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What is Naturopathic Medicine?

History
Training (Is a ND really a doctor?)
Philosophy
What can an naturopathic doctor (ND) do for you?
Buyer beware
How to find a Naturopathic Doctor

A Brief History of Naturopathy

The predecessor of naturopathy may have been the great Jewish philosopher Maimonides (1135-1204) who, in contrast to many of his medical colleagues, downplayed the importance of drugs and surgery and argued that diet, exercise, and mental outlook were the keys to vibrant health. A court physician to the royal family in Cairo, Egypt, his book Preservation of Youth, espoused completely natural methods. Written for a dissolute young prince who suffered everything from depression to indigestion he warned, “overeating is like a deadly poison to any constitution and the principle cause of all diseases.”  The German Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland (1762-1836), who served as royal physician to the King of Prussia, is regarded as one of the founders of holistic medicine. A prolific author and proponent of “Nature Cure,” which consisted of hydrotherapy (cleansing the colon with a water flush), air and light baths, vegetarian diet and herbal remedies, Hufeland was also a great fan of mineral springs and “Water Cure” (popularized by Sebastian Kneipp). His most successful written work, The Art of Prolonging Human Life (1796), became one the most widely read books on preventive medicine and was the first natural health best-seller. Hufeland coined the phrase “macrobiotics,” later adopted by George Oshawa, an admirer of Hufeland and founder of the modern macrobiotic movement. Hufeland was deeply influenced by the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), whose ideology fueled the philosophy of naturism and the nature cure movement, which became popular throughout Europe and was characterized by three essential elements:

1.      A strongly emotional attitude towards nature, defined as naturism

2.      A theory of health, disease treatment and cure (known as nature cure or naturopathy)

3.      A preference for certain treatment methods which are considered natural (such as the application of water, air, movement, diet etc.)

Naturopathy On The Rise

Naturopathy, which combined nature cure with homeopathy, massage, spinal manipulation, and therapeutic electricity, was developed in America largely through the work of Benedict Lust (pronounced loost; 1872-1945). From 1900-1938, naturopathic medicine flourished in America. Interest then declined, due to the emergence of “miracle medicine,” surgical advances during WWII, and the growing political sophistication of the American Medical Association (AMA). Chiropractic and naturopathy were taught together until about 1955 when the National Chiropractic Association stopped granting accreditation to schools that also taught naturopathy. In 1956, doctors founded the National College of Naturopathic Medicine in an attempt to keep the profession alive. Dr. John Bastyr, considered the father of naturopathy, served as executive director. A chiropractor, naturopath and obstetrician, he began his practice in Seattle in the depths of the Great Depression; Bastyr was so revered as a physician and teacher that the Naturopathic College in Seattle was named in his honor. The key to Bastyr’s legendary clinical successes lay in his basic philosophy. In a 1985 interview, asked to distinguish between naturopathy and conventional medicine, he said, “The basic difference is that in naturopathy it’s not the doctor who does the curing, it’s the patient.”

That idea appealed to many Americans in the 1970’s, when the public’s growing awareness of the importance of nutrition and the environment, along with disenchantment with organized institutional medicine brought new waves of students to Naturopathy.

 

Is A Naturopath Really A Doctor?

Yes, Naturopathic medicine is a distinct profession of primary health care, emphasizing prevention, treatment and the promotion of optimal health through the use of therapeutic methods and modalities, which encourage the self-healing process, the vis medicatrix naturae. The scope of practice includes all aspects of family and primary care, from pediatrics to geriatrics, and all natural medicine modalities. 

Prerequisite Coursework for Admittance into Naturopathic School in addition to a bachelor's degree:

College-level algebra or precalculus: 1 course

Chemistry (science-major level): at least 4 courses. Must include a minimum of 2 sequential courses in organic chemistry. The standard prerequisite for science-major level organic chemistry is one year of general chemistry. Appropriate lab work required.

General Biology (science-major level): 2 semesters or 3 quarters. Must cover concepts in cellular biology and genetics. Appropriate lab work required. Individual courses in the biological sciences may count if the above competencies are met, i.e., zoology, microbiology, botany.

Physics: at least 1 college-level course. Many institutions do not cover all required concepts in one course; required concepts include mechanics, optics, electricity and magnetism. Course may be algebra-based, and lab is not required. 

Psychology: 2 courses. Introduction to psychology and developmental psychology through the life span are the recommended sequence.

