ECHELON Research Resources

Be sure to read my report, ECHELON: America's Secret Global Surveillance Network delivered to all members of Congress in November 1998. (Published in hard copy by the Free Congress Foundation)

Note: I'm not responsible for broken links. If there's something I've missed, email me with the appropriate information and links. Also, while this site is comprehensive, it is by no means exhaustive. I'll update it as time permits. (Last updated May 29, 2000)

News Articles
Serialized News Coverage
Official and Unofficial SIGINT agency web sites
Relevant Books
European Parliament STOA Reports
Governmental/European Parliament Debate
Non-English News Articles
Additional News Articles (that couldn't fit into the table below)

Be sure to visit these other ECHELON related sites:
Duncan Campbell
John Young's Cryptome site (for daily updates)
Javier Bernal's ECHELON Info Page
Yahoo! ECHELON Listings Civil Liberties ECHELON page
Paul Wolf's ECHELON links

News Articles
The New Observer (May 29, 2000) Jens Wilkinson Japan and Project ECHELON
Washington Post (May 29, 2000) Vernon Loeb Congress Critiques Intelligence
Telepolis (May 26, 2000) Christiane Schulzki Haddouti (English version at Cryptome) More Secret Surveillance: German Parliament Reservation Satisfied (Deutsch)
Space Daily (May 23, 2000)  US Helps Taiwan Build Spy Station
MSNBC (May 7, 2000) Robert Windrem US Steps up Commercial Spying
The Phoenix (May 5, 2000) at Cryptome Irish Join Global Spy Network
Sunday Times (April 30, 2000) Nicholas Rufford MI5 Builds New Center to Read Emails On the Net
The Economist (April 2000) Those Perfidious Anglo Spies
Telepolis (April 28, 2000) Christiane Schulzki Haddouti (at Cryptome) CIA and NSA on ECHELON
Cryptome (April 27, 2000) Microsoft and Duncan Campbell on NSA_KEY in Microsoft Windows (email exchange)
MSNBC (April 14, 2000) Robert Windrem U.S. Spying Pays off for Business
Wall Street Journal (April 13, 2000) Neil King (at Cryptome) US Security Agency Defends Eavesdrop Use
CNN (April 12, 2000) High-tech Spy Satellites Not Targeting Americans, CIA, NSA Directors Say
The Register/UK (April 12, 2000) Graham Lea Gates, Gerstner Helped NSA Snoop
US Congressman Bob Barr (April 12, 2000) Remarks at hearing on "The Legal Authorities of the National Security Agency
Telepolis (April 11, 2000) Jelle van Buuren ECHELON in Holland
Telepolis (April 11, 2000) Nicky Hager Researching ECHELON
London Guardian (April 8, 2000) Ian Black Britain to EU: Drop ECHELON Debate
WorldNetDaily (April 9, 2000) Charles Smith ECHELON: The Information Vacuum Cleaner (March 31, 2000) David Ruppe Air Force agency does not admit to spying on Red Cross
The Guardian (March 31, 2000) Ian Black Britain accused of aiding industrial espionage by US
Ekstra Bladet (March 31, 2000) Bo Elkjaer and Kenan Seeburg (English version at Cryptome) German Spies: ECHELON exists (Danish version)
Financial Times (March 31, 2000) Deborah Hargreaves EU to examine industrial espionage claims
Telepolis (March 30, 2000) Jelle van Buuren European Commission makes blurry statement on ECHELON
Wall Street Journal Europe (March 30, 2000) Kenneth Neil Cukier Spies like us (last story on page at Cryptome)
Le Monde (March 29, 2000) Jacques Isnard La sainte alliance de l'espionnage (English version at Cryptome)
The Scotsman (March 29, 2000) Alex Blair Ex-head of CIA says spying on Europe justified
Telepolis (March 29, 2000) Jelle van Buuren European Parliament: Inquiry on ECHELON
Reuters (March 27, 2000) Yves Clarisse EU Assembly set to launch "spy" system inquiry
CIA Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000 unclassified edition) L. Britt Snider (at Cryptome) Recollections from the Church Committee's Investigation of NSA
Ekstra Bladet (March 8, 2000) Bo Elkjaer and Kenan Seeberg (English version at Cryptome) ECHELON Singles Out the Red Cross
Security Focus (March 20, 2000) Kevin Pousen ECHELON Reporter answers Ex-CIA Chief
Ottawa Citizen (March 13, 2000) David Pugliese Secret Military Eye in the Sky
Telepolis (March 12, 2000) Duncan Campbell Former CIA Director Says US Economic Spying Targets "European Bribery"
BBC (March 8, 2000) Jenny Matthews Big Brother Delves into Your Mailbox
Foreign Press Center Briefing (March 7, 2000) (at Cryptome) Former CIA Director Woolsey Delivers Remarks
The Statesman (March 6, 2000) (at Cryptome) RSS Gears Up to Oppose Sankhya Vahini Venture
EWTN (March 1, 2000) ECHELON Spying on John Paul II?
CNN/Reuters (March 1, 2000) CIA Chief Says US Doesn't Spy for Firms
EtherZone (March 1, 2000) Diane Alden Spies, Lies, ECHELON, Economics and People
CNN (February 29, 2000) David Ensor Spy Agency Tells Congress It Is Breaking No Law
South China Morning Post (February 28, 2000) Global Spy Ring Monitored Pontiff, Princess Diana
UPI (February 28, 2000) Pamela Hess Officials: Spy Agency Carefully Controlled
60 Minutes (February 27, 2000) Steve Kroft Transcript (at Cryptome)
London Times (February 27, 2000) Nick Fielding and Duncan Campbell Spy Agencies Listened in on Diana

