The Effect of Different Isolation Tables and Developing Times on a Hologram's Range of Color.
 


 
 
 
 

Table of Contents


Abstract Purpose Hypothesis
Experimental Design Materials Procedures
Research Report Results Data Table
Graphs Conclusions Bibliography
Table Diagram

Abstract

The purpose of this experiment is to find out the effect of different isolation tables and developing times on a holograms visible range of color, which will be measured in nanometers.   One nanometer is equal to one billionth of a meter.

My hypothesis is that table “A” (carpet, innertube, plywood) will produce the holograms with the largest range of color.  I also believe that the developing time that will produce the most color will be twenty seconds.  My hypothesis is that table “A” with the developing time of twenty seconds will produce the holograms with the largest range of color.

The constants in this study are:

The manipulated variables are the isolation tables and the developing times.

My responding variable is the range of color in each hologram, which is measured in nanometers.

One of the limitations of this experiment was number of recording plates because of the cost of them.  Another is limited experience; I have only made 24 holograms in the past.

The results indicate that this hypothesis should be rejected.  My hypothesis that table “A” would produce holograms with the widest range of color is to be rejected because tables “B” and “C” created holograms with the widest ranges of color.  My hypothesis that the fifteen second developing time would produce holograms with the widest range of color is also to be rejected because the developing time that created the widest range of color was not the fifteen second developing but the five second developing.

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Purpose

The purpose of this experiment is to find out the effect of different isolation tables and developing times on a holograms visible range of color, which will be measured in nanometers.   One nanometer is equal to one billionth of a meter.

I became interested in holograms last year while watching Star Wars with my brother.  I discovered in my science project last year, that vibrations through the floor effected the hologram's color and whether the image appeared at all.  I also noticed that the color of the hologram appeared to vary in relationship to the amount of time spent in the developing solution.  I hypothesized I would need to determine which type of isolation table along with what developing time would create holograms with the widest range of color.

Society will benefit from this experiment because the federal government is studying way’s to make holographic ID and the amount of color would need to be constant.  This experiment would show the way to get the most color out of a hologram. People who design and sell holograms can benefit from this experiment because they will know which developing time and isolation table will create there desired amount of color.

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Hypothesis

My hypothesis is that table “A” (carpet, innertube, plywood) will produce the holograms with the largest range of color.  I also believe that the developing time that will produce the most color will be twenty seconds.  My hypothesis is that table “A” with the developing time of twenty seconds will produce the holograms with the largest range of color.

I base my hypothesis on the information I have read on many Internet sites that claim the bigger and sturdier the table, the better the color in the final hologram.  I base my developing time hypothesis on the instructions that I received in an E-mail, sent by the inventor of the developer, which said to let the holograms develop for twenty seconds.

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Experimental Design

The constants in this study are:

The manipulated variables are the isolation tables and the developing times.

My responding variable is the range of color in each hologram, which is measured in nanometers.

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Materials

  Hologram Materials
1  Large box big enough to contain all laser light
1 Knife switch
1 Piece of wood cut into 60.8 cm by 44.5 cm
1 White card 7cm by 7cm
1 Piece of metal pipe 20.01cm long and _cm wide
1 Metal Flange to screw pipe into
1 Small spring clip size 1.4 cm
1 Large spring clip size  2.4 cm
1 Clothes-pin
1 Green “safe light”
1 Small object. (Cat putting paw in fish bowl)
1 Laser
2 Bar magnets 1.0 cm by 1.1 cm by 4.8 cm
2 Small screws to screw knife switch into wood
2 “D” Batteries
27 Recorder plates 6.35cm (2.5 inch) by 6.35cm (2.5 inch)

Darkroom Materials
1 Measuring cup that can hold at least 800 ml of water.
1 Measuring cup that can hold at least 30 ml of water.
1 Bottle of 15 grams of Photo Flow
1 Roll of paper towels
1 Glass dish that can hold 1 liter for rinse
2 Plastic containers that hold at least .5 liters
2 Plastic containers that hold at least 1 liter
3 Plastic bottles, with air tight lids, that hold at least 1 liter
4 Grams Metol or Elon (p-methylaminophenol sulfate)
5 Grams Sodium Bisulfate, crystal
15 Grams Sodium Hydroxide
25 Grams Ascorbic Acid (powder)
30 Grams Copper Sulfate, Penthahydrate
70 Grams Sodium Carbonate, Anhydrous
100 Grams Potassium Bromide
14 Liters of distilled water (3 gallons)

