Book Review!

Why I, Too, Am Not a Conservative
By James M. Buchanan
Fairfax, Virginia

Reviewed by
Donald J. Boudreaux, J.D., Ph.D.
Fairfax, Virginia




 

"Public Policy Leadership in the Virginia Tradition"

BOARD OF SCHOLARS

Robert B. Archibald is professor of economics at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, where he teaches macroeconomics, statistics, and behavioral economics. He received his B.A. from the University of Arizona, and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Purdue University. Prior to joining the faculty of William and Mary, Professor Archibald was a research fellow at the Brookings Institution and on the staff of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. His current research interests are in higher education finance and the evaluation of government research and development programs.

Doug Bandow is a senior fellow at the Cato Institute, a nationally syndicated columnist with Copley News Service, and former editor of Inquiry magazine. He has been widely published in such periodicals as Christianity Today, Foreign Policy, Harper’s, National Interest, National Review, New Republic, Orbis, Stewardship Journal, and World, as well as in leading newspapers including the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Mr. Bandow has written and edited several books, including Tripwire: Korea and U.S. Foreign Policy in a Changed World (Cato, 1996); Perpetuating Poverty: The World Bank, the IMF, and the Developing World (Cato, 1994); and The Politics of Plunder: Misgovernment in Washington (Transaction, 1990). He has also appeared on numerous radio and television programs, including ABC Nightly News, American Interests, CBS Evening News, CNN’s Crossfire and Larry King Live, Good Morning America, Nightline, and the Oprah Winfrey Show. Mr. Bandow formerly served as a special assistant to President Reagan and as a senior policy analyst in the Office of the President-elect and the Reagan for President campaign. He received his B.S. in economics from Florida State University in 1976 and his J.D. from Stanford University in 1979.

Atin Basuchoudhary is assistant professor of economics at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Virginia, where he teaches game theory, international economics, and principles classes. In addition to having articles published in Public Choice, Southern Economic Journal, and Research in Law and Economics, Dr. Basuchoudhary has written opinion editorials for English-language newspapers in India. Professor Basuchoudhary received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Mississippi. His current research covers a number of diverse topic areas such as the effectiveness of U.S. foreign policy, corruption and development issues, nuclear deterrence, and the role of racial profiling in national security.

James T. Bennett is an Eminent Scholar at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, and holds the William P. Snavely Chair of Political Economy and Public Policy in the department of economics. He has specialized in research related to public policy issues, the economics of government and bureaucracy, labor unions, and health charities. Dr. Bennett is founder and editor of the Journal of Labor Research and has published more than sixty articles in such professional journals as the American Economic Review, Review of Economics and Statistics, Policy Review, Public Choice, and Cato Journal. His books include The Political Economy of Federal Government Growth (1980), Better Government at Half the Price (1981), Deregulating Labor Relations (1981), Underground Government: The Off-Budget Public Sector (1983), Destroying Democracy: How Government Funds Partisan Politics (1986), Unfair Competition: The Profits of Nonprofits (1988), Health Research Charities: image and Reality (1990), Health Research Charities ii: The Politics of Fear (1991), Official Lies: How Washington Misleads Us (1992), and Unhealthy Charities: Hazardous to Your Health and Wealth (1994). He is a member of the Mont Pelerin Society and the Philadelphia Society.

Tom Bethell is a senior editor of The American Spectator. He has been Washington editor of Harper’s, and an editor of the Washington Monthly. Mr. Bethell has written articles for many magazines, including Fortune, the New York Times Magazine, and The Atlantic Monthly. He has also been a columnist for the Los Angeles Herald Examiner and today he is a columnist for Beliefnet.com. in recent years, Mr. Bethell has been a visiting media fellow at the Hoover institution, Stanford. in 1998, he published The Noblest Triumph: Property and Prosperity through the Ages (St. Martin’s Press). in a dust-jacket comment, the writer and analyst George Gilder said that Mr. Bethell “commands the most eloquent prose in American journalism. Here he addresses the most crucial enigmas of life and history – from the real reasons for the irish famine to the nature of intellectual property.” in 1988, a collection of his journalism was published under the title The Electric Windmill. Tom Wolfe wrote that the book “establishes Tom Bethell as one of our most brilliant essayists.” A graduate of Oxford University, Mr. Bethel came to the United States from England in 1962. He taught at Woodberry Forest School in Virginia and later lived in New Orleans where he wrote a book on early jazz history. it was published by the University of California Press in 1977. Mr. Bethell is married to Donna Fitzpatrick Bethell. They live in Washington, D.C.

Lillian R. BeVier is the Henry and Grace Doherty Charitable Foundation Professor of Law at the University of Virginia School of Law. From 1993 to 1996 she was the Elizabeth D. and Richard A. Merrill Research Professor. A graduate of Stanford Law School, she teaches property, torts, intellectual property (unfair competition, trademark, copyright, etc.), and constitutional law, with a specialty in the First Amendment. She has written extensively on First Amendment issues as well as on intellectual property issues. Professor BeVier is the faculty adviser to the University of Virginia School of Law chapter of the Federalist Society and has been a frequent speaker at Federalist Society gatherings at law schools throughout the country. She served on Governor Allen’s Advisory Council on Self-Determination and Federalism, is on the Board of Legal Advisors of the Center for individual Rights, and serves as a member of the Board of Directors of the Atlantic Legal Foundation. President Bush nominated her to serve as a judge on the U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals in October 1991, but Senator Biden’s Senate Judiciary Committee refused to hold hearings on her nomination, and it lapsed (along with those of approximately fifty other judicial nominations) upon the election of President Clinton.