WIRED News (February 25, 2000) Steve Kettmann France Agog, Aghast Over ECHELON
BBC (February 24, 2000)  Thatcher 'Spied on Ministers'
CBSNews (February 24, 2000) Ex-Snoop Confirms ECHELON Network
Seattle Times (February 25, 2000)  Does Secret Network Aid Firms?
Duncan Campbell (February 25, 2000) (at Cryptome) Making history: the original source for the 1988 first Echelon report steps forward (February 25, 2000) David Ruppe US May Pass Spy Info to Firms
WIRED News (February 25, 2000) Steve Kettmann France Agog, Aghast Over Echelon
Reuters (February 24, 2000) Thatcher linked to spy order on ministers
Reuters (February 24, 2000) Ex-agent says Echelon linked to Thatcher spy order (February 24, 2000) British Lawmaker Suggests Agenda Behind US Spying Row
New York Times  (February 24, 2000) Elizabeth Becker Long History of Intercepting Key Words
New York Times (February 24, 2000) Suzanne Daley An Electronic Spy Scare is Alarming Europe
LA Times (February 24, 2000) John-Thor Dahlburg and Bob Drogin Europe Angered by Claims of U.S. Spying
Washington Post (February 24, 2000) Charles Trueheart Europeans Decry US Electronic Intercepts
Associated Press (Febraury 24, 2000) Constant Brand (on CBSNews site) Europeans Shocked Over Spy Charge
London Express (February 23, 2000) Nic Fleming and Jack Gee  How US spies opened Windows on the world
BBC (February 23, 2000)  US Spy System Under Attack
BBC (February 23, 2000) France Accuses US of Spying
Reuters (February 23, 2000) Euros Seek ECHELON Probe
CNS (February 22, 2000) Patrick Goodenough NSA Spying Probed by European Parliament
London Telegraph (February 22, 2000) Ambrose Evans-Pritchard Brussels to check US-British 'trade spy network'
The Age/Australia (February 19, 2000) AFP US secret agents work at Microsoft: French intelligence
National Post/Canada (February 19, 2000) Peter Goodspeed The new space invaders
CNS (February 17, 2000) Patrick Goodenough NSA Spy Network Violates Civil Liberties, Says British Lawmaker
CNS (February 16, 2000) Patrick Goodenough EU Lawmakers Wonder, Did US Abuse Global Spy Network?
Times of India (February 15, 2000)  US-led spy web used to swing business deals 
US News and World Report (Febuary 14, 2000) Warren P. Strobel Elite Snooper NSA Faces an Uncertain Future
London Telegraph (February 13, 2000) Philip Sherwell and David Wastell Britain's spy posts accused of listening in on business
London Times (February 10, 2000) Adam Sage French to sue US and Britain over network of spies
CBN News (February 10, 2000) Erin Zimmerman and Dale Hurd I Spy Trouble
CBN News (February 9, 2000) Erin Zimmerman and Dale Hurd Big Brother May Be Spying on You
London Telegraph (February 3, 2000) Annamarie Cumiskey US spies 'meddle in EU business'
Helsingin Sanomat (January 29, 2000) (English tranlation at Cryptome) USA Spys Economic Information of EU-Countries
Le Soir (January 27, 2000) Alain Lallemand (English version at Cryptome) London Helps Washington Spy on Europe
WIRED News (January 26, 2000) Chris Oakes ECHELON 'Proof' Discovered
Sunday London Times (January 23, 2000) James Clark French spies listen in to British calls
WIRED News (December 13, 1999) Declan McCullagh Spies Left Out in the Cold
NewsMax.Com (December 6, 1999) PRNewswire NSA to Help FBI Track American 'Criminals'
WIRED News (December 6, 1999)  EPIC Sues NSA Over ECHELON
New York Times (December 4, 1999) Jeri Clausing Privacy Group Sues for US Files on Spying
The Register (November 27, 1999) Thomas Greene ECHELON, NSA spooks face Congress scrutiny (November 22, 1999) Barbara Starr Left, Right Join Forces Over NSA
WIRED News (November 17, 1999) Chris Oakes ACLU To Spy on ECHELON (November 5, 1999) Gerald Hibbs Big Brother on Sterioids
WIRED News (November 3, 1999) Chris Oakes ECHELON 'Confirmation': Not
WIRED News (November 3, 1999) BBC: ECHELON Exists
BBC (November 2, 1999) Andrew Bomford Global Spy Network Revealed
WIRED News (September 4, 1999) James Glave Debate Flares Over MicroSoft 'Spy Key'
WIRED News (September 3, 1999) Steve Kettmann and James Glave  MS Denies Windows 'Spy Key'
LA Times (August 4, 1999) Simon Davies (at Europe Blows Whistle on That Great Eavesdropper, the NSA (July 27, 1999) David Ruppe House Looks at Spy Agency's Eavesdropping (July 16, 1999) David Ruppe Europeans Suspect US is Eavesdropping
TIME Digital (June 24, 1999) Greg Lindsay The Government is reading Your E-mail
WorldNetDaily (June 4, 1999) Patrick S. Poole US Spy Agency Rejects Oversight
Business Week (May 31, 1999) Otis Port (at Cryptome) They're Listening to Your Calls
New York Times (May 27, 1999) Niall McKay Lawmakers Raise Questions About International Spy Network
Nine MSN/Australia (May 23, 1999) Ross Coulthart Big Brother is Listening
The Age/Australia (May 23, 1999) Duncan Campbell Careful, They Might Hear You
Ottowa Citizen/Canada (May 22, 1999) Jim Bronskill Canada a key snooper in huge spy network
TechWeb (May 18, 1999) Madeleine Acey Report: U.S. Uses Key Escrow To Steal Secrets
New Scientist (May 15, 1999) Duncan Graham-Rowe Uncle Sam's Spies
London Telegraph (April 11, 1999) Tony Paterson US spy satellites 'raiding German firms' secrets'
WIRED News (April 7, 1999) Declan McCullagh Big Brother Taps the Bitstream
La Monde (January 21, 1999) Eric Incyan (French and English versions at Cryptome) Electronic Espionage, Priority of the Computer Security
Inter@ctive Week (November 18, 1998) Will Rodgers ECHELON: Surveying Surveillance
Federal Computer Week (November 17, 1998) DANIEL VERTON and L. SCOTT TILLETT EU May Investigate US Globqal Spy Computer Network
WorldNetDaily (November 12, 1998) Stephan Archer Push for Hearings on ECHELON
WIRED News (October 27, 1998) Niall McKay Spying on the Spies
Baltimore Sun (October 18, 1998) Neal Thompson Putting NSA Under Scrutiny
WIRED News (October 5, 1998) Niall McKay Did EU Scuttle ECHELON Debate?
WIRED News (September 30, 1998) Niall McKay Eavesdropping on Europe
Baltimore Sun (September 19, 1998) Neal Thompson NSA listening practices called European "threat"
The Age/Australia (September 12, 1998) Duncan Campbell EC Concern About US Phone Spies
WorldNetDaily (August 19, 1998) Joseph Farah The Darker Side of ECHELON
Village Voice (August 12, 1998) Jason Vest Listening In
Ottowa Citizen/Canada (August 4, 1998) Mark Kennedy DND botched drug probe at spy base, memo confirms
CNN (July 27, 1998) Ellen Messmer The Long, Strong Arm of the NSA
London Telegraph (July 16, 1998) Simon Davies EU simmers over Menwith listening post
Sunday London Times (May 31, 1998) Nicholas Rufford SPY STATION F83 
Sunday London Times (May 31, 1998) Simon Trump Cracking the Menwith codes
Tehran Times (May 13, 1998)  U.S. Spied on Amnesty, Greenpeace
Toronto Star (April 13, 1998) David Vienneau Openness Sought from Spy Agency
The Independent (April 11, 1998) John Lichfield Britain Doublespy
Sunday Business Post/Ireland (March 3, 1998) Lucille Redmond Suddenly There Came a Tapping
New York Times (Febuary 24, 1998) Bruno Giussaini European Study Paints a Chilling Portrait of Technology's Uses
Financial Mail/Canada (February 28, 1998) Bruce Livesey Economic espionage is the new niche for government spies: Trolling for secrets
Sunday Nine MSN (ND) Ross Coulthart The World's Biggest Spy Secret
BBC Despatches (December 16, 1998) Andrew Wood Big Brother is Watching
London Telegraph (December 16, 1997) Simon Davies Spies Like US
Duncan Campbell (September 4, 1997) BT condemned for listing cables to US SIGINT station
London Telegraph (August 10, 1997) Andrew Gilligan Spy base plans more 'listening golfballs'
London Telegraph (August 10, 1997) Rob Evans Is America squatting at Menwith?
The New Zealand Herald (July 21, 1997) John Armstrong Spy power boost for secret station
Ottowa Citizen/Canada (May 10, 1997) Peter Hum I Spy
Electrical Engineering Times (ND) Loring Wirbel Reporter's Notebook: Space -- intelligence technology's embattled frontier
Covert Action Quarterly (Winter 1996-1997) Nicky Hager Exposing the global surveillance system
Sydney Morning Herald (September 15, 1996) NZ spies on Pacific nations, claims author
London Telegraph (September 1, 1996) Andrew Gilligan American satellite spied on Britain
London Telegraph (September 1, 1996) Mark Urban The Magnum Force
New Statesman (August 12, 1988) Duncan Campbell Somebody's Listening