The first two years of naturopathic school are very similar to conventional medical school, requiring anatomy, physiology, pathology, biochemistry, neurology, radiology, minor surgery, microbiology, obstetrics, immunology, gynecology, pharmacology, pediatrics, dermatology, clinical laboratory and physical diagnosis, among other courses. The second two years focus on clinical skills and a wide range of natural therapeutics. NDs receive training in naturopathic therapeutics such as botanical medicine, homeopathy, natural childbirth, Chinese medicine, physiotherapy, and clinical nutrition. Because coursework in natural therapeutics is added to a standard medical curriculum, naturopathic doctors receive significantly more hours of classroom education in these areas than do graduates of many leading medical schools. Students also complete a clinical internship consisting of 1,500 hours treating patients under the supervision of licensed naturopathic and conventional medical physicians in an outpatient setting. Two-year, post doctorate residencies are available to qualified graduates.

The U.S. Department of Labor defines the naturopathic physician as one who "diagnoses, treats, and cares for patients, using a system of practice that bases its treatment of all physiological functions and abnormal conditions on natural laws governing the body, utilizes physiological, psychological and mechanical methods, such as air, water, heat, earth, phytotherapy (treatment by use of plants), electrotherapy, physiotherapy, minor or orificial surgery, mechanotherapy, naturopathic corrections and manipulation, and all natural methods or modalities, together with natural medicines, natural processed foods, herbs, and natural remedies. Excludes major surgery, therapeutic use of x-ray and radium, and use of drugs, except those assimilable substances containing elements or compounds which are compounds of body tissues and are physiologically compatible to body processes for maintenance of life."

 

 

Buyer beware:

Unfortunately, there is currently a situation causing much confusion for lawmakers and patients. Some well-meaning individuals have attained the title naturopath through less than exemplary means and now call themselves “traditional naturopaths.” They may use the legitimate letters NMD (naturopathic medical doctor) or ND after their name just like a "real" naturopathic doctor.  A "traditional naturopath" is the self-chosen title of someone who is self-educated or has done coursework at home using a correspondence school. While these individuals may give good advice, they have not undergone rigorous study in the basic and clinical sciences, or completed a clinical internship. This difference can be confusing for consumers seeking naturopathic health care. 

This situation is professionally embarrassing but we feel that the public is better served through full disclosure. A naturopathic physician should be distinguished from a "traditional naturopath" through licensing. When states license naturopathic doctors, they require practitioners to have graduated from an accredited program and to have completed all appropriate tests and clinical training. Without licensure, anyone can claim to be a naturopath and practice with nothing more than a mail-order degree. There is a clear need to differentiate these people from those physician-level natural medicine practitioners who are trained in primary care.

It is important that the prospective patient verify that the naturopath in question went to a four-year accredited naturopathic medical school and holds a license in at least one of the licensed states listed below.

The licensed states are:

Alaska
Arizona
Connecticut
Hawaii
Kansas
Maine
Montana
New Hampshire
Oregon
Utah
Vermont
Washington
US Territories: Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands

A total of 12 states license naturopathic physicians. All states and provinces with licensure laws require a resident course of at least four years and 4,100 hours of study from a college or university recognized by the state examining board. To qualify for a license, the applicant must pass the naturopathic physicians licensing examinations (NPLEX) which includes basic sciences, diagnostic and therapeutic subjects and clinical sciences. The scope of practice will vary from state to state depending on licensure status. Read how to find a naturopathic doctor below.

What can an ND do for you?

Naturopathic physicians practice as primary care providers and make conventional diagnoses using standard diagnostic procedures such as physical examinations, laboratory tests and radiology. Naturopathic physicians meet public health requirements and work with a referral network of specialists, just like a family practice MD.  Naturopathic doctors often treat medical conditions that are difficult to treat by conventional medicine with success. Patients commonly seek an ND for treatment of allergies, fatigue, high blood pressure, digestive problems, insomnia, depression, chronic pain, arthritis, and headache. In addition, many people seek naturopathic care for the co-management of diseases like cancer and HIV. 

Like your MD or DO, an ND will often use a physical exam and laboratory procedures to diagnose.  Nutritional status, metabolic function, and toxic load are also often used to aid diagnoses.  Time is spent assessing the patient's mental, emotional, social, and spiritual status as well. Non-invasive therapies such as lifestyle modification, behavior modification, and relaxation techniques are a routine part of a naturopathic doctor’s treatment plan. Other therapies naturopaths may use include spinal manipulation, massage therapy, therapeutic nutrition, botanical medicine, detoxification, physiotherapy, exercise therapy, homeopathy, acupuncture, and psychological counseling. In some licensed states, naturopathic physicians may also perform outpatient minor surgery, give vaccinations, and administer selected prescription drugs.  Like other well-trained physicians, NDs know when referral for specialized diagnostics or therapeutics is necessary.

 

How to find an Naturopathic Doctor

Read the section above called "Buyer Beware", then go to http://www.naturopathic.org and click on the find an ND button.
OR
To find an ND in Colorado you can go to the Colorado Association of Naturopathic Physicians (CANP) website at www.coanp.org.

 

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