   Table “A” Materials
1 Piece of carpet 40cm by 40cm
1 Inner tube 31cm to 34 cm diameter
1 Piece of plywood 40cm by 40cm and by about 1.8cm

Table “B” Materials
1 Small metal slab 21cm by 21cm by 2 cm
2 Concrete blocks 39.5 cm by 19.3 cm by 4.2cm
3 Vibration isolation damper balls

  Table “C” (control)
1 Vinyl flooring covering cement floor

Testing Color Materials
1 Piece of black paper
1 Spectrogram

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Procedures

1. Move to the area in the room that will be used as a dark room.
2. The dark room must be able to block out all light during exposures, except for the green safe light.
3. Label one liter bottle JD-4-A.
4. Label one liter bottle JD-4-B.
5. Label one liter bottle JD-4-BLEACH.
6. Warm the distilled water to 40*C.
7. Fill the bottle marked “A” with 700 ml of warm water.
8. Dissolve the Metol in it.
9. Add the Ascorbic Acid.
10. Add 300 ml of warm distilled water to make 1 liter of part “A” developer.
11. Tightly cap the bottle.
12. The solution may oxidize if exposed to oxygen.
13. Fill the bottle marked B with 700 ml of water.
14. Dissolve the Sodium Carbonate in it.
15. Add the Sodium Hydroxide.
16. Add 300 ml of distilled water to make 1 liter developer  of “B”.
17. Fill the bottle marked “BLEACH” with 700 ml of warm distilled water.
18. Mix in the Copper Sulfate.
19. Add the Potassium Bromide.
20. Add the Sodium Bisulfate.
21. Add 300 ml of distilled water to the solution to make the bleach.
22. Mix equal parts of developer “A” and “B” in a small container so that plate can be completely submerged.
23. Next to the developer tray place a large container with one liter-distilled of water in it.
24. In a small dish pour enough bleach into it to completely submerge the plate.
25. Next to the bleach, place a large dish with one liter of distilled water in it.
26. Mix 8 drops of Photo Flow with 1/4 of a liter of distilled water.
27. Make sure the correct order is developer, rinse, bleach, rinse, and Photo Flow.
28. Move to area of floor were table will be set up.
29. Place the small piece of carpet on the floor.
30. Place the 31-34 cm inner tube on the carpet.
31. Place the plywood on the inner tube.
32. Move to another area on the floor.
33. Place one of the remaining blocks on the floor.
34. Set the four isolation damper balls on the block (one in each corner).
35. Place the last block on the damper balls so that it is lined up with the bottom block.
36. Make sure the blocks are very sturdy.
37. If the top block slowly slides to the edge, place the balls farther apart until the block remains        still.
38. Place the small metal slab on one end of the top block.
39. Clear a spot on the cement floor to use as the control table.
40. Move to table “A” to begin hologram setup.
41. Place the two “D” batteries inside the “D” cell holder.
42. The black wire coming from the “D” cell holder is negative.
43. Take the negative wire and screw it under one of the screws on the Knife Switch. (Screw on the side)
44. Take the positive wire (red) and screw it under the other screw.(Screw on the side)
45. Take the negative wire (black) coming from the laser and screw it under one of the remaining screws.
46. Take the positive wire (red) coming from the laser and screw it under the opposite screw.
47. Remove the lasers lens and spring.
48. Attach a clothespin to the round part of the laser.
49. Do not point the laser at a person or animal.
50. Turn on the laser.
51. You should see a large red oval were the laser is aimed at.
52. The laser should be very wide at a certain area.
53. Turn the laser so that the widest part of the oval is horizontal.
54. Turn off the laser.
55. Take a small spring clip and attach the clothespin horizontally.
56. Put the laser/clip combination against the pipe so that the handles are on the pipe.
57. Clamp the handles to the pole with the large spring clip.
58. Use the flange as the base and stand the metal pipe upright.
59. Make sure the flange has a flat bottom so the laser will not wobble.
60. Place the magnets on the table so the long edges stick together.
61. Stand the white card between the long sides of the magnets.
62. Set the object down behind the white card.
63. Cut the black card large enough so that it will block all the laser light when the laser is turned on.
