May 2-4, 2007

Rooms of Their Own: Women in the Knowledge Economy and Society

An RSC: The Academies Conference held at the University of Alberta.

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Willet G. Miller Medal

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2005 - Kurt Kyser, FRSC

Kurt Kyser, FRSC, Professor in the Department of Geological Sciences, Queen’s University, is one of the world's leading geochemists. The general theme of his work is fluid-rock interaction, the primary agent for change in and on the Earth, and he has brought a wide range of sophisticated analytical techniques to bear on this area. His early work involved pioneering investigations of the heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle, now a universally accepted concept. He went on to develop chemical and isotopic microbeam techniques that he then applied to sedimentary basins. He established the current theory of formation of basinal brines that provide us with a detailed picture of the past and present processes that have formed the basins that we see today, work that has significant implications concerning the global cycles of carbon and sulphur. Recently, he has pioneered combined stable-isotope-paleomagnetic investigations of sediments, opening up the prospect of obtaining detailed descriptions of the age and extent of fluid phases and providing a solution to the longstanding problem of the origin of magnetic overprinting in unmetamorphosed rocks – a very widespread but previously little understood process. Kurt Kyser is an example of a very intelligent and outstanding scientist, driven by an insatiable curiosity, and a perfectionist with a very wide range of interests – both theoretical and experimental. He is a superb scientist with an enviable record of outstanding research.

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2003 - Roger H. Mitchell, FRSC

Roger Howard Mitchell, FRSC, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Geology at Lakehead University, is the world's leading authority on the occurrence and genesis of alkaline rocks. His extensive work on the mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of kimberlites has confirmed the standard genetic model, culminating in his definitive book on this important group of rocks. He has also worked extensively on the character and origin of lamproites, resulting in a new model for their genesis, and publication of the definitive book on these rocks. His work is marked by that rare combination of thoroughness and imagination, and has established him as the leading petrologist in Canada.

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2001 - Robert L. Carroll, FRSC

Robert L. Carroll, FRSC, Redpath Museum, McGill University, is probably the most distinguished vertebrate palaeontologist of the present day. His speciality is the origin and early radiation of terrestrial vertebrates, and the relationships of the major living and fossil groups. He has described - and even discovered - many of the most crucial forms involved in the emergence of vertebrates onto land and their subsequent diversification. He told the complete story of vertebrate evolution in his authoritative Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution (1987), a successor to A. S. Romer's classic text, which has been translated into German and Russian and is the primary reference for students and professors worldwide. More recently, he has recorded three notable achievements. In the first place, he has consolidated the whole field of early vertebrate evolution by publishing two magisterial volumes, the first giving a detailed review of the archaic amphibians of the Palaeozoic era and the second providing complete coverage of the whole evolutionary history of amphibians. Secondly, he wrote his Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution, putting in place an interpretation of large-scale evolution processes firmly based on an intimate knowledge of the fossil record and controlling factors of the physical and biological environment. And finally, he has contributed to the general debate over the origin of major evolutionary innovations by integrating palaeontology with modern molecular developmental biology to form a new evolutionary synthesis.

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1999 - Robert Kerrich

Robert Kerrich, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, focused his early work on rock deformation and was the first to document chemical and isotopic mass transport associated with pressure solution and the chemical reactions controlling subcritical stress corrosion cracking in rocks. He provided the first clear evidence of recycling of oceanic and continental crust deep into the mantle to generate chemically and isotopically heterogeneous mantle sources for Archean basalts. In 1998, he reported the only clear-cut example to date of Archean boninites. Kerrich developed what is now widely regarded as the "standard model" of accretionary metamorphic fluid-generated lode gold deposits. He documented low-temperature hydrothermal zircons in gold-quartz veins, whereas conventional thought was that zircons were primarily magmatic in origin. Age determinations on those robust hydrothermal zircons constrained early accretionary timing of gold mineralization, rather than late gold models, 100 million years later, based on less robust isotopic systems. He has written a book, twenty-three invited chapters, eight invited Short Courses and over 140 peer-reviewed papers.

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1997 - Paul Hoffman

The geological observations and interpretations of Paul F. Hoffman, Harvard University, have shaped contemporary views on tectonic and biosedimentary activity on Earth during the Precambrian (the period extending from the age of the oldest rocks, about 3.96 billion years, to the age of the oldest known skeletal metazoa, about 550 million years). His influence stems from over 25 seasons of field work, mostly in northern Canada, and a synthesis of the Precambrian evolution of North America based on its geology, isotopic geochronology, geophysics and geochemistry. His most important finding is that the "plate tectonics" paradigm is valid for most, if not all, of Precambrian time.

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1995 - Hans J. Hofmann

Hans Hofmann, Université de Montréal, is known for his meticulous work in virtually all aspects of Precambrian paleontology, the study of the fossil record representing 3 billion years of our planet's history prior to the development of shelly organisms.

Among his contributions are studies on stromatolites, microfossils, macrofossils, and trace fossils - widely regarded as classics; the early use of computer for simulation and image analysis to quantify morphologic attributes; descriptions and analyses of fossils from diverse regions, and their biologic, stratigraphic, and evolutionary significance.

Not content with the study of genuine Precambrian fossils, he has also critically assessed a multitude of other, problematic remains from the ancient geologic record and shown us how to distinguish biogenic from non-biogenic forms.

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1993 - Frank C. Hawthorne, FRSC

Frank C. Hawthorne, The University of Manitoba, is one of the world's most outstanding and creative earth scientists. His aim is to quantitatively predict mineral stability as a function of chemical bonding at the atomic level. Such a unifying theory is pivotal to advancing mineralogy beyond descriptive methods of mineral classification. To further this aim he combines chemical theory and mathematics with new and innovative ways of looking at, and analyzing, minerals. Professor Hawthorne is the driving force behind many new and exciting ideas in mineralogy; this is in addition to making major and significant contributions to mineralogical societies, symposia, and literature.

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1991 - Jan Veizer, FRSC

Dr. Jan Veizer, University of Ottawa, is the 1991 recipient of The Willet G. Miller Medal given by The Royal Society of Canada in recognition of his outstanding research in geology and geochemistry which has established him in the forefront of current thought on the evolution of the earth. His revolutionary idea of using population dynamics to explain the distributions of many geological features has had application to important classes of ore deposits. From his work with isotopes of strontium, sulphur and carbon he has gained important new insights into such diverse matters as the formation of the earliest rocks on earth, the evaluation of sedimentary basins, the rates of recycling of the crustal rocks of the earth, the evolution of the oceans and the atmosphere, and the early development of life. His work on the carbon cycle is considered central to an understanding of the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and consequent greenhouse warming. A versatile and innovative research collaborator, respected for his exceptional theoretical and observational capacity, he has worked with colleagues in many countries and has a growing reputation as a leader of major interdisciplinary projects.

