, Daniel R., Ph.D. Is Your Voice Telling on You? (2nd Edition). San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc., 1997.

Colton, Raymond H., Ph.D. and Janina K. Casper, Ph.D. Understanding Voice Problems: A Physiological Perspective for Diagnosis and Treatment (2nd Edition). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.

Stemple, Joseph C., Ph.D., L.E. Glaze, Ph.D., and B.K. Gerdeman, Ph.D. Clinical Voice Pathology: Theory and Management (2nd Edition). San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc., 1997.

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Links

Open Mouth Approach

Chewing Method

Optimal Breathing

Take me away...

Virtual Relaxation

CLICK HERE to see other therapy techniques.


Questions or comments?

Email Susan Cline or Juli Eason
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