Email address
Sign in | Register  
Access to Power and Decision-making
Health Care
Marriage and Family
Workplace Issues
Unique Women
Women in History
Quintessential China
What's On

Gender Statistics

Academic Papers
Women in Action

Activities / Projects

Policies and Laws


Laws and Regulations
 Beijing Time: 16:12 Wed Feb 14, 2007
women of China web
Woman General Fu Hao

March 18,2006
Change Text Size A A A

Little is known about the early life of the warrior and commander Fu Hao who lived during the later Shang Dynasty, some 3,200 years ago wife of the Shang emperor Wu Ding, all records of her, inscribed in ancient oracle bone scripture, lend historians to believe that she is one who, taking advantage of her position in that still semi-matriarchal slave society, was able to bring her talents fully into play. In her day, the emperor Wu Ding pushed the Shang empire to its zenith by extending his realm of power through the cultivation of loyal collaborators. Many local tribes came over and pledged allegiance to him. In good faith Wu Ding married one woman from each such tribe, and Fu Hao was one of those wives. Nonetheless, she has gone down in history not so much as a stateswoman and an outstanding strategist, in her own right.

Productivity in her time was low and knowledge about nature and society was restricted to religious explanations. Sacrifices were common practice, and seen as a way o appeasing the gods in the hopes of being protected and blessed with happiness. The royal family and slave owners especially relied on their religious beliefs and made a great show of it, making sacrificial ceremony the most important political activity of the day. These offerings could be made to any of a number of gods or ancestors, asking for the prevention of epidemics and natural disasters, for victory in war, and so forth. The ceremonies were presided over by such high0ranking personages as FU Hao. These ceremonies were usually held inside the ancestral temple of the rulers filled with the necessary accoutrements. Solemnly and properly dressed for the occasion, the participants, nobles and commoners alike, strictly followed the direction of the Shang court, Fu Hao was recorded to have presented sacrificial offerings to the gods. These characteristically included live animals such as oxen, or humans - normally slaves and war prisoners.

Fu Hao's presiding role at such ceremonies was deduced from the large collection of sacrificial bronze vessels unearthed in 1976 from her tomb in Xiaotun Village, in Anyang, Henan Province (the site of the Shang capital). The collection included an enormous cooking utensil bearing many inscriptions of the name Fu Hao. Among the artifacts are also tortoise shells bearing the characters “prepared by Fu Hao”, which shows that Fu Hao was also in charge of divination rites. At that time, it was the task of the diviner to prepare tortoise shells or ox shoulder blades by chiseling small indentations in them to hold granulated charcoal. During the divination ceremonies, the shells or bones were baked on a fire until they formed cracks. These cracks were then studied, and it was believed that one could foretell a future event based on the pattern so created. The process and outcome were carved on these shells or bones afterwards by the diviner. The fact that Fu Hao was a diviner points up her political status.

It can be seen from ancient historical records that the major functions of the state at that time fell into two categories: to conduct sacrificial and divination ceremonies and to do battle. The records show that Fu Hao played an important part in a series of wars during the reign of Wu Ding.

As the mere size of an army often determined the outcome of a battle, especially when fairly primitive weapons were in use, the Shang regime rulers paid much attention to recruitment, and in keeping with the spirit, Fu Hao drew soldiers form within her own country and from neighboring tribes as well. It is found in the records that Fu Hao led generals and a huge army of ten thousand soldiers in battles. The two big yue, or battle-axes, found in her tomb weighing 9 kilos each, and two smaller ones are bearing the inscription of Fu Hao, are indications of her military authority.

The Shang territories were surrounded by hostile tribes. The Tus inhabited about one thousand li north of the Shang capital and repeatedly violated the Shang borders, seizing men and materials. Shang emperors prior to Wu Ding fought them many times but could not defeat them. History tells us that they were at last forced to surrender by Fu Hao in a single decisive battle, after which they became compliant.

The Yis, to the southeast, were not very strong but sometimes also made incursions into Shang territory. Under Wu Ding's order, Fu Hao's troops defeated them easily. Her force also repulsed the attacks of the Qiangs form the



Comment on This Story Save Print Email to A Friend

Related Stories
Most Popular
An Ancient Calligrapher
China's First Woman Diplomat
Empress Zhangsun - Good Assistant for the Emperor
Sun Li: a Lucky Girl with Ready Hands
  Contact us  Sitemap  Legal Notice  FAQs  Recruitment
Registered Number: 06053682

Copyright 2006 All rights reserved. Women's Foreign Language Publications of China.
Tel: (8610)-65103550    85112107  Fax: (8610)85112107  Email: