Numerous job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave this very large occupation each year.
Opportunities should be best for applicants with extensive knowledge of software applications.
Increasing office automation and organizational restructuring will lead to slower than average growth in overall employment of secretaries and administrative assistants, but average growth is projected for legal and medical secretaries.
As the reliance on technology continues to expand in offices, the role of the office
professional has greatly evolved. Office automation and organizational restructuring have
led secretaries and administrative assistants to assume responsibilities once reserved for
managerial and professional staff. Many secretaries and administrative assistants now provide
training and orientation for new staff, conduct research on the Internet, and operate and
troubleshoot new office technologies. In spite of these changes, however, the core
responsibilities for secretaries and administrative assistants have remained much the same:
Performing and coordinating an officeís administrative activities and storing, retrieving,
and integrating information for dissemination to staff and clients.
Secretaries and administrative assistants are responsible for a variety of administrative
and clerical duties necessary to run an organization efficiently. They serve as information
and communication managers for an office; plan and schedule meetings and appointments;
organize and maintain paper and electronic files; manage projects; conduct research; and
disseminate information by using the telephone, mail services, Web sites, and e-mail. They
also may handle travel and guest arrangements.
Secretaries and administrative assistants are aided in these tasks by a variety of office
equipment, such as fax machines, photocopiers, scanners, and videoconferencing and telephone
systems. In addition, secretaries and administrative assistants often use computers to do
tasks previously handled by managers and professionals: create spreadsheets; compose
correspondence; manage databases; and create presentations, reports, and documents using
desktop publishing software and digital graphics. They also may negotiate with vendors,
maintain and examine leased equipment, purchase supplies, manage areas such as stockrooms
or corporate libraries, and retrieve data from various sources. At the same time, managers
and professionals have assumed many tasks traditionally assigned to secretaries and
administrative assistants, such as keyboarding and answering the telephone. Because
secretaries and administrative assistants often are not responsible for dictation and
word processing, they have time to support more members of the executive staff. In a
number of organizations, secretaries and administrative assistants work in teams to work flexibly and share their expertise.
Specific job duties vary with experience and titles. Executive secretaries and
administrative assistants, for example, may perform fewer clerical tasks than do secretaries.
In addition to arranging conference calls and scheduling meetings, they may handle more complex
responsibilities such as conducting research, preparing statistical reports, training employees,
and hiring and supervising other clerical staff.
Some secretaries and administrative assistants, such as legal and medical secretaries,
perform highly specialized work requiring knowledge of technical terminology and procedures.
For instance, legal secretaries prepare correspondence and legal papers such as summonses,
complaints, motions, responses, and subpoenas under the supervision of an attorney or a paralegal.
They also may review legal journals and assist with legal researchfor example, by verifying
quotes and citations in legal briefs. Medical secretaries transcribe dictation,
prepare correspondence, and assist physicians or medical scientists with reports, speeches, articles, and conference proceedings. They
also record simple medical histories, arrange for patients to be hospitalized, and order supplies. Most medical secretaries need to
be familiar with insurance rules, billing practices, and hospital or laboratory procedures. Other technical secretaries who assist
engineers or scientists may prepare correspondence, maintain their organizationís technical library, and gather and edit materials for scientific papers.
Secretaries and administrative assistants usually work in schools, hospitals, corporate settings, government agencies, or legal and medical offices. Their jobs often involve sitting for long periods. If they spend a lot of time keyboarding, particularly at a computer monitor, they may encounter problems of eyestrain, stress, and repetitive motion ailments such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
Office work can lend itself to alternative or flexible working arrangements, such as part-time work or telecommutingespecially if the job requires extensive computer use. About 19 percent of secretaries work part time and many others work in temporary positions. A few participate in job-sharing arrangements, in which two people divide responsibility for a single job. The majority of secretaries and administrative assistants, however, are full-time employees who work a standard 40-hour week.
High school graduates who have basic office skills may qualify for entry-level secretarial positions. However, employers increasingly require extensive knowledge of software applications, such as word processing, spreadsheets, and database management.
Secretaries and administrative assistants should be proficient in keyboarding and good at spelling, punctuation, grammar, and oral communication. Employers also look for good customer service and interpersonal skills because secretaries and administrative assistants must be tactful in their dealings with people. Discretion, good judgment, organizational or management ability, initiative, and the ability to work independently are especially important for higher level administrative positions.
As office automation continues to evolve, retraining and continuing education will remain integral parts of secretarial jobs. Changes in the office environment have increased the demand for secretaries and administrative assistants who are adaptable and versatile.
Secretaries and administrative assistants may have to attend classes or participate in online education to learn how to operate new office technologies, such as information storage systems, scanners, the Internet, or new updated software packages. They also may assist in selecting and maintaining office equipment.
Secretaries and administrative assistants acquire skills in various ways. Training ranges from high school vocational education programs that teach office skills and keyboarding to 1- and 2-year programs in office administration offered by business schools, vocational-technical institutes, and community colleges. Many temporary placement agencies also provide formal training in computer and office skills. However, many skills tend to be acquired through on-the-job instruction by other employees or by equipment and software vendors. Specialized training programs are available for students planning to become medical or legal secretaries or administrative technology specialists. Bachelorís degrees and professional certifications are becoming increasingly important as business continues to become more global.