Serialized News Coverage

Nexus Magazine
by Patrick S. Poole (NOTE: While I authored these articles, these links are to an unauthorized site. I would disagree with most of the other information found on this site - PP)

La Monde Diplomatique (January 1999)
English Table of Contents
PHILIPPE RIVIÈRE, How the United States spies on us all (articles require registration)
Patrick S. Poole, Most discreet intelligence agency
Patrick S. Poole, Lifting the Veil
American spy satellites currently in use

NRC Handelsblad (Netherlands) has run an entire series of articles regarding ECHELON and the continuing EU debate, and features an index page of all their relevant ECHELON articles: (I'm not aware of any English translations of these articles - PP)
'Spionagenet Echelon luistert illegaal af' (24 februari 2000)
'Geen economisch of industrieel doelwit' (24 februari 2000)
Rapport over NSA: Internetgebruikers bespioneerd (2 juni 1999)
Debat over achterdeur in Windows ter spionage (8 september 1999)
Europees Parlement: Akkoord aftappen VS en EU (17 oktober 1998)
Europarlement keurt afluisteren door VS af (16 oktober 1998)
Ben Van Der Velden, Rapport over spionage zeer in trek (20 februari 1998)
Marie-José Klaver,  De opmars van wereldwijde controle (7 februari 1998)
De Echelon-methode (6 februari 1998)
Geschokte reacties op aftappen VS (6 februari 1998)
Marie-José Klaver, 'Geheime dienst VS luistert Europa af' (5 februari 1998)

Ekstra Bladet (Denmark) continues to publish stories regarding ECHELON by Bo Elkjaer and Kenan Seeberg. (Note: Since I don't read Danish, some of the Danish articles aren't linked. Not all Danish articles appear on the English webpage. Refer to the Table of Contents pages in both English and Danish for links to all their articles - PP)
The English versions of the EB articles first appeared on the Cryptome site:

German Spies: ECHELON Exists (March 31, 2000)
EU Demands ECHELON Investigation (March 29, 2000)
We Spied on Companies and Heads of State (March 23, 2000)
Greenpeace Singled Out as Surveillance Target (March 23, 2000)
We Listened In on Amnesty International and the EU (March 21, 2000)
Is There a Spy on the Line? (March 21, 2000)
ECHELON Singles Out the Red Cross (March 8, 2000)
Key to the Whole World (March 4, 2000)
NSA Expands its Capabilities
ECHELON Was My Baby (November 17, 1999) (Danish)
I Sold My Life to Big Brother (November 18, 1999) (Danish)
US Congressman: Investigate ECHELON (December 10, 1999) (Danish)
Your Government is Being Monitored (Danish)
Where the Spies are Listening (September 18, 1999) (Danish)
The Danish Link to the Global Spy Network (ND) (Danish)
They Spy on Ordinary People (September 18, 1999) (Danish)
Rearming Denmark (September 17, 1999) (Danish)
Minister of Defense: Many are Monitoring Us (December 9, 1999) (Danish)
Minister Admits: Denmark in Global Surveillance Ring (September 27, 1999) (Danish)
Politicians Overlooked Spy Connections (September 21, 1999) (Danish)
Ex-Agent: ECHELON Threatens Your Registers (November 26, 1999) (Danish)
ECHELON: Hitler Would Have Loved It at Cryptome (November 22, 1999) (Danish)
The Mastermind Behind the EU Surveillance Plans at Cryptome (October 5, 1999) (Danish)
Tele Danmark in a Club with ECHELON Spies at Cryptome (September 26, 1999) (Danish)

La Monde continues to run an extensive series on ECHELON. They are maintaining an index page.

La sainte alliance de l'espionnage Jacques Isnard (March 29, 2000)
Duncan Campbell, l'homme qui a sorti Echelon de l'ombre Nicolas Bourcier (February 25, 2000)
Les Etats-Unis se defendent d'utiliser le reseu d'espionnage Echelon a des fins industrielles Patrice de Beer (February 24, 2000)
L'Etat, destinataire des diffuseur Jacques Isnard (February 24, 2000)
Interrogations en France et en Belgique
Une alliance secrete entre la NSA et la CIA Jacques Isnard (February 22, 2000)
Le Royaume-Uni au coeur du dispositif en Europe Jacques Isnard (February 22, 2000)
Des documents americains confirment l'existence d'Echelon Jacques Isnard (February 22, 2000)
Comment les Etats-Unis espionnent l'Europe Laurent Zecchini (February 22, 2000)
Enercon, espionnee puis accusee de plagiat, n'installera pas ses eoliennes au TexasNicolas Bourcier (February 22, 2000)
L'espionnage s'adapte aux nouvelles technologies Michel Alberganti and Herve Morin (February 22, 2000)
La France mise sur la cryptologie pour se proteger Hugues Henique (February 22, 2000)
Comment semer la zizanie a Washington, avec un AK-47 et un peu de cocaine Jacques Isnard (November 22, 1999)
Internet: cybermanif contre les grandes oreilles Nicolas Bourcier (October 23, 1999)

Radio France Internationale, (February 25, 2000) Philippe Couve and Gilles Raillard, Echelon : les services secrets anglo-saxons se font tirer les grandes oreilles (links to several different articles)

Diane Alden has recently authored a series of articles, Spies Like Us, related to ECHELON for EtherZone.