Peter J. Boettke is deputy director of the James M. Buchanan Center for Political Economy and associate professor of economics at George Mason University. He also serves as editor of the Review of Austrian Economics (Kluwer). Dr. Boettke is the author of The Political Economy of Soviet Socialism (1990), Why Perestroika Failed (1993), and Calculation and Coordination (2001). He is the editor of The Collapse of Development Planning (1994), The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics (1994), The Legacy of F .A. Hayek: Politics, Philosophy and Economics (3 volumes, 2000), and Socialism and the Market: The Socialist Calculation Revisited (9 volumes, 2000). He is the coeditor (with David Prychitko) of The Market Process: Essays in Contemporary Austrian Economics (1994), and Market Process Theories (2 volumes, 1998). Dr. Boettke is also the editor of a new book series with Edward Elgar Publishing titled New Thinking in Political Economy. The series was started in 1998 to encourage scholarly research in the intersection of politics, philosophy, and economics. Prior to joining the faculty at George Mason University, Dr. Boettke was associate professor of economics and finance at Manhattan College (1997–98); senior research fellow, Austrian Economics Program at New York University (1997–98); assistant professor at New York University (1990–97); and assistant professor of economics at Oakland University (1988–90). in addition, he was a national fellow at the Hoover institution at Stanford University during the 1992/93 academic year and visiting scholar at the Hoover institution in July 1995. He has been a visiting professor at the Georgetown University/Charles University institute on Political and Economic Systems in Prague and at the Central European University in Prague. He has also been a visiting scholar at the Max Planck institute for Research into Economic Systems in Jena, Germany (January 1998) and at the institute for international Economic and Political Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow (January 1993). Dr. Boettke was the recipient of the 1995 Golden Dozen Award in Recognition of Excellence in Teaching by the College of Arts and Sciences at New York University. He received his Ph.D. in economics from George Mason University and his B.A. in economics from Grove City College.

Donald J. Boudreaux became chairman of the department of economics at George Mason University in August 2001. He previously served as president of the Foundation for Economic Education, a post he accepted in May 1997. From 1992 to 1997, Dr. Boudreaux was professor of law and economics at Clemson University. He also served on the economics faculty at George Mason University from 1985 through 1990. During the spring 1996 semester he was a visiting fellow in law and economics at Cornell Law School. His Ph.D., in economics, is from Auburn University and his law degree is from the University of Virginia. Dr. Boudreaux has lectured in both the United States and Europe on a wide variety of topics, including the nature of law, antitrust law and economics, and international trade. His articles have been published in the Wall Street Journal, investor’s Business Daily, Regulation, Reason, the Freeman, the American Spectator, the Washington Times, the Journal of Commerce, the Cato Journal, and several scholarly journals such as the Supreme Court Economic Review, Southern Economic Journal, Antitrust Bulletin, and the Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking.

Mark Brandly is assistant professor of economics in the department of government at Patrick Henry College in Purcellville, Virginia. He received his B.S. in mathematics from Colorado State University and his Ph.D. in economics from Auburn University. Prior to teaching at Patrick Henry College, Professor Brandly taught at Taylor University and Ball State University. He is an adjunct scholar of the Ludwig von Mises institute and a co-founder of Brandly Oilman Consultants, inc. He has published papers on public finance theory and environmental issues. His current research includes the Austrian view of tax analysis, the irreversibility of the effects of taxation, and the economics of J.B. Say.

Anthony M. Carilli is associate professor of economics at Hampden-Sydney College in Hampden-Sydney, Virginia, where he teaches Austrian economics, introductory economics, managerial economics, and econometrics. He is also an adjunct faculty member of the Graduate and Professional Studies Program at Averett College, where he teaches in the M.B.A. program. Professor Carilli received his M.A. and his Ph.D. in economics from Northeastern University in Boston. He serves on the editorial board of the Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics. Dr. Carilli is an adjunct scholar of the Beacon Hill institute for Public Policy in Boston, where he has done research on taxation and the Massachusetts economy. He has published papers on the teaching of economics, on savings and taxation, and on the effects of taxation on capital formation. His current research is on the effects of taxation on capital structure. Professor Carilli is a member of the Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, the Southern Economic Society, and the Virginia Association of Economists, where he serves as treasurer.

James W. Ceaser is professor of government and foreign affairs at the University of Virginia, where he has taught since 1976. He has also held visiting appointments at Marquette University, the University of Basel, Claremont McKenna College, the University of Bordeaux, and Harvard University. Dr. Ceaser is coauthor, with Andrew Busch, of The Perfect Tie: The True Story of the 2000 Presidential Election (2001), Losing to Win: The 1996 Elections and American Politics (1997), and Upside Down and inside Out: The 1992 Elections and American Politics (1993). He is also the author of Presidential Selection (1979), Reforming the Reforms (1984), Liberal Democracy and Political Science (1991), and Reconstructing America (1997). Professor Ceaser received his doctorate in government from Harvard University in 1976.