Testing and certification for proficiency in entry-level office skills is available through organizations such as the International Association of Administrative Professionals; National Association of Legal Secretaries (NALS), Inc.; and Legal Secretaries International, Inc. As secretaries and administrative assistants gain experience, they can earn several different designations. Prominent designations include the Certified Professional Secretary (CPS) and the Certified Administrative Professional (CAP), which can be earned by meeting certain experience or educational requirements and passing an examination. Similarly, those with 1 year of experience in the legal field, or who have concluded an approved training course and who want to be certified as a legal support professional, can acquire the Accredited Legal Secretary (ALS) designation through a testing process administered by NALS. NALS offers two additional designations: Professional Legal Secretary (PLS), considered an advanced certification for legal support professionals, and a designation for proficiency as a paralegal. Legal Secretaries International confers the Certified Legal Secretary Specialist (CLSS) designation in areas such as intellectual property, criminal law, civil litigation, probate, and business law to those who have 5 years of legal experience and pass an examination. In some instances, certain requirements may be waived.
Secretaries and administrative assistants generally advance by being promoted to other administrative positions with more responsibilities. Qualified administrative assistants who broaden their knowledge of a companyís operations and enhance their skills may be promoted to senior or executive secretary or administrative assistant, clerical supervisor, or office manager. Secretaries with word processing or data entry experience can advance to jobs as word processing or data entry trainers, supervisors, or managers within their own firms or in a secretarial, word processing, or data entry service bureau. Secretarial and administrative support experience also can lead to jobs such as instructor or sales representative with manufacturers of software or computer equipment. With additional training, many legal secretaries become paralegals.
Secretaries and administrative assistants held about 4.1 million jobs in 2004, ranking among the largest occupations in the U.S. economy. The following tabulation shows the distribution of employment by secretarial specialty:
Secretaries, except legal, medical, and executive
Executive secretaries and administrative assistants
Secretaries and administrative assistants are employed in organizations of every type. Around 9 out of 10 secretaries and administrative assistants are employed in service providing industries, ranging from education and health care to government and retail trade. Most of the rest work for firms engaged in manufacturing or construction.
Overall employment of secretaries and administrative assistants is expected to grow more slowly than average for all occupations over the 2004-14 period. In addition to those resulting from growth, numerous job openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave this very large occupation for other reasons each year. Opportunities should be best for applicants with extensive knowledge of software applications, particularly experienced secretaries and administrative assistants.
Projected employment of secretaries and administrative assistants varies by occupational specialty. Employment growth in the health care and social assistance and legal services industries should lead to average growth for medical and legal secretaries. Employment of executive secretaries and administrative assistants is projected to grow average for all occupations. Growing industriessuch as administrative and support services; health care and social assistance; educational services (private); and professional, scientific, and technical serviceswill continue to generate most new job opportunities. A decline in employment is expected for secretaries, except legal, medical, or executive; they account for about 47 percent of all secretaries and administrative assistants.
Increasing office automation and organizational restructuring will continue to make secretaries and administrative assistants more productive in coming years. Computers, e-mail, scanners, and voice message systems will allow secretaries and administrative assistants to accomplish more in the same amount of time. The use of automated equipment also is changing the distribution of work in many offices. In some cases, such traditional secretarial duties as keyboarding, filing, photocopying, and bookkeeping are being assigned to workers in other units or departments. Professionals and managers increasingly do their own word processing and data entry and handle much of their own correspondence rather than submit the work to secretaries and other support staff. Also, in some law and medical offices, paralegals and medical assistants are assuming some tasks formerly done by secretaries. As other workers assume more of these duties, there is a trend in many offices for professionals and managers to replace the traditional arrangement of one secretary per manager with secretaries and administrative assistants who support the work of systems, departments, or units. This approach often means that secretaries and administrative assistants assume added responsibilities and are seen as valuable members of a team, but it also contributes to the projected decline in the overall number of secretarial and administrative assistant positions.
Developments in office technology are certain to continue, and they will bring about further changes in the work of secretaries and administrative assistants. However, many secretarial and administrative duties are of a personal, interactive nature and, therefore, not easily automated. Responsibilities such as planning conferences, working with clients, and instructing staff require tact and communication skills. Because technology cannot substitute for these personal skills, secretaries and administrative assistants will continue to play a key role in most organizations.
Median annual earnings of executive secretaries and administrative assistants were $34,970 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $28,500 and $43,430. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $23,810, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $53,460. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of executive secretaries and administrative assistants in May 2004 were:
Management of companies and enterprises
Colleges, universities, and professional schools
Median annual earnings of legal secretaries were $36,720 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $29,070 and $46,390. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $23,270, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $56,590. Medical secretaries earned a median annual salary of $26,540 in May 2004. The middle 50 percent earned between $21,980 and $32,690. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $19,140, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $39,140. Median annual earnings of secretaries, except legal, medical, and executive, were $26,110 in May 2004.
Salaries vary a great deal, however, reflecting differences in skill, experience, and level of responsibility. Certification in this field usually is rewarded by a higher salary.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition,
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, on the Internet at
(visited January 13, 2007).