64. Turn on the laser to test the size of your black card
65. Turn off laser.
66. Position laser holder on the right hand side of the working area. (Table “A”)
67. If turned on the laser beam should be directed to the left.
68. The white card and the magnets should be parallel to the edge of the table 40cm away from the laser.
69. The white card represents the recording plate; it is used to help align the laser correctly.
70. Position the black card (shutter) between the laser and the object.
71. Turn on laser to make sure it is still blocking all the laser light from the object and white card.
72. Turn out most of the lights in the room.
73. Remove the shutter and make sure the laser is not pointed at a person or animal, but at the white card and magnet setup.
74. Turn on the laser.
75. The white card should be completely covered by the laser’s light.
76. Raise or lower the laser clip assembly so the laser light hits the exact center of the card.
77. Turn off the laser.
78. Mark the position of the setup for re-assembly later.
79. Turn the laser on.
80. The laser light should still cover the white card.
81. Turn the front of the object towards the laser.
82. Remove the white card.
83. The laser beam should illuminate the object.
84. Place the shutter (black card) between the laser and the object.
85. Make sure the shutter still blocks all the laser light.
86. Turn off the laser.
87. Make sure the batteries are still good and the setup is stable.
88. Darken the room so that the laser beam is visible when turned on.
89. Turn on the laser.
90. Remove the shutter.
91. The laser beam should still be aimed at the white card; the laser beam should completely cover the white card.
92. Position the shutter between the laser and the white card setup.
93. Make sure no laser light reaches the white card.
94. Carefully cut the tape sealing the box holding the recorder plates.
95. It needs to be easy to open in a dark room.
96. Turn off all the lights and block all light except for the green safe light.
97. Open the box of plates.
98. Find which side is the emulsion side.  (If plates come wrapped together it is the sides that are        touching) If necessary  barely touch one corner of the plate and if it is sticky it is the emulsion side.
99. Remove the white card from the setup.
100. Insert the plate into the holder with the emulsion side facing the object.
101. Wait, without movement, for one minute, to let the air settle.
102. Slowly lift the shutter so the recorder plate is illuminated with laser light.
103. Hold shutter away from the beam for 15 seconds.
104. Slowly lower the shutter to again block the light from the recorder plate.
105. Turn off the laser.
106. Put on rubber gloves.
107. Remove the plate from the holder and move it up and down in the developer.
108. Wait for 5 seconds.
109. Slowly take plate out of developer.
110. Immediately put plate in the distilled water bath and move up and down for 20 seconds.
111. Take the plate out of the bath.
112. Slowly place the plate in the bleach and move it up and down for 1 minute and 10 seconds.
113. Remove the plate form the bleach and place it in the rinse.
114. Move it up and down in the rinse for 20 seconds.
115. Remove from the rinse and place in the Photo Flow solution.
116. Hold in photo flow solution for 20 seconds.
117. Remove the plate and lean it against a wall to dry.
118. The light can now be turned on.
119. Repeat steps 97 – 117 two times.
120. Repeat steps 97 – 107.
121. Wait for 20 seconds.
122. Repeat steps 109 – 117.
123. Repeat steps 120 - 122 two times.
124. Repeat steps 97 – 107.
125. Wait for 35 seconds.
126. Repeat steps 109 – 117.
127. Repeat steps 124 - 126 twice.
128. Move to table “B”.
129. Set up hologram recording station on that table.
130. Repeat steps 66 – 127 on table “B”.
131. Move to table “C”.
132. Repeat steps 66 – 127 on table “C”.
133. Wait for holograms to dry and for a bright sunny day.
134. Cut a 6.35 cm by 6.35 cm hole in a black piece of paper.
135. Put paper in air pointing at the sun.
136. Place the hologram behind the hole so the image appears.
137. Hold the spectrogram up to recorder plate.
138. Subtract the low reading from the high reading to get the range.
139. Repeat steps 135 – 138 with all the holograms.