Lee Walter Congdon is a professor in the department of history at James Madison University, where he teaches modern European intellectual history and east central European history. With a research interest in twentieth-century European intellectual history, Dr. Congdon is the author of three books: The Young Lukács (1983), Exile and Social Thought: Hungarian intellectuals in Germany and Austria, 1919–1933 (1991), and Seeing Red: Hungarian intellectuals in Exile and the Challenge of Communism (2001). in addition, he has published more than 160 articles, essays, and book reviews. Professor Congdon received a Ph.D. in modern European history and Russian history from Northern illinois University (1973), an M.A. in philosophy from Northern illinois University (1967), and a B.A. in history from Wheaton College (1961).

Lee Coppock is assistant professor of economics in the department of economics at the University of Virginia. Prior to that, he was William E. Simon Professor of Economics at Hillsdale College in Hillsdale, Michigan. Professor Coppock holds a Ph.D. in economics from George Mason University. His professional publications include articles in the Southern Economic Journal, Economics Letters, and Constitutional Political Economy. Dr. Coppock has also written opinion editorials that have appeared in several newspapers, including the Detroit News and the Cincinnati Business-Courier. His current research is on the economic effects of unionization and right-to-work laws. He resides with his wife, Krista, and three children in Charlottesville, Virginia.

Jim Cox is an associate professor of economics and political science at Georgia Perimeter College in Lawrenceville, Georgia, where he has taught the principles of economics since 1979. As a fellow of the institute for Humane Studies in Arlington, Virginia, Cox has had commentaries published in many newspapers, including the Cleveland Plain Dealer, the Wichita Journal, the Orange County Register, the San Diego Business Journal, and the Justice Times. in addition, the text supplement Great ideas for Teaching Economics (HarperCollins, 1995) includes nine of his submissions, and his articles have been published in the Atlanta Journal, the Atlanta Constitution, and Margin Magazine. Professor Cox has served as a member of the Academic Board of Advisors for the Georgia Public Policy Foundation and is the author of the reference book The Concise Guide to Economics (Savannah-Pikeville Press, 1995).

William C. Dennis served Liberty Fund, inc., and its sister organization the Pierre F. and Enid Goodrich Foundation, in various capacities including program officer, director of publications, and director of grants from 1985 to 2001. During that time Dr. Dennis managed Liberty Fund’s book-publishing program for two years and attended as program officer, discussion leader, participant, or observer more than 275 Liberty Fund conferences. in his last two years at Liberty Fund, Dr. Dennis was responsible for preparing for Board discussion a portfolio of grants totaling approximately $800,000 annually. Currently, he is an independent consultant in philanthropy, a senior fellow of the Atlas Economic Research Foundation, and an adjunct scholar at the Acton institute. Dr. Dennis was a professor of American history at Denison University from 1968 to 1985. His special areas of teaching included courses on colonial America and America during the early national period. During this time he also spent two years (1981–1983) as special assistant to the assistant secretary for policy, budget and administration, U.S. Department of the interior. He holds a Ph.D. in history from Yale University. Dr. Dennis’s current professional interests include philanthropy and the free society, and the importance of liberty in thinking about environmental questions.

Robert A. Destro is professor of law and director of the interdisciplinary program in law and religion at the Catholic University of America’s Columbus School of Law, in Washington, D.C. He has been a member of the faculty since 1982 and served as interim dean from 1999 to 2001. From 1983 to 1989 Professor Destro served as a commissioner on the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and led the commission's discussions on discrimination based on disability, national origin, and religion. He served as general counsel to the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights from 1977 to 1982 and as an adjunct associate professor of law at Marquette University from 1978 to1982. From 1975 to 1977 he was engaged in the private practice of law with the law firm of Squire, Sanders & Dempsey in Cleveland, Ohio. Born and raised in Akron, Ohio, Professor Destro received his B.A. from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio (1972), and his J.D. from the University of California at Berkeley (1975). His areas of specialization, scholarship and litigation, include freedom of speech and religion; discrimination based on race, disability, national origin, and religion; comparative constitutional law; private international law (conflict of laws); legal ethics; and bioethics. He is coauthor, with Michael S. Ariens, of Religious Liberty in a Pluralistic Society (Carolina Academic Press, 1996), the leading law-school textbook in the United States on the subject of religious liberty. Professor Destro lives in Arlington, Virginia, with his wife, Brenda, and their two children, Gina and Mark.

Daniel L. Dreisbach is a professor in the School of Public Affairs at American University in Washington, D.C. He received his doctor of philosophy degree in 1985 from Oxford University, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar, and his J.D. in 1988 from the University of Virginia School of Law. He is author of Thomas Jefferson and the Wall of Separation Between Church and State (New York University Press, 2002) and Real Threat and Mere Shadow: Religious Liberty and the First Amendment (Crossway Books, 1987). He is editor (with Garrett Ward Sheldon) of Religion and Political Culture in Jefferson’s Virginia (Rowman and Littlefield, 2000) and Religion and Politics in the Early Republic: Jasper Adams and the Church-State Debate (University Press of Kentucky, 1996). He has published numerous book chapters and articles in scholarly journals, including American Journal of Legal History, Baylor Law Review, Constitutional Commentary, Emory Law Journal, Journal of Church and State, North Carolina Law Review, and William and Mary Quarterly.

Floyd H. Duncan is the Roberts institute Professor of Free Enterprise Economics at the Virginia Military institute. He earned a B.S. degree in chemistry at VMi, and he holds both an M.B.A. and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of South Carolina. Prior to coming to VMi, Professor Duncan taught at East Tennessee State University, and he was the director of research and evaluation with the South Carolina Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Dr. Duncan is a graduate of the Army War College, where he served for many years as an adjunct faculty member, and he is a retired colonel in the U.S. Army Reserve. At VMi, Professor Duncan teaches a policy-oriented course in public finance as well as the intermediate macroeconomics course. He is the author of two books, one on the nineteenth-century industrialist, Robert Owen, and the other on the origins of the Vietnam War. His research interests are in the area of budgetary policy and in the application of free market principles to problems involving disputed property rights.

Steven J. Eagle is professor of law at George Mason University School of Law in Arlington, Virginia, where he teaches property and constitutional law. Author of the recently published treatise Regulatory Takings, he writes and lectures on constitutional aspects of private property rights. A graduate of Yale Law School, Mr. Eagle is also senior fellow at the institute for Justice, a public interest legal and educational organization in Washington, D.C.

Peter J. Ferrara is president of the Virginia Club for Growth and a senior fellow at the Cato institute. Considered one of the foremost experts on Social Security privatization, he has published numerous books and articles for the Cato institute, the Heritage Foundation, and the National Center for Policy Analysis, as well as for a large number of journals and newspapers, including the Wall Street Journal, Human Events, the Washington Times, and National Review. From 1995 to 2000 Mr. Ferrara served as general counsel and chief economist at Americans for Tax Reform. Prior to 1995 he was a senior fellow at the National Center for Policy Analysis in Washington, D.C. From 1993 to 1994 Mr. Ferrara served as a senior fellow at the Heritage Foundation in Washington, D.C., where he wrote issues ’94, a book covering all major public policy issues for candidates in the 1994 campaign. As associate deputy attorney general of the United States from 1992 to 1993, Mr. Ferrara was a policy adviser to the attorney general, headed departmental working groups on various policy issues, and represented the department in federal appellate litigation. From 1983 to 1992 he served as counsel at Shaw, Pittman, Potts & Trowbridge in Washington, D.C. Mr. Ferrara served in the Reagan Administration in the White House Office of Policy Development and from 1981 to 1983 in the Department of Housing and Urban Development. He received his J.D. cum laude from Harvard Law School in 1979 and holds a B.A. in economics from Harvard University, where he graduated magna cum laude in 1976.

C. William Hill, Jr. is professor of political science at Roanoke College in Salem, Virginia. He received his M.A. and his Ph.D. in government and public administration from The American University. Professor Hill’s teaching and research interests center on the theory and practice of federalism. His published works include The Political Theory of John Taylor of Caroline (1977); “Contrasting Themes in the Political Theories of John Taylor of Caroline, Thomas Jefferson, and John C. Calhoun,” in Publius (1976); various articles dealing with federalism and Native Americans in Encyclopedia USA; “Virginia indian Governance,” in the University of Virginia Center for Public Service Newsletter (1991); and chapters on Roger Williams and Vine Deloria Jr. in American Portraits (1993). Before entering teaching, Professor Hill worked at the U.S. Advisory Commission on intergovernmental Relations (1964), the Central Economic Development Organization, inc. (1965–67), and in program evaluation for the Model Cities Administration of HUD (1967–69).

William P. Kittredge is widely recognized as an authority on the municipal bond market. He frequently serves as an expert witness in legal disputes involving municipal bond debt, including citizen-initiated lawsuits to block unapproved debt issuance. Dr. Kittredge regularly publishes in academic journals, including Public Administration Review, Public Budgeting and Finance, and Municipal Finance Journal; in professional journals, such as Grant’s Municipal Bond Observer; and in the popular press, including Bloomberg News and USA Today. His commentary also appears on Bloomberg TV. He was the lead author of the Virginia Institute for Public Policy’s study We Only Pay the Bills: The Ongoing Effort to Disfranchise Virginia’s Voters. In 2004, Dr. Kittredge founded the Center for the Study of Capital Markets and Democracy, a 501(c)(3) research organization that focuses on the municipal bond market. Prior to founding the Center, Dr. Kittredge was professor of public administration and policy at the University of Georgia’s School of Public and International Affairs in Athens, Georgia. He taught public finance, financial administration, capital planning, and debt finance. Dr. Kittredge received his Ph.D. in June 2002 from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. During his five-year tenure at the Maxwell School, he worked under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contract in an effort to establish a municipal bond market in the former Soviet Union and worked with numerous local governments in New York State in the areas of capital budgeting, debt issuance, utility rate-setting, and citizen participation. Dr. Kittredge also spent two years in the Pew Trust–funded Government Performance Project, assessing the financial and capital management of state and local governments. Prior to seeking an advanced degree, he served the public for twenty years, including an appointment to the Washington Public Power Supply System Participants’ Review Board and as Special Regional Resource to the House Bonneville Power Administration Task Force. Dr. Kittredge also served on the Oregon Shines State Strategic Plan taskforce and the University of Oregon’s Deliberative Democracy Project, where he was involved primarily in citizen participation activities.