The Black World (February 1, 2000)
Spooks and Money Talks (February 11, 2000)
S.L.E.E.P.: Spies, Lies, ECHELON, Economics and People (March 1, 2000)

Official and Unofficial SIGINT agency web sites
National Security Agency (NSA-US)
Government Security Head Quarters (GCHQ-UK) Federation of American Scientists' GCHQ site
Secret Kingdoms's GCHQ page
Communications Security Establishment (CSE-CA) Project Ploughshares' CSE site
Craig Marlatt's CSE site.
Defense Security Directorate (DSD-AU)
General Communications Security Bureau (GCSB-NZ)

Relevant Books

Mark Urban, UK Eyes Alpha: The Inside Story of British Intelligence (London: Faber and Faber, 1996).

Nicky Hager, Secret Power: New Zealandís Role in the International Spy Network, (Nelson, New Zealand: Craig Potton Publishing, 1996)

Mike Frost and Michel Graton, Spyworld: How C.S.E. Spies on Canadians and the World (Toronto:
Seal/McClelland-Bantam, 1995)

Jeffrey T. Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community (New York, Ballinger, 1989)

William Burrows, Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security (New York: Random House, 1987) Desmond Ball and Jeffrey Richelson, The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries, (Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1985)

James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America's Most Secret Intelligence Organization, (New York: Penguin Books, 1983)

European Parliament STOA Reports

Development of Surveillance Technology and Risk of Abuse of Economic Information (an
appraisal of technologies of political control)

Volume 1/5 (in pdf) (in html at Cryptome) Development of Surveillance Technology and Risk of Abuse of Economic Information

Volume 2/5 (in pdf) (in html at IPTV site) The state of the art in Communications Intelligence (COMINT) of automated processing for intelligence purposes of intercepted broadband multi-language leased or common carrier systems, and its applicability to COMINT targeting and selection, including speech recognition, by Duncan Campbell

Volume 3/5 (in pdf) (in html at Cryptome) Encryption and cryptosystems in electronic surveillance: a survey of the technology assessment issues, by Dr. Franck Leprévost

Volume 4/5 (in pdf) (in html at Cryptome) The legality of the interception of electronic communications: A concise survey of the principal legal issues and instruments under international, European and national law, by Prof. Chris Elliott

Volume 5/5 (in pdf) (in html at Cryptome) The perception of economic risks arising from the potential vulnerability of electronic commercial media to interception: Survey of opinions of experts, by Nikos Bogonikolos:

Steven Wright, An Appraisal of the Technologies of Political Control
Original Report (January 1998)

Interim Report (September 1998)

Governmental/European Parliament Debate

European Parliament, September 14, 1998 (also see these minutes with the EP resolution at Cryptome).
Switzerland, June 15, 1998
Australia, May 7, 1997
Canada, May 2, 1995

Non-English News Articles


Von Ralf E. Kruger, "ECHELON" entgeht nichts, April 29, 1998
Florian Rötzer, Technologien zur politischen Kontrolle, Telepolis, February 5, 1998
Der US-Geheimdienst hört in Europa alles mit, Die Presse online, February 9, 1998
Entwicklungen in der Überwachungstechnologie, Presseschau, March 1998
US-Geheimdienst fängt europaweit EMails ab, Heise Online,  January 9, 1998
Technologien zur politischen Kontrolle, Thema des Monats, March 1998
Edmund E. Lindau, Das Echelon-System (Stafetten-System)
Florian Rötzer, Der Große Bruder hört mit, Telepolis, February 12, 1998
Ivo Skoric, Schuldig bis zur Feststellung der Unschuld, Telepolis, February 12, 1998
Splitter, January 21, 1998