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Research Report

There are many false interpretations about what a hologram really is.  Many believe it is an image, that when “turned on”, appears as floating in the air.  A hologram does not float in the air but is a three dimensional image which appears to “come out of” a glass plate.  There are two types of holograms, reflective and translucent.

Aiming a laser at a holographic recorder plate with the object located behind it makes reflective holograms.  Then developing it like a photograph.  The Laser waves copy the object and send an exact copy of the image into the emoultion side of the recorder plate.  Once developed, there is an image that appears in 3-D in the recorder plate on the hardened emoultion.  Translucent holograms involve splitting laser beams and hitting the plate and the object at different angles.

Light is a form of energy and travels in waves.  These waves are different lengths.  Each Length produces a different color.  Without these length objects would all appear one color instead of all sorts of colors.

Lasers are machines that produces of shoot out very thin beams of concentrated light.  The beam is called a laser beam.  This beam is sometime strong enough to cut through metal and glass.  A laser works by sorting the light beams and “packing” them side by side so they travel in one pattern or beam.

A beam of light has lots of different “colors” in it.  Each color has its own wavelength measured in nanometers.  Red waves are the longest and violet waves are the shortest.  The other colors have lengths between the red and the violet.  When “white” light enters a prism, it separates all the colors creating a “rainbow” or spectrum, which shows all the colors.

The eye picks up color depending on which colors the object absorbs and which objects it “bounces”off.  When light hits an object the object absorbs some of the colors from the light and bounces the rest off its self.  If a red apple is looked at it appears red because the other colors of the spectrum are absorbed into the apple except for the red, which bounces off and is what is seen.
Vibrations are movements or sounds that cause an object to move.  If one jumps into the air the ground may shake when the land or something may fall off a table of counter.  In holograms, the laser can not be disturbed or the hologram may be ruined.  If someone were to shake an entire hologram setup without disturbing the laser the hologram would be fine.  It is when the laser is moved to a different area of the recording plate that the image is distorted or even ruined.

Sound Waves can cause vibrations.  Sound waves are created by an object that begins to vibrate, causing the surrounding air to vibrate creating sound waves.  Sound waves can travel through most objects and through air.  The vibrations can not be seen in many circumstances but can be heard through the sound waves.  When sound waves enter a persons ear they make the insides vibrate.   The vibrating eardrum caused a “pool” of liquid in the inner ear to vibrate.  The liquid then pressed down on a hearing nerve causing the sound to be heard.

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Results

The original purpose of this experiment was to discover which holographic table combined with what developing time creates holograms with the widest range of color.

The results of the experiment were that table “B” and table “C” had a wider range of color that table “A”.  The developing time of five seconds produced holograms with a wider range of color than the developing times of fifteen seconds and the developing time of thirtyfive seconds.  During the experiment I realized that the holograms produced on table “C” were not very clear and were hard to see.  The experiment produced the results of table “B” of table “C” at the developing time of 15 seconds will produce holograms with the widest range of color but because of my observations I suggest that table “B” is used with the developing time of five seconds so that the holograms are also clear.

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Data Table

Time  # and reading # and reading # and reading
5 "A" 1/  220 2/  270 3/  250
20 "A" 4/  160 5/  200 6/  190
35 "A" 7/  170 8/  140 9/  210
5 "B" 10/ 250 11/ 260 12/ 240
20 "B" 13/ 280 14/ 270 15/ 270
35 "B" 16/ 250 17/ 230 18/ 210
5 "C" 19/ 280 20/ 290 21/ 290
20 "C" 22/ 220 23/ 220 24/ 210
35 "C" 25/ 250 26/ 230 27/ 270

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Graphs

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Conclusions

My hypothesis was that table “A” and the developing time of twenty seconds would produce holograms with the widest range of color.
 

The results indicate that this hypothesis should be rejected.  My hypothesis that table “A” would produce holograms with the widest range of color is to be rejected because tables “B” and “C” created holograms with the widest ranges of color.  My hypothesis that the twenty second developing time would produce holograms with the widest range of color is also to be rejected because the developing time that created the widest range of color was not the twenty second developing but the five second developing.
 

Because of the results of this experiment, I wonder if the amount of time the laser sits effects the color.  I also wonder which table combined with what developing time would work best to improve clarity.  I wonder if the amount of exposure time effects the clarity and the amount of developing time needed.
 

If I were to conduct this project again I would try to make the holograms earlier and do more research before I began the actual project so that I would not be continuing my research during the project.  I would also start earlier so that I had more time to relax during the project time.  Some places of scientific error could be the time of day.  The amount of moisture in the air could have effected the holograms along with the amount of dust which I did try to control.  Another source might have been the number of plates, but because of costs, I was not able to use more that three per developing time per table.

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Bibliography

Lasers. Images SI inc. 30 Nov. <http://www.imagesco.com/articles/holography/HowToShootHolograms03.html>.

Morton, J. L., Color Matters-vision  http://www.colormatters.com/seecolor.html

Funk and Wagnalls Charlie Brown’s ‘Cyclopedia, Science Can Be Super  vol. 8.

Funk and Wagnalls Charlie Brown’s ‘Cyclopedia, Electricity And Magnetism vol. 13.

The Optical Table. 27 Nov. 2001, <http://www.3dimagery.com/table.html>.

Simon, Hilda “The Magic of Color” Lee and Shepards books New York, 1981

Williams, A.T. Hologram (Information) Theory, Wave/Particle Duality and
Quantum Mechanics 6 Oct. 2001, 30 Nov. 2001 <http://www.cox-internet.com/hermital/holoprt4.htm >.

Diagram

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