Michael I. Krauss is professor of law at George Mason University School of Law in Arlington, Virginia, where he teaches torts, products liability, legal ethics, legal philosophy, and comparative law. A graduate of Yale Law School, Mr. Krauss was the 1994–95 George Mason “Teacher of the Year,” the first award for teaching excellence ever conferred by the university. A frequent contributor to Policy Review, Liberty, Reason, the Wall Street Journal, the Christian Science Monitor, the Baltimore Sun, and the Washington Times, Mr. Krauss has also appeared as a panelist on C-SPAN and National Public Radio.

Mark R. Levin is president of Landmark Legal Foundation of Herndon, Virginia. Previously he served as Landmark’s director of legal policy for more than three years. He has worked as an attorney in the private sector and as a top advisor and administrator to several members of President Reagan’s cabinet. Mr. Levin served as chief of staff to the attorney general of the United States, deputy assistant secretary for elementary and secondary education at the U.S. Department of Education, and deputy solicitor of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

Leonard P. Liggio is a Distinguished Senior Scholar with the institute for Humane Studies, where he served as president from 1980 to 1989. He is a research professor at the George Mason University School of Law and executive vice president of the Atlas Economic Research Foundation in Fairfax, Virginia. Professor Liggio is chairman of the Advisory Council of The Salvatori Center for Academic Leadership at The Heritage Foundation and is treasurer of the Mont Pelerin Society. He is visiting professor of Law at the Francisco Marroquin University in Guatemala City and at the University of Aix-en-Provence, France. Professor Liggio is a trustee with the Acton institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty in Grand Rapids, Michigan, with the Competitive Enterprise institute in Washington, D.C., and with the Philadelphia Society, where he twice served as President (1992–93, 1994–95).

William R. Luckey is professor and chairman of the department of political science and economics at Christendom College, where he has taught since 1984. Born in the South Bronx, New York City, Dr. Luckey received his B.A. from St. John’s University, New York, and served in the U.S. Marine Corps. He received an M.A. and a Ph.D. in political philosophy from Fordham University and was an Earhart Foundation Fellow and a Robert Boone Stewart Fellow. He taught at St. John’s University; St. Francis College, Brooklyn; and Cardinal Newman College in St. Louis prior to coming to Christendom College. The 1990s saw Dr. Luckey return to school for an M.B.A. from Shenandoah University and an M.A. in economics from George Mason University, where he was a student of Nobel Prize winner James Buchanan. Dr. Luckey has published in Faith and Reason and the Journal of Markets and Morality. He has also published “John Courtney Murray: A Catholic Appreciation,” in John Courtney Murray and the American Civil Conversation, edited by Kenneth L. Grasso and Robert Hunt. He has given scholarly papers at Franciscan University of Steubenville, Calvin College, Auburn University, the Eric Voegelin Society, and the American Political Science Association and is on the advisory board of the Center for Economic Personalism. in 2002 Dr. Luckey will have been married for thirty-one years. He and his wife, Julia, have four children.

Nelson Lund is professor of law at the George Mason University School of Law, where he has served as coeditor of the Supreme Court Economic Review and acted as associate dean for academic affairs. A graduate of St. John’s College in Annapolis, Maryland, he holds advanced degrees in philosophy from the Catholic University of America (M.A., 1978), in political science from Harvard University (A.M., 1979; Ph.D., 1981), and in law from the University of Chicago (J.D., 1985). Professor Lund served as law clerk for the Honorable Patrick E. Higginbotham of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (1985–86) and for the Honorable Sandra Day O’Connor of the U.S. Supreme Court (October Term, 1987). in addition to experience in the U.S. Department of Justice at the Office of the Solicitor General and the Office of Legal Counsel, Dr. Lund served in the White House as associate counsel to the President from 1989 to 1992. He has written on a variety of subjects, including constitutional interpretation, federalism, separation of powers, the Commerce Clause, the Speech or Debate Clause, the Second Amendment, the Uniformity Clause, employment discrimination and civil rights, the legal regulation of medical ethics, and the application of economic analysis to legal institutions.

Tibor R. Machan, professor emeritus in the department of philosophy at Auburn University, holds the Freedom Communications Professorship of Free Enterprise and Business Ethics at the Argyros School of Business & Economics at Chapman University in Orange, California. He is a research fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Professor Machan is a syndicated and freelance columnist; author of more than twenty books, most recently, Putting Humans First, Why We Are Nature's Favorite (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004); editor of more than a dozen other books; and has written more than one hundred scholarly papers. He was a visiting professor at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1992–93. Dr. Machan edited Reason magazine for two years and was the editor of Reason Papers, an annual journal of interdisciplinary normative studies, for twenty-five years. He lectures in Europe, South Africa, New Zealand, and Latin America on business ethics and political philosophy. Professor Machan lives in Silverado, California, with his youngest daughter, Erin.

Paul G. Mahoney is academic associate dean, the Brokaw Professor of Corporate Law, and the Albert C. BeVier Research Professor at the University of Virginia School of Law, where he teaches contracts, corporations, corporate finance, quantitative methods, and securities regulation. He is a graduate of the Yale Law School and a former law clerk to Justice Thurgood Marshall of the United States Supreme Court. Professor Mahoney's articles have appeared in, among others, the American Law & Economics Review, the Journal of Financial Economics and the Journal of Legal Studies. He received an All-University Outstanding Teacher Award from the University of Virginia in 1998 and has been a visiting professor at the University of Chicago, the University of Southern California, and the University of Toronto. Professor Mahoney has also served as a consultant on legal reform projects in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Nepal.

David I. Meiselman is professor of economics and director of the Graduate Economics Program in northern Virginia at the Virginia Polytechnic institute and State University. Professor Meiselman also serves as associate director of Virginia Tech’s Futures and Options Center. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago. Author of five books and more than one hundred articles, Dr. Meiselman has done pioneering research in monetary economics and macroeconomics, economic stabilization, inflation, interest rates, international finance, financial and futures markets, and related public policy issues. Previously he taught at the University of Chicago, Johns Hopkins University, Macalester College, and the University of Minnesota. He was also senior economist for the U.S. Treasury, the U.S. House of Representatives, and the Organization of American States. Professor Meiselman also served as visiting scholar and then senior economist in the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. A founder and former member of the Board of Directors of the Manhattan institute, he is an adjunct scholar at the Heritage Foundation, the Cato institute, and the American Enterprise institute. Former vice president of the Southern Economic Association, Dr. Meiselman has served as a consultant to the secretary of the treasury, the World Bank, and other government agencies. He has also served as a consultant to the New York Stock Exchange and several leading Wall Street investment and law firms.

Patrick J. Michaels is research professor of environmental sciences at the University of Virginia and senior fellow in environmental studies at the Cato institute. He has served for sixteen years as the Virginia State Climatologist and in 1987–88 was president of the American Association of State Climatologists. Dr. Michaels has published numerous articles in journals of climatology, forestry, and meteorology. In 1992 he authored Sound and Fury: The Science and Politics of Global Warming. Dr. Michaels is a member of the American Meteorological Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Sigma XI.

Carlisle E. Moody, Jr. is chairman of the economics department at the College of William and Mary, where he teaches economics, econometrics, and mathematical economics in both the economics department and the Thomas Jefferson Program in Public Policy. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Connecticut. His research interests are applied econometrics and forecasting, law and economics, and the economics of natural resources and energy. Dr. Moody has served as consultant to the Virginia Marine Resources Commission, U.S. General Accounting Office, U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy, National Center for State Courts, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He is a member of the Econometrics Society and the American Economic Association.

Robert H. Nelson is professor of environmental policy at the School of Public Affairs of the University of Maryland. He is a nationally recognized authority on U.S. land and natural resource management, with a particular emphasis on management of federally owned lands. His writings have appeared in many professional journals and edited book collections, including the Journal of Economic Literature, Journal of Political Economy, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Natural Resources Journal, Environmental Law, University of Colorado Law Review, and University of illinois Law Review. Dr. Nelson is the author of six books: Zoning and Property Rights (MiT Press, 1977), The Making of Federal Coal Policy (Duke University Press, 1983), Reaching for Heaven on Earth: The Theological Meaning of Economics (Rowman & Littlefield, 1991), Public Lands and Private Rights: The Failure of Scientific Management (Rowman & Littlefield, 1995); A Burning issue: A Case for Abolishing the U.S. Forest Service (Rowman & Littlefield, 2000); and Economics as Religion: From Samuelson to Chicago and Beyond (Penn State University Press, 2001). Dr. Nelson has written widely in the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal, the Los Angeles Times, the Denver Post, the Weekly Standard, Reason, Technology Review, Environment, Regulation, and many other publications. He has been a columnist for Forbes magazine since 1993. Dr. Nelson worked in the Office of Policy Analysis of the interior Department—the principal policy office serving the secretary of the interior—from 1975 to 1993. He served as the senior economist of the Commission on Fair Market Value Policy for Federal Coal Leasing (Linowes Commission), senior research manager of the President’s Commission on Privatization, and economist for the Senate Select Committee on indian Affairs. Dr. Nelson has been a visiting scholar at the Brookings institution, a visiting senior fellow at the Woods Hole Oceanographic institution, a visiting scholar at the Political Economy Research Center, a visiting research associate at the Center for Applied Social Science at the University of Zimbabwe, and a research fellow at the international Center for Economic Research in Turin, italy. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University (1971).

Michael J. New is an assistant professor at the University of Alabama. Prior to his current position, he held the title of postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard-MIT Data Center. Professor New has been at the forefront of research on tax limitation, campaign finance reform, and welfare reform. His writings have appeared in a number of publications, including Investor’s Business Daily, National Review Online, and the New York Post. Currently, Dr. New serves as a board member of The Stanford Review and as an adjunct scholar at the Cato Institute. He holds an M.S. in statistics and a Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University.