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1989 - William H. Mathews. FRSC

Dr. William Henry Mathews of the University of British Columbia has made outstanding research contributions to a wide variety of geological subfields. His more than six score papers constitute a record of remarkable versatility, with internationally recognized contributions to glaciology, geomorphology, volcanology, geochronometry and coal geology, to name but only some of the Earth science disciplines touched and illuminated by his research.

His work on flash floods of glacial origin is a classic, as is his analysis (with K.C. McTaggart) of the Hope landslide. He and Ross Mackay gave the first explanation of local thrust faulting due to pore pressure buildup beneath advancing ice sheets. He provided some of the earliest radiocarbon dates of ash falls in British Columbia, and applied potassium-argon dating to Cenozoic stratigraphy and reset metamorphic terranes in that province. He has integrated geothermal ideas and observations with studies of coal maturity and permafrost, and investigated the vertical distribution of velocity in the Salmon Glacier. His catholicity of interests, reaching into every corner of geology, is marked also by his enthusiasm for mountaineering, where his ability to outperform students on long traverses has given rise to a field school legend.

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1987 - Harold Williams, FRSC

Dr. Harold Williams, Department of Geology, Memorial University, is the 1987 winner of the Willet G. Miller Medal of the Royal Society of Canada.

Dr. Williams is considered the principal architect of modern studies of the Appalachian region. His outstanding ability to integrate the results of regional geological mapping (in which his own well-conceived and beautifully executed field mapping has played a major role) into compelling tectonic syntheses is illustrated by the elegant Tectonic Lithofacies Map of the Appalachian Orogen. The Newfoundland transect, a model for the entire Appalachian Mountain system, illuminates the history of the Atlantic Ocean basin and is of notable importance in formulating aspects of plate-tectonic theory. This compilation of the geology of Newfoundland is the most sophisticated million-scale map produced in Canada and still widely used and cited.

Dr. Williams' work has had a revolutionary effect on understanding Appalachian geology and his activities in Newfoundland have implications for interpretation of the geology of the United States, Morocco, Greenland, Scotland and Norway. Other important topical studies include the recognition of the rifting and drifting phases of the Late Proterozoic and Early Paleozic Appalachian passive marging; the nature, significance and processes of emplacement of Early Paleozoic ophiolitic oceanic crust onto the North American passive margin of Newfoundland; and the identification of several tectonic zones in the Appalachian.

Dr. Williams, through diligent field investigations coupled with acute intuition and imagination, has truly influenced geological thought well beyond the regions he himself has studied, and he has been in the international forefront of research concerning ophiolites, tectonolithofacies analysis and the anatomy of mountain belts. Other major conceptual contributions include obduction and emplacement mechanisms of ocean floor rocks on continental crust.

Dr. Williams, born in St. John's, Newfoundland, in 1934, joined the Geological Survey of Canada in 1961 after completing his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto. He has been an invited lecturer at many conferences as well as a contributor to many study programs and publications.

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1985 - William S. Fyfe, FRSC

William Fyfe is a most distinguished earth scientist who has made important contributions to research, to education and to international scientific public policy making. His early research applied modern inorganic and physical concepts to help understand the distribution of the elements in rocks and minerals. His book, Geochemistry of Solids (1964), was a landmark which helped change the direction of chemical earth science by its wide influence. More recently, since he came to Canada in 1972, he and his students have focussed attention on the importance of fluids in transport and deposition of metals, and also on the history of oceans and on rheological properties of magma. His extensive international field expeditions have led him into consulting activities of various kinds, from radwaste to agricultural chemistry, and from there into public science policy. He is a most effective protagonist for sane and rational resource husbandry. Within Canada he has recently been an active and far-seeing supporter of high quality science of every kind, of which he is a stimulating and imaginative advocate.

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1983 - Donald F. Stott

Donald F. Stott, of the Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, one of the leading authorities on the geology of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems of Western Canada, receives the Miller Medal for outstanding research in the earth sciences. Dr. Stott's concepts concerning the deposition of alluvial, deltaic, and marine sediments in Western Canada and in the Arctic, have elucidated the history of a series of ancient shorelines and deltas. For example, he has developed a model of deposition for Cardium sediments which indicates that this formation was deposited in marine to lagoonal environments, environments favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. He has developed a model for deposition of marine shale, based on various iron minerals, which allows the interpretation of depositional environment and paleogeography. He has propounded a transgressive-regressive model for deposition of Cretaceous sediments which has aided regional correlations and determination of facies relationships within the Bullhead and Fort St. John Groups, and was thereby able to show that alluvial, deltaic and marine sediments are controlled by cyclicity of transgressions and regressions. Dr. Stott also developed a concept concerning the growth and time of development of diapirs on Ellef Ringnes Island, which suggested favorable structural and stratigraphic traps for hydrocarbons. This was subsequently proven correct by drilling, which discovered large accumulations of natural gas in this region of the Arctic.

Important as his concepts have been to understanding the distribution of oil and gas, they are equally important to understanding the development of the Rocky Mountains.

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1981 - Denis M. Shaw, FRSC

Dr. Denis M. Shaw, FRSC, has been awarded the Willet G. Miller Medal of the Royal Society of Canada 'for outstanding research in geochemistry, a branch of the earth sciences. Graduating from Emmanuel College, Cambridge, Dr. Shaw took up graduate studies in geochemistry at the University of Chicago, from which he obtained his doctorate. In 1949 Dr. Shaw joined the Department of Geology at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, in which institution he is now Professor of Geology and Dean of the School of Graduate Studies.

Dr. Shaw's contributions to the science of geochemistry have been broad, ranging from detailed studies of trace elements in various rocks and mineral deposits to speculations on the composition of the original crust of the earth. His work in trace elements in rocks is classic and has been of great value to geologists, geochemical prospectors searching for mineral deposits, and environmental scientists. His many scientific papers and learned communications have enlightened and stimulated the community at large.