The Netherlands

Rembert Oldenboom runs his own ECHELON reference site from the Netherlands.
Digitale zakkenvullers zullen de planeet besturen, De Telegraaf, 28 februari 1998
De parlementaire controle zal me jeuken, De Groene Amsterdammer, 25 februari 1998
Aart Brouwer, Amerika luistert mee, De Groene Amsterdammer, 18 februari 1998
De aftappraktijk, De Groene Amsterdammer, 18 februari 1998 (Review of Nicky Hager's Secret Power)
US-geheime dienst onderschept in heel europa E-mails, c't, January 9, 1998


Fabrice Rousselot, Nous Sommes Tous Sur Ecoutes!, n.d.
Marco Campagna, Un système de surveillance mondial, les Cahiers de Télévision, juin 1998
Le big brother mondial: le réseau Echelon, May 16, 1998
Jean-Sébastien Marsan, Big Brother Ukusa vous espionne, Mémento, Le mercredi 8 avril 1998


Storebror hører deg, Stavanger Aftenblad, 27. april 1998
Gisle Hannemyr, Fantastiske fortellinger om teknologi, Aftenposten, 18. mars 1998
Gunnar Kagge and Lise Merete Olaussen, Amerikansk etterretning overvåker europeere, Aftenposten, 8. februar 1998


La Repubblica, Echelon, segreti e spie in Rete
Claudio Gatti, Eavesdropping on the whole world, Il Mondo, March 20 and 27, 1998 (in English)
Claudio Gatti, Licenza Di Spiare, Il Mondo, March 13, 1998 pp. 11-20
Nicky Hager, ECHELON: Sottoposti al sistema di sorveglianza globale (Italian translation of his CAQ article).


Estados Unidos reconoce la existencia de una red de espionaje electrónico en Europa, Rebelión Internacional, 7 de febrero de 1998


Investigará parlamento europeo red estadunidense de espionaje mundial, Nuestro Mundo, 23 de Abril de 1998


Vygintas Krasauskas, "Echelon": nejaugi tai - tiesa?, Naujoji Komunikacija, n.d.


AFA of Stockholm, Är vi avlyssnade?
Avslöjanden på Nya Zealand rullade upp historien, Internet Nyheter, December 17, 1997


Proini, July 1, 1998


Internet Hankyoreh, May 12, 1998


Más informacion sobre la red de espionaje "Echelon", Noticias Intercom, 9 & 16 7 de febrero de 1998


Espionagem planetária?: Silêncio do Governo não é inocente, Avante!, Nº 1274 - 30.Abril.98
Rita Hasse Ferreira, Sistema da Guerra Fria serve agora interesses economicos: O mundo sob escuta, Publico, 23 de Abril de 1998.


Carlos Alberto Teixeira, Será o Big Brother?, O Globo, March 30, 1998
Privacidade em comunicações eletrônicas é a mais pura ilusão, O Globo, March 30, 1998 (Review of Secret Power)


Helsingin Sanomat, May 11, 1998

Additional News Articles (that couldn't fit into the table above)

One News (New Zealand) (December 28, 1999) Calls for Inquiry into Spy Bases (Video Report in RM)
The New Yorker (December 6, 1999) Seymour Hersh (at Cryptome) The Intelligence Gap
CBNNews (December 14, 1999) Erin Zimmerman and Dale Hurd Surveillance Society: Exposing ECHELON
CBNNews (December 16, 1999) Erin Zimmerman and Dale Hurd Surveillance Society: A Spy's Story
Insight Magazine (December 13, 1999) Rep. Bob Barr Is the US Spy Shop Listening to Your Call?
Newsweek (December 13, 1999) Gregory Vistica and Evan Thomas Hard of Hearing
CNN (December 6, 1999) Daniel Verton NSA Spying on Americans, Lawsuit Claims
New York Times (December 5, 1999) James Risen A Top-Secret Agency Comes Under Scrutiny and May Have to Adjust
New York Post (October 21, 1999) Rod Dreher Is Big Brother Reading Your Email?
TechWeb (September 3, 1999) Duncan Campbell NSA Builds Security Access Into Windows
CNN (September 3, 1999) Crypto Expert: Microsoft Products Leave Door Open to NSA

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