Randal O’Toole is senior economist with the Thoreau institute, a nonprofit group that seeks solutions to environmental problems using incentives rather than government regulation. During the 1980s Mr. O’Toole became one of the nation’s leading experts on national forest planning, which led to his first book, Reforming the Forest Service (island Press, 1998). in the 1990s he did in-depth studies of other conservation agencies and issues, including national parks, endangered species, and state lands and resources. As a native Oregonian who grew up in Portland, Mr. O’Toole became involved in Portland-area smart-growth planning in 1995, when he lived in the Portland suburb of Oak Grove. His research and articles on light-rail transit helped convince Portland and Oregon voters to reject new light-rail proposals in 1996 and 1998. in 2001 Mr. O’Toole wrote The Vanishing Automobile and Other Urban Myths: How Smart Growth Will Harm American Cities (The Thoreau institute, 2001). The Oregon Environmental Council gave Mr. O’Toole its prestigious Richard L. Neuberger Award in 1978. in 1981 the Oregon Natural Resources Council gave him its David Simons Award for Vision. The Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies named Mr. O’Toole its McCluskey Conservation Fellow in 1998. in 1999 he was a visiting scholar at the University of California College of Natural Resources. in 2000 Mr. O’Toole was the Milton R. Merrill Visiting Professor of Political Science at Utah State University. He currently lives in Bandon, Oregon.

Sidney A. Pearson, Jr. is professor of political science at Radford University in Radford, Virginia, where he teaches American government, political philosophy, and foreign policy. Professor Pearson received his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Michigan. His publications include Arthur Koestler (G. K. Hall, 1978), which he authored, and The Constitutional Polity: Essays on the Founding Principles of American Politics (University Press of America, 1983), which he edited. in 1988–89, Professor Pearson taught two courses in constitutional law with retired Supreme Court Justice Arthur J. Goldberg. Prior to entering the teaching profession, Dr. Pearson served as an officer in the U.S. Marine Corps.

James F. Pontuso is Elliott Professor and chair of the department of political science at Hampden-Sydney College. He is author of Solzhenitsyn’s Political Thought (University Press of Virginia, 1990) and co-editor of American Conservative Opinion Leaders (Westview Press, 1990). He has published eighteen articles in such journals as Perspectives on Political Science, Strategic Review, Modern Age, the Political Science Reviewer, and Survey. in 1993–94 he was a Fulbright senior lecturer at Charles University in Prague, the Czech Republic. He has lectured for the U.S. information Service in Norway, Poland, Austria, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the Slovak National Council (parliament) in Bratislava, Slovakia.

Lawrence W. (Larry) Reed is president of the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, a Michigan-based research and educational organization. Under his leadership, the Mackinac Center has emerged as the largest and one of the most effective and prolific of more than forty state-based “free market” think tanks in America. Michigan Gov. John M. Engler has frequently cited the work of the Mackinac Center as extraordinarily influential in shaping administration policies. in the past ten years, Mr. Reed has authored over eight hundred newspaper columns and articles, two hundred radio commentaries, dozens of articles in magazines and journals in the United States and abroad, as well as five books. The two most recent are Lessons from the Past: The Silver Panic of 1893, and Private Cures for Public ills: The Promise of Privatization, both published by the Foundation for Economic Education. in 1994 he was named to a task force of the Secchia Commission on Total Quality Government, which was charged by Governor Engler with the mission of streamlining the state government. in August 1994, Mr. Reed was elected to a one-year term as President of the State Policy Network, a national organization whose membership consists of state-based public policy research groups. Also in 1994, he was elected to the Board of Trustees of the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) in irvington, New York—one of the oldest and most respected economics institutes in America and publisher of the journal The Freeman, for which he writes a monthly column titled “ideas and Consequences.” in May 1998, he was elected chairman of FEE’s Board of Trustees. Mr. Reed holds a B.A. in economics from Grove City College (1975) and an M.A. in history from Slippery Rock State University (1978), both in Pennsylvania. He taught economics at Midland’s Northwood University from 1977 to 1984 and chaired the department of economics from 1982 to 1984. He designed the university’s unique dual major in economics and business management and founded its annual highly acclaimed “Freedom Seminar.”

Mark E. Rush is associate professor of politics at Washington and Lee University, where he teaches constitutional law and American politics. He received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University. His research interests include voting rights, citizenship, the rights of political parties, civil liberties, and comparative constitutionalism. He has authored numerous articles on voting rights and representation, as well as the book Does Redistricting Make a Difference? (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993). He is currently editing the book Voting Rights and Redistricting in the United States: An Encyclopedic Guide (Greenwood, forthcoming).

Thomas Carl Rustici is full-time visiting instructor of economics at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. Sponsored by the Fund for American Studies, he also teaches economics and public policy at Georgetown University. Mr. Rustici teaches courses in microeconomics, macroeconomics, money and banking, Austrian theory, international economics, and industrial organization and was a successful business entrepreneur for seven and a half years before joining the faculty at George Mason University. in 1998 he was inducted into Who’s Who Among America’s Teachers (5thted.). He was awarded the Faculty of the Year Award by the George Mason student body in 2000. in 2001 Mr. Rustici was made an honorary member of the Golden Key international Honor Society. His academic articles have appeared in the Cato Journal, the Free Market, Religion and Liberty, Apple Daily, and Taking Sides (McGraw-Hill supplementary textbook). His most recent publications include the Stossel in the Classroom student economics guides that complement John Stossel’s special reports for ABC News. More than 700,000 “Greed,” “Freeloaders,” and “Are We Scaring Ourselves to Death?” economics guides have been used in universities and high school classrooms around the country.

Taylor Sanders is professor of history and University Historian at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia. His research has involved ancient Syria; eighteenth-century Homeric and classical studies; frontiers, ancient and modern; the history of higher education; the settlement of the Valley of Virginia; and the careers of the founding heroes of the eighteenth century. He has written two books and a monograph on Valley Presbyterianism, and his articles have appeared in numerous historical journals and in more popular magazines such as the Old Farmer’s Almanac. Dr. Sanders is a contributor to the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, and his reviews have appeared in journals, including the Journal of Southern History and the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. in recognition of his work on George Washington, the Society of the Cincinnati in the State of Virginia named him its first Distinguished George Washington Scholar. Professor Sanders, who teaches courses in ancient history, has lectured in the United Kingdom, italy, Egypt, mainland Greece, Crete, and Syria and on the island of Rhodes.

Garrett Ward Sheldon is professor of political science at the University of Virginia’s College at Wise. He received his Ph.D. in political theory from Rutgers University. His book The Political Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991) was the first American book on Jefferson to be translated into Russian and published in Moscow (Respublica Press, 1996). Other works include The History of Political Theory (Peter Lang, 1988), The Political Theory of John Taylor; The Political Philosophy of James Madison (Johns Hopkins University Press, forthcoming), Religion and Political Culture in Jefferson’s Virginia (edited with Daniel Dreisbach of American University), and What Would Jefferson Say? (The Berkley Group, 1998). in 1992 Professor Sheldon won The Outstanding Faculty in Virginia Award given by The Virginia State Council of Higher Education.

Stephen Slivinski, director of budget studies at the Cato Institute, is coauthor of Cato’s Fiscal Policy Report Card on America’s Governors. Most recently, he worked as a senior economist at the Tax Foundation in Washington, D.C. Prior to his return to Washington, Mr. Slivinski served as director of tax and budget studies for the Goldwater Institute in Phoenix, Arizona. He has also worked as a research associate at the James Madison Institute in Florida. Mr. Slivinski has appeared on CNN, Fox News Channel, and MSNBC. His writing has appeared in the Wall Street Journal, the New York Post, and numerous newspapers around the country. He holds a B.S. degree in economics from Florida State University, and an M.A. degree in economics from George Mason University.

Vernon L. Smith, the 2002 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Science, is professor of economics and law at George Mason University and a research scholar at the interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science. He received his B.S.E.E. from the California institute of Technology, his M.A. in economics from the University of Kansas, and his Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Professor Smith has written or co-written more than two hundred articles and books on capital theory, finance, natural resource economics, and experimental economics. He serves or has served on the board of editors of American Economic Review, Cato Journal, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Science, Economic Theory, Economic Design, Games and Economic Behavior, and Journal of Economic Methodology. Dr. Smith is past president of the Public Choice Society, the Economic Science Association, the Western Economic Association, and the Association for Private Enterprise Education. Previous faculty appointments include the University of Arizona, Purdue University, Brown University, and the University of Massachusetts. He has been a Ford Foundation Fellow, a fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and a Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar at the California institute of Technology. Cambridge University Press published his Papers in Experimental Economics in 1991 and a second collection of more recent papers, Bargaining and Market Behavior, in 2000. Professor Smith received an honorary doctor of management degree from Purdue University and is a fellow of the Econometric Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a distinguished fellow of the American Economic Association, an Andersen Consulting Professor of the Year, and the 1995 Adam Smith Award recipient conferred by the Association for Private Enterprise Education. Dr. Smith was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1995 and received the California institute of Technology’s distinguished alumni award in 1996. He has served as a consultant on the privatization of electric power in Australia and New Zealand and has participated in numerous private and public discussions on energy deregulation in the United States. in 1997 Professor Smith served as a Blue Ribbon Panel member of the National Electric Reliability Council.

Sam Staley is the president of the Buckeye institute in Columbus, Ohio. He previously directed the Urban Futures Program for the Reason Public Policy institute, a national think tank based in Los Angeles. From September 1990 through March 1995, Dr. Staley was a full-time economics professor at Wright State University, teaching at graduate and undergraduate levels. He has also been a research consultant to local government, university-based research centers, and independent think tanks since 1987. Dr. Staley’s areas of expertise include state and local public finance, education reform, economic development, and urban revitalization. He is the author of more than fifty professional articles and reports, including three books: Smarter Growth: Market-Based Land-Use Strategies for the 21st Century (Greenwood Press, 2001; coedited with Randall G. Holcombe); Drug Policy and the Decline of American Cities (Transaction, 1992); and Planning Rules and Urban Economic Performance: The Case of Hong Kong (Chinese University Press, 1994). in 1993 his book Drug Policy and the Decline of American Cities won first place in the Sir Anthony Fisher international Memorial Awards given by the Atlas Economic Research Foundations of the United States