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1979 - Edward T. Tozer

Dr. Tozer's work in marine Triassic stratigraphy and palaeontology of Canada and Western North America, Mesozoic and Tertiary stratigraphy and structure of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and biochronology of the marine Triassic rocks of the globe has gained him an outstanding national and international acclaim. As early as 1962, with R. Thorsteinsson, he was awarded the Medal of Merit of the Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists. This was for his pioneering fieldwork and office research on the Mesozoic and Tertiary stratigraphy and structure of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago which resulted in the first comprehensive synthesis of these aspects of the geology of this previously all but unknown region of northern Canada. He has lectured extensively on this subject and, because of his exceptional understanding of Mesozoic and Tertiary geology of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Dr. Tozer was commissioned to compile these sections of the chapter dealing with the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the 1970 edition of Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada. The pioneering and at the same time fundamental nature of Dr. Tozer's contributions to the Mesozoic and Tertiary stratigraphy and structure of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is too well known to every arctic geologist the world over to go into further detail concerning them.

Dr. Tozer's record as a Triassic palaeontologist and biochronologist is just as distinguished. Building on the research of the late Dr. F.H. McLearn, he published a series of papers and memoirs on the Triassic marine faunas and biostratigraphy of western and arctic Canada which have made our Triassic system one of the best known in the world. This has made the Canadian Triassic one of the most important standards of reference for global biochronological correlation.

Dr. Tozer's palaeontological stratigraphical studies of the Canadian Triassic and extended comparative studies abroad laid the groundwork for preparation of fundamental publications on the standard for Triassic time and the biostratigraphic classification of the marine Triassic of North America. The sum total of his published research has made Dr. Tozer one of the foremost Triassic specialists of our generation. Among his Triassic publications The Standard for Triassic Time must be singled out as the most fundamental contribution in the field. Starting with a thorough synthesis of the faunal sequence of western and arctic Canada this work produces what amounts to the first detailed practically workable intercontinental zonal subdivision of the Triassic system. Unlike its partly to largely hypothetical predecessors, this zonal scheme is based largely on the actually observed stratigraphic relationships of individual ammonite and pelagic pelecypod faunas and is comparable in its refinement to the zonal sequences long available for the Jurassic and Cretaceous systems. The recently completed monumental work on the Canadian Triassic ammonite faunas provides a full palaeontological documentation of the Canadian zonal sequence forming the principal anchor of this global biochronological standard of the Triassic. The work is now in press.

Dr. Tozer has been at the forefront internationally in stratigraphic nomenclature, the Triassic system, the definition and delimitation of Triassic stages and substages on a global scale, as well as in the Geological Correlation Programme. Not to be forgotten are, finally, Dr. Tozer's contributions to the knowledge of late Cretaceous and early Tertiary non-marine molluscan faunas and the stratigraphy of the western Prairie provinces. His principal publication on the subject remains one of the most important sources of information on the subject eighteen years after its publication. Dr. Tozer has truly earned the Willet G. Miller Medal.

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1977 - Allan M. Goodwin

Allan Murray Goodwin is one of Canada's foremost Precambrian geologists. After graduation from Queen's University, Kingston (B.Sc. and M.Sc.) and the University of Wisconsin (Ph.D.), Dr. Goodwin joined the Geological Branch of the Ontario Department of Mines and worked for a number of years in the Archean greenstone belts of Northern Ontario. Later at the Geological Survey of Canada and now as professor of geology in the University of Toronto, Professor Goodwin has continued his studies of Archean greenstone belts throughout Canada and has made correlations with similar rocks in other Precambrian terranes of the world.

Professor Goodwin's work on Archean greenstone belts has been outstanding as a result of its breadth of approach achieved by applying the principles of the sciences of geology, chemistry, and physics to the problem of origin of these rock complexes. Basing his laboratory studies on extensive field work, Professor Goodwin has succeeded in formulating an impressive synthesis of the geological and chemical events in Archean greenstone belts and has elucidated many of the complex metallogenic patterns in such belts. Particularly noteworthy has been his work on the stratigraphy of Archean volcanic and sedimentary assemblages, the sequence of igneous events which has produced piles of volcanic rocks in Archean time, and the chemistry and isotopic constitution of Algoma-type iron formations. More recently, Professor Goodwin has turned to even more fundamental studies and has sought to explain the evolution of the early Precambrian crust and Precambrian shields in terms of mantle plumes, plate tectonics, and other modern concepts.

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1975 - J. Ross Mackay

Dr. J. Ross Mackay is most noted for his explorations of permafrost phenomena in the western Canadian Arctic. From his base in the Department of Geography at the University of British Columbia he has been engaged in Arctic research since 1950. His initial studies involved an analysis of trafficability of northern terrain, particularly for military vehicles, but his investigations were thereafter continued primarily because of his curiosity about soil at and near the ground surface. With the discovery of a major oil field at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, and of the petroleum potential of the Canadian Arctic, Dr. Mackay's pure research became of immediate economic and ecologic concern to companies and government alike in predicting and coping with problems of pipeline operations and petroleum explorations in areas of frozen ground. As a research worker with a superb talent of combining three elements - theory, design of simple but effective instruments, and skilled and careful field observations - he has met the challenges of applied science. In the field of permafrost studies he has attained a stature equal to the best from the USA and USSR and in so doing has enhanced Canadian science.

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1973 - Raymond Thorsteinsson

The nomination of Dr. Raymond Thorsteinsson for the Miller Medal is based primarily on his work on the geology of the Canadian Arctic, although he has made fundamental scientific advances that are recognized internationally in several fields. Dr. Thorsteinsson has worked in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago since 1947, and of all workers in that region he has made the greatest contribution to the elucidation of the geology of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks.

His work is particularly characterized by its breadth and includes structural, stratigraphic, and biochronological histories of the enormously thick rock succession of the Islands and forms the basis of all future work. As a result of his studies the geological history and sedimentary column in the Islands are better understood than those in many areas of Canada that have been studied far longer. Few scientists have been fortunate enough to have been presented with such a challenge and opportunity, and few could have risen to and mastered such a challenge.

In addition, Dr. Thorsteinsson has supplemented his predominantly stratigraphic work by paleontological studies in several fields: in the Graptolites he has made fundamental advances and discoveries that have found their way into international treatises and textbooks and are regularly quoted in scientific literature; in the Ostracoderms (subclass Heterostraci), a class of extinct fossil fish, his studies are in the process of revolutionizing our ideas on the evolution of the early vertebrates; in the Fusulinaceans, a group of Upper Paleozoic foraminifera, he has established the most complete succession of faunal zones in Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks yet known. All of these studies result from an astonishing capacity for finding and laboriously and painstakingly collecting some of the largest and best preserved fossil faunas yet known.

His work has been published largely by the Geological Survey and includes five substantial memoirs and three bulletins, as well as many papers and very many geological maps at scales varying from 1/125,000 to 1/500,000. His maps of central Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands, including twelve published in the last two years, make this region one of the best mapped areas of Canada.

During the last two field seasons, he has completed geological mapping of Cornwallis Island and all adjacent islands between Bathurst, Devon, and Somerset. Six 1:250,000 maps will be openfiled this spring. This work puts an entirely new interpretation on the structural evolution of this region, and will prove of paramount importance to petroleum exploration, both on and offshore.

Dr. Thorsteinsson has exerted a very considerable influence, not only on Arctic Geology, but on the general synthesis and interpretation of the earth's history in this country and throughout the world. In addition, the results of this devoted and single-minded unravelling of the history of a new region of the crust have been of incalculable economic importance. Descriptions of the geology and geological maps prepared by him and by others associated with him, have been directly responsible for bringing about the recent increase in activity in the search for petroleum in the Islands. Estimates by industry suggest that as a result this search has been accelerated by as much as twenty-five years.

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1971 - Robert W. Boyle

This year's recipient of the Miller medal is one of Canada's leading exploration geochemists, who has made fundamental advances in the study of the deposition of ores, the dispersion of elements around orebodies, and the formulation of new methods in the search for natural resources.

Robert Boyle was born in Chatham township in Ontario. He received all his geological education at the University of Toronto, graduating from there in 1953 with the doctorate. His early work in the 1950s on the geochemistry and structure of the gold deposits of the Yellowknife area produced evidence that gold and sulphides were derived from the enclosing meta-basalts and meta-andesites and attracted world-wide interest and wide acceptance. These studies were followed by outstanding field and laboratory research on the geochemistry and origin of the silver-lead-zinc deposits of the Yukon, the large base metal deposits of New Brunswick, the barite and associated lead-zinc-silver-copper orebody in the Walton area of Nova Scotia, and the silver deposits of the Cobalt area in Ontario. He has pioneered studies of the isotope geochemistry of the gold and silver-lead-zinc-cadmium deposits of the Yukon and Northwest Territories.

In addition to these fundamental studies on the genesis of ore deposits he has carried on parallel studies on the application of geochemistry to prospecting for hidden ore deposits. Dr. Boyle and his students have developed and applied methods of detecting and mapping the minute quantities of metals which are dispersed in soils, plants, and streams around orebodies. In the last decade these methods have been widely used by exploration companies in Canada and in other parts of the world and major orebodies have been found with their aid.

Dr. Boyle is a stimulating teacher and lecturer, the organizer of the First International Symposium on Geochemical Prospecting, and a founder of the International Association of Exploration Geochemists.

He has won an international reputation for his many contributions to our knowledge of the distribution of metals in the earth's crust, the concentration of these metals in nature as orebodies, and the successful application of geochemistry to the search for hidden ores.

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1969 - J.A. Jeletzky

The nomination of Dr. J. A. Jeletzky, Geological Survey of Canada, is made in recognition of his research on fossil mollusca. His work on fossil bivalves and cephalopods has produced important contributions to both stratigraphic geology and palaeobiology.

In the field of stratigraphic geology, his elucidation of the evolution of the bivalve genus Buchia, based principally on the study of material from British Columbia and arctic Canada, has provided a biochronological framework for the classification of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rocks. His work provides the means for accurately dating events during this time span, not only in Canada, but throughout the Arctic and North Pacific areas of the world.

From a palaeobiological standpoint, his work on fossil Coleoidea - the cephalopods with internal shells - has done much to clarify the complex evolutionary history of this group of animals.

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1967 - Robert E. Folinsbee

Dr. Robert E. Folinsbee is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Geology, University of Alberta, the university from which he graduated in 1938. In subsequent years he received both a Master of Science and a Doctorate of Philosophy from the University of Minnesota, followed by a post-doctoral year at Harvard University (1945-46) under L. C. Graton. He spent a sabbatical year in 1954-55 at the University of California, Berkeley, doing research in isotope geology and geochemistry. Dr. Folinsbee has carried on a continuous series of research programmes since his days as a graduate student, and as a result has been a prolific publisher of papers. He has now published about fifty, his earliest ones consisting mainly of mineralogical papers and of reports for the Geological Survey of Canada, his later ones reflecting his interests in the three related fields of geochronology, ore deposits, and meteorites.

Dr. Folinsbee has made important contributions to all three of these fields. The research that he did in Berkeley in 1954-55 with J. H. Reynolds and J. Lipson made three fundamental contributions to the then emerging science of geochronology: first, it gave the initial indication that micas would be the most useful minerals for potassium-argon dating; second, it yielded the first accurate K/Ar dates for the Canadian Shield; and third, it produced the first K/Ar dates for volcanic rocks (bentonites) in the sedimentary sequence, a work which shows its culmination in the volume produced by the Geological Society of London, Phanerozoic Time Scale (1964). The age dating by Dr. Folinsbee and his co-workers on the rocks of the Precambrian Shield and of the Cordillera represents an important contribution to our understanding of the problems of the timing and nature of granitic intrusions and orogenic periods. Furthermore, the early successes of Dr. Folinsbee and his colleagues in dating Precambrian rocks by the K/Ar method may have had a large influence on the decision of the Geological Survey of Canada to establish a programme of K/Ar dating for the Canadian Shield.

The second of his recent interests, meteorites, stemmed from his study of Canada's largest known meteorite, the Bruderheim, which fell near Edmonton in March 1960. The detailed studies and descriptions by Dr. Folinsbee and his associates of the fall and recovery and of the geochemistry of this meteorite have stimulated Canadian interest in meteorites, leading to the investigation and recovery of other meteorites in Canada - the Peace River and the Revelstoke - and probably to the formation of the National Research Council Associate Committee on Meteorites.

Recently Dr. Folinsbee has developed an interest in the application of his isotopic studies to ore deposits, with his first researches directed towards the sulphur and lead isotopes at the Pine Point lead-zinc deposits in the Northwest Territories. These studies give promise of significant genetic and economic importance.

This brief description of Dr. Folinsbee's principal research accomplishments gives an indication of the very important contributions he has made to the field of geology. In addition, his position as Chairman of a large and productive Department of Geology, and his reputation as an able administrator and a stimulating teacher lead us to honour him as a worthy recipient of the Willet G. Miller Medal.

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1965 - R.J.W. Douglas, FRSC

R. J. W. Douglas is a graduate of Queen's University in geology and mineralogy, where he was also awarded the Manly B. Baker Scholarship. He received his Ph.D. degree in geology from Columbia University, where he studied under Dr. Bucher, one of the great leaders of modern thought in the field of structural geology.

Dr. Douglas began his career as a geologist with the Geological Survey of Canada as a student assistant. He interrupted his geological and educational career to serve for three years as a navigator with the R.C.A.F.

Dr. Douglas has made outstanding contributions in the field of structure stratigraphy, sedimentation, and petroleum geology. His latest contribution, Geology and Petroleum Potentialities of Northern Canada, in which D. K. Norris, R. Thorsteinsson, and E. T. Tozer collaborated, is a synthesis of the known geology of northern Canada. That part on the District of Mackenzie is a culmination of work organized by Dr. Douglas and performed under his direction and with his inspiration. A series of earlier reports on this area were published between the years 1959 and 1963 by Dr. Douglas himself and with the collaboration of D. K. Norris.

As a young man Dr. Douglas made a major contribution to the understanding of the structure of the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains and Disturbed Belt. His exposition of the mechanics of bedding plane thrusts, of back-limb thrust faults and folding of the thrusts is a classic exposition of structure that forms the basis for much of the later work carried out in this part of the Rocky Mountains. This work is incorporated in Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 255, published in 1950.

Dr. Douglas's work on the stratigraphy of the Mississippian system in southern Alberta was one of the first and most important modern contributions to the knowledge of this system in western Canada. It incorporated detailed correlations of strata and a study of the lateral and vertical changes that occur within the system. Various aspects of this work were published by the Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists in 1953, by the Geological Survey of Canada, and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in 1958. His concepts of Mississippian stratigraphy have formed the basis for much of the later work done in this field.

As part of his studies of the Mississippian System he did some of the pioneer work in Canada on the detailed description and classification of carbonate rocks. This work included theories on dolomitization and development of porosity with a view to the formation of oil and gas reservoirs.

His regional mapping in the southern and central Foothills Belt of the Rocky Mountains published between the years 1948 and 1958 and the application of his theories on structure and stratigraphy formed a base for work done by industry in the search for oil and gas in the Foothills Belt. A further contribution to the development of the oil and gas industry was made in his chapters on the Eastern Cordillera and Fuels in the fourth edition of The Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada and in various papers.

In addition to his direct contributions to the science of geology he has made an even greater indirect imprint on geologic thought through his influence on succeeding generations of young geologists. To these he has acted as guide and mentor and a source of inspiration. Through them his fundamentally objective, scientific approach to geology has become a tradition in the Geological Survey, and has spread into the universities and industry.

Dr. Douglas is a Fellow and Member of many geological organizations and has served on many committees, national, international, and of the Geological Survey.

Dr. Douglas is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, of the Geological Society of America, and of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society and a member of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologists, and the National Geographic Society.

He served as Associate Editor of the Geological Society of America 1962-65; was a member of the Program Committee of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 1962-64; member of the Canadian National Committee, 6th World Petroleum Congress 1961-63; member of the Geological Survey of Canada Committees on Stable Isotopes and Age Determination, and on Library, Stratigraphic Nomenclature, and is now on the Geology Advisory Committee of the Alberta Research Council.

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1963 - Leonard G. Berry

Leonard G. Berry, the eleventh recipient of the Willet G. Miller Medal, is the third mineralogist to whom this honour has been given.

Dr. Berry received his formal education entirely in Toronto. Graduating from the University of Toronto in Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology, he was awarded the Coleman Medal in geology. This was followed by graduate work in mineralogy where he came under the influence of that brilliant mineralogist and crystallographer, the late Martin A. Peacock (FRSC).

At the same time he broadened the base of his experience and training by carrying out field studies both for the Geological Survey of Canada and for the Ontario Department of Mines. During the war years his special training qualified him well for work with Research Enterprises Limited as engineer in their optical department. After the war he left Toronto and went to Queen's, as had Willet G. Miller. There he has remained, rising to the rank of Professor and Chairman of Undergraduate Studies in the Department of Geological Sciences. In 1953 he won a Guggenheim Fellowship and was appointed Visiting Professor at the California Institute of Technology where he carried on crystallographic studies with the aid of equipment not then available in his own laboratory.

It has been remarked that university professors seldom excel in more than one of teaching, research, or administration. Some, of course, do qualify in two, but relatively few in all three. Dr. Berry is one of the few.

His teaching over a period of twenty years has been marked by his sympathetic understanding of students, and by a simplicity and clarity of expression in his lectures. This has culminated in the preparation, with Brian Mason, of an outstanding text, Mineralogy: Concepts, Descriptions, Determinations, which has received wide acclaim and adoption.

His research has dealt mainly with crystallographic studies, by X-rays, of a wide variety of minerals. These have involved in many cases the synthesis of similar, artificial crystals, research contributing to an understanding of their genesis. His most important contributions have been in unravelling the complexities of the sulpho salts of lead and silver. In this his interests followed Peacock's, and it is not surprising that, on Peacock's death, he took over the task of completing and publishing with R. M. Thompson (and the assistance and advice of R. B. Ferguson and E. W. Nuffield) an atlas of X-ray powder data for nearly 300 ore minerals, designed and initiated by Peacock as an aid in the accurate identification of such minerals. The resulting volume, compiled with meticulous care, is not only an outstanding memorial to Peacock, after whom it is named, but a lasting testimonial to the truly scientific spirit of the authors.

From Peacock, Dr. Berry also acquired training in still another field in which he has developed great skill and indeed a reputation - that of editing scientific papers. Succeeding Peacock as editor of contributions to Canadian Mineralogy (1950-55), published as a separate number of the American Mineralogist, he subsequently became editor of the Canadian Mineralogist, the publication of the Mineralogical Association of Canada. He is also associate editor for mineral data for the X-ray Powder Data File, published by the American Society for Testing Materials, and for Mineralogical Abstracts (London).

International recognition of Dr. Berry is shown by his election, first as Councillor (1957) and then as Treasurer of the International Mineralogical Association (1960-64), and by his recent election as Vice-President of the Mineralogical Society of America (1963). He has also served as Councillor and Vice-President of the Mineralogical Association of Canada.

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1961 - William H. White

Section IV wishes to honour William Harrison White, Professor of Geology at the University of British Columbia, for his outstanding contributions to Canada as a scientist and teacher of geology. In doing this we are not alone, for he was recently awarded the Barlow Memorial Medal by the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy jointly with Dr. K. C. McTaggart and Dr. R. M. Thompson for a paper on the "Geology and Gold Deposits of Highland Valley, British Columbia."

Professor White was born at Wabigoon, Ontario, but most of his life and work have been in British Columbia. He received the Bachelor's and Master's degrees in Geological Engineering from the University of British Columbia and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Toronto.

During the war years Dr. White served as an officer in the Royal Canadian Air Force in India and Burma. After the war, he worked for the British Columbia Department of Mines and published numerous papers on mining properties in Western Canada. In 1947 he joined the staff of the University of British Columbia and was promoted to full professor in 1958.

Dr. White's most outstanding contribution to western Geology was published by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in 1959. This paper, entitled "Cordilleran Tectonics in British Columbia," was read by invitation at the Edmonton meeting of this Society. In it Professor White summarized the geological history of the Canadian Cordillera and for the first time delineated the times of orogeny and subsidence over this vast area.

Dr. White has profoundly influenced the ambitions and activities of his students; vigorous leadership in organizing and running the Field School in Geology each summer has served to pass on to them his deep conviction that careful field work is a prime essential for real progress in Geology. This has sustained and enhanced the fine reputation as field geologists long established by graduates of the University of British Columbia.

Mr. President, it is a privilege for me to present Dr. William Harrison White as recipient of the Willet G. Miller Medal.

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1959 - Loris S. Russell

I am pleased to present as recipient of the Willet G. Miller Medal, Dr. Loris Shano Russell, President of Section IV.

Dr. Russell was born in Brooklyn, New York, but came to Alberta when four years old. He attended public and high schools in Calgary, and, on graduation from the University of Alberta in 1927, he won the gold medal for the highest standing in his class. He was awarded an M.A. in 1929 and a Ph.D. in 1930 by Princeton University.

Dr. Russell chose vertebrate palaeontology as his field of specialization, and he has achieved an outstanding success in this and related geological and other disciplines. An examination of his extensive bibliography shows that his interests are not restricted for he has studied rocks far older and fossils far more primitive than those normally considered appropriate to his principal specialty.

His field work and laboratory investigations have been done while holding appointments in the Research Council of Alberta, the Geological Survey of Canada, the University of Toronto, and the Royal Ontario Museum. In 1950, he joined the staff of the National Museum of Canada and was appointed its Director in 1956.

During the Second World War, he held a commission in the Canadian army and devoted much energy to the improvement of electronic communications, a field in which, as a ham of long standing, he is thoroughly qualified.

Mr. President, I am proud to present Dr. Russell, versatile and outstanding scientist, teacher, and administrator, in order that you may confer on him the Willet G. Miller Medal.

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1957 - James E. Gill

Section IV wishes to honour James Edward Gill not only for his outstanding scientific contributions to geology, but also for his many years of service as a teacher and as an exceptionally active guide and counsellor to the profession.

Dr. Gill was born in Nelson, British Columbia, and grew up during the rapid development of the mining industry in the west Kootenay District. His professional training was obtained at the University of British Columbia, at McGill, and finally at Princeton University where he was a Proctor Fellow. After three years on the Faculty of the University of Rochester, he returned to McGill, has been a leading teacher of geology there for the past twenty-nine years and is now the Dawson Professor.

In 1939 he was awarded the Barlow Memorial Prize of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, and in 1943 the Leonard Medal of the Engineering Institute of Canada.

His long list of scientific publications, by this year spanning one-third of a century, deals mainly with problems of structural geology and of mineral deposits, but includes important contributions in the fields of stratigraphy and Pleistocene geology. In the past ten years he has been a leader in the development and elucidation of the concept of the complex orogenic history and the many structural provinces of the Canadian shield. His comparison of Precambrian orogenies with the younger orogenies of the Appalachian and Cordilleran regions has been vital in the growth of modern concepts of the geological history of the Canadian shield. These contributions are to be found in the publications of the International Geological Congress, in the Transactions of this Society, in the Proceedings of the Geological Association of Canada, and in those of the Geological Society of America. While his colleagues wish to honour him particularly for these major, broad, path-finding contributions, they also wish to pay tribute to his acknowledged leadership and professional skill, both as a scientist and as a practical consultant of highest repute, in the fields of structural geology and applied mining geology. An appreciable fraction of Canada's metal production has been won as a result of his professional skill.

From its inception in 1949, J. E. Gill has been a member of the executive committee of the National Advisory Committee on Research in the Geological Sciences. He has rendered major service for many years to the Geological Society of America, lately a member of Council and Chairman of their publications and nominating committees. The scientific publications of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and of the Geological Association of Canada owe much to his voluntary labour and guidance.

Mr. President, I am honoured and pleased to present Dr. James Edward Gill as recipient of the Willet G. Miller Medal.

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1955 - John T. Wilson

The Committee for the award of the Willet G. Miller Medal have selected Dr. John Tuzo Wilson as the recipient for this year.

The terms of award are: that it is to be awarded biennially to persons resident in North America who have made an outstanding mark in the field of geology or allied sciences; and, that the recipients be in their prime - not too old to continue such original work.

Dr. Wilson graduated from Trinity College of the University of Toronto in the Physics and Geology course in 1930, winning a Massey Fellowship for study overseas, the Coleman Gold Medal in Geology, and the Governor-General's Medal for the most outstanding graduate of the year from Trinity College. After two years at Cambridge he received an M.A. and in 1936 received a Ph.D. degree from Princeton University. For this he wrote a thesis upon a geological survey of a part of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana. He took enough time off from this job to make the first ascent of Mt. Hague, Montana—elevation 12,100 feet.

In 1936 he joined the staff of the Geological Survey of Canada. In 1939, at the outbreak of war, he was granted leave of absence and was commissioned in the 1st Tunnelling Company, Royal Canadian Engineers. After spending four years overseas he returned to National Defence Headquarters as Director of Operational Research with the rank of Colonel. He was Deputy Director of Exercise Musk Ox during the winter of 1945-6 and flew as a Canadian observer on the first United States Air Force flight over the pole. He was created an officer of the Order of the British Empire and of the Legion of Merit (United States).

In 1946 he was appointed Professor of Geophysics in the Department of Physics, University of Toronto. In 1950 he went to Australia as Visiting Professor of the Australian National University obtaining a Carnegie Corporation grant to enable him to visit Africa on the way. He received the R. M. Johnston Memorial Medal of the Royal Society of Tasmania. In 1952 he made a tour of the western United States as Distinguished Lecturer for the Society of Exploration Geophysicists, and spent a short time doing field work in Peru.

Dr. Wilson's publications are numerous and varied; they comprise forty maps, reports, and papers. Most have to do with geological or geophysical matters, some are on military topics, and a few deal in a lighter vein with such subjects as travel and matters of interest in the Arctic. In the words of one of the members of the Committee, "While Dr. Wilson has contributed importantly on his own account, I think most of us have been more impressed by the stimulus he has provided to other geologists and geophysicists and his effectiveness in getting physicists to work on geological problems. In this respect he has been truly outstanding."

Mr. President, I have the honour to present Dr. John Tuzo Wilson and ask that you bestow on him the Willet G. Miller Medal.

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1953 - Clifford H. Stockwell

Dr. Stockwell, from his years as a student in 1925, has carried on research in a wide variety of geological subjects. These have included both broad studies of general application and others of intricate detail. They lie in the fields of Mineralogy, Structural Geology, Petrology, and Stratigraphy, and the results have been published in many scientific papers, reports, and memoirs.

His earliest publication, "Galena Hill, Mayo District, Yukon", written while a graduate student, set a standard for thoroughness of detail and correctness of deduction that has been notable throughout all his work. This study of an area, on which the attention of many geologists has since been focused, remains unchallenged.

Among his researches in Mineralogy his paper on "The X-ray Study of the Garnet Group", published in 1927, won him early recognition and was an important step in the understanding of the crystal structure of these minerals.

His work on "The Genesis of Pegmatites of Southwest Manitoba" published by our Society in 1933 has received acclaim by specialists in this field, and his publications on "The Chromite Deposits of the Eastern Townships, Quebec," and on "The Gold Deposits of Herb Lake Area", and "The Rice Lake-Gold Lake Area", in Manitoba, illustrate his outstanding, more general, geological studies.

In addition to these researches, Dr. Stockwell has distinguished himself in the field of exploration. In the summer of 1932, he travelled with a small party by canoe through the unexplored region north of Great Slave Lake. By this work he delineated the basic features and problems of the geology of this large part of the Precambrian Shield, and laid the foundation for the more detailed studies that have followed.

In recent years his studies have centred on Structural Geology and, in particular, on the structural controls of mineral deposits. His paper, "The Use of Plunge in the Construction of Cross Sections of Folds", published in 1950, is notable for its original approach to the problem. Recognition of his ability brought Dr. Stockwell an invitation to undertake fundamental research on the great Franklin Furnace mineral deposits, from which study he has recently returned to the staff of the Geological Survey of Canada.

Mr. President, I have the honour to present Dr. Clifford Stockwell as recipient of the Willet G. Miller Medal of our Society in recognition of his researches in the Geological Sciences.

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1951 - James E. Hawley

Dr. Hawley has brought to geology an incisive, scientific mind and an exceptional knowledge of the basic sciences of chemistry and physics. His work is notable for acute observation in the field and for interpretation of field phenomena on the basis of the fundamental laws of science. As a result, his contributions contain fresh and original ideas, many of which have opened up new channels of geological investigation. On the other hand, he has shown the fallacies of a number of geological hypotheses which cannot be substantiated by established laws of chemistry and physics.

Dr. Hawley's record is also exceptional in the diversity of the fields to which he has contributed. A large part of his work has been devoted to economic and structural geology, published in reports and papers of the Ontario and Quebec departments of mines and of scientific societies. These publications won him an invitation to describe five mineral deposits for the symposium volume Structural Geology of Canadian Ore Deposits.

He has made notable contributions, both by field investigations and by laboratory researches, to the mineralogy of such deposits as the nickel-copper ores of Sudbury, the iron ores of the Michipicoten district and Steep Rock Lake, the gold ores of Kirkland Lake and northern Quebec, and the complex ores of the Eastern Townships. He is a pioneer in the field of interpretative mineralogy; much of his research has been devoted to genetic associations of ore deposits and to investigation of conditions under which metallic minerals may be transported and deposited. His eminence in this field is reflected in his selection to contribute the chapter on the mineralogy of the Kirkland Lake ores in the report of the Ontario Department of Mines.

In a group of three of his earliest papers he made an outstanding contribution in the field of petroleum geology. Through a grant from the research fund of the American Petroleum Institute he carried through a programme of fundamental research on the generation of oil in rocks by shearing pressures. The results, published in these papers in 1929 and 1930, are classics in their field.

His keen observation and breadth of interest are further shown in two exceptional papers, one on Precambrian stratigraphy and the other on the evidences of life in the Archaean.

In addition to his own ability in research, he is an inspiring teacher imparting enthusiasm and knowledge to his fellow workers and students in this field.

As Chairman of the Department of Geological Sciences and as Miller Memorial Research Professor at Queen's University, Dr. Hawley has developed an integrated research programme which may well serve as a model for science in Canada. Through his leadership as a member of the National Advisory Committee on Research in the Geological Sciences he has done much to stimulate research on a national scale.

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1949 - Hardy V. Ellsworth

In choosing Dr. H. V. Ellsworth of the Geological Survey of Canada as the recipient of the Willet G. Miller Medal, our Society is giving fitting recognition to a leading mineral chemist and a world authority on the mineralogy and chemistry of the rare-earth and radio-active minerals. Shortly after he received the degree of Ph.D. (Toronto, 1916), with a thesis which appeared as an important memoir on the minerals of Cobalt, Ontario, Dr. Ellsworth was appointed as Mineralogist to the Geological Survey; and for over thirty years, latterly as head of the newly formed Radioactivity Laboratory, he has devoted himself to research on the minerals of Canada, more especially those complex natural compounds containing substantial amounts of tantalum, columbium, uranium, thorium, and the rare earths.

Ellsworth's contribution to mineralogy rests chiefly on his numerous detailed chemical analyses of these complex minerals—analyses requiring scientific knowledge and skill far beyond those of the average commercial analyst or chemical technician. These analyses led to an important clarification of the specific properties and systematic relations of the numerous minerals in question, and provided basic data for Ellsworth's authoritative memoir on The Rare-Element Minerals Of Canada (1932). The broad knowledge of the chemistry of the rare-element minerals acquired in this work led Ellsworth to such general results as the auto-oxidation hypothesis of uranium, and the development of better ways to calculate the age of minerals and rock-formation from the decay of radio-active minerals. His knowledge of this subject is reflected in his many years' service on the Committee on Measurement of Geologic Time of the National Research Council. With these arduous researches and an often heavy burden of official duties Ellsworth has found time to write some forty memoirs and papers on mineralogy; and now that compounds of uranium are the focus of renewed interest, his knowledge in this field is of great national importance.

I have pleasure, Mr. President, in presenting Hardy Vincent Ellsworth for the Willet G. Miller Medal of the Royal Society of Canada.

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1947 - Frank H. McLearn, FRSC

The first award of the Willet G. Miller Medal was made in 1943, to Dr. Norman L. Bowen, a petrologist. The second award was made in 1945 to Dr. Morley E. Wilson, a Pre-Cambrian geologist. For the third award the Committee has selected and Council has approved Dr. Frank H. McLearn, a paleontologist and stratigrapher. The Medal is awarded not for achievement in a single field but for eminence in the science of geology in the broadest sense.

Dr. McLearn, a graduate of Dalhousie and Yale Universities, has been associated with the Geological Survey of Canada since 1913, and is the senior invertebrate paleontologist. His early work was a study of the paleontology of the Silurian rocks of Arisaig, Nova Scotia. His main contributions have been to the stratigraphy and paleontology of Western Canada, especially the Mesozoic successions.

His many contributions to the interpretation of the complicated stratigraphy have been of direct benefit to, and have had practical application in, the development of the petroleum industry.

His many descriptions of new species of fossils and the revision of faunas, particularly of the ammonoids and pelecypods, have added much to the knowledge of Mesozoic paleontology. His many publications are of note in the fields of both pure and applied science. They will stand as the classics in Canadian Mesozoic stratigraphy and paleontology.

I have the honour, Mr. President, to present to you Frank Harris McLearn, Bachelor of Engineering, Doctor of Philosophy, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, distinguished scientist and valued public servant, for the award of the Willet G. Miller Medal.

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1945 - Morley E. Wilson FRSC

Dr. Wilson has held a conspicuous position among the geologists of Canada and Precambrian geologists of the world. He joined the Geological Survey of Canada as a permanent member of the staff in 1907, and since that time, has carried on continuous investigations in the Canadian Shield. The results of this work are recorded in an impressive list of important contributions to Canadian geology.

While his publications have been of outstanding note in the field of pure science, they have played a considerable part, as well, in guiding prospecting and encouraging mineral development. Dr. Wilson's earlier researches did much to promote prospecting in the Abitibi and Timiskaming regions, and his was the first official map to show the structural connection between the Larder Lake, Noranda, and Bell River areas. His subsequent elucidation of the geology of the Noranda district, resulting from detailed mapping and study of the principal mineral deposits, is of important economic significance as well as of great scientific merit.

His numerous articles in scientific journals have done much to familiarize the world with the problems in the Canadian Shield, and its economic possibilities. He will long be recognized as an authority on the Precambrian geology of this country.

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1943 - Norman Levi Bowen FRSC

The Willet G. Miller Medal was established last year through the generosity of Miss V.M.A. Miller and certain Fellows of Section IV, in memory of a former distinguished fellow of this Society. The medal is to be awarded, not oftener than once in two years, to persons resident in North America, who have made outstanding contributions to the science of geology. The pleasant duty has fallen to me of presenting the reasons that led the committee to recommend and the Council to approve the award of the medal to Norman Levi Bowen.

When Sir James Hall, in 1797, fused certain rocks, considered by some to be sediments, and showed that the fused material on quick cooling became a glass, but on slow cooling formed a substance exactly like the original rock, petrology passed from the realm of speculation and became an experimental science. Later the invention of the petrographic microscope made possible the accurate determination of the rock constituents; it afforded no means of tracing the processes by which igneous rocks were formed. In the early part of this century the United States Geological Survey initiated studies of the physical chemistry of the crystallization of rock-forming minerals. Later the work was taken over by a new organization, the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

At about this time Bowen was completing his undergraduate training in geology and mineralogy at Queen's University. His first published paper embodied the results of the study of a petrological problem completed during his senior year. Proceeding to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology on an 1851 scholarship, petrology became his major interest. Completion of his graduate work, part of which was done at the Geophysical Laboratory came just at the time the Laboratory needed a man with his training in geology, mineralogy, and physical chemistry, and with his background of field experience. Bowen was appointed to the staff of the Laboratory in 1912. The outbreak of the first World War interrupted his petrological studies as his services were lent by the Geophysical Laboratory to certain glass-manufacturing companies. As a result of his advice and that of his associates, the quantity of optical glass was so greatly increased and the quality so much improved that the United States became, from that time on, largely independent of importations from Europe.

Bowen was Professor of Mineralogy at Queen's University from 1918 to 1920. He then returned to the Geophysical Laboratory to continue the researches that have given him an international reputation, and have placed the petrology of the igneous rocks on a firm physical-chemical basis. In 1937 he was appointed Charles L. Hutchinson Distinguished Service Professor of Petrology at Chicago University. Now he is once again at the Geophysical Laboratory, his services having in turn been lent to that organization so that his ability and experience may once more be applied to vital problems imposed by this war.

Dr. Bowen is the author of a large number of scientific papers and of a book Evolution of the Igneous Rocks. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Geological Society of America, the Mineralogical Society of America, of which he was President in 1937, and of many European learned societies. He is an honorary member of the Indian Academy of Sciences. He is an honorary Doctor of Science of Harvard University and an honorary Doctor of Laws of Queen's University. He has received the Bigsby Medal of the Geological Society of London and the Penrose Medal of the Geological Society of America.

I have the honour, Mr. President, of presenting, as first recipient of the Willet G. Miller Medal, Doctor Norman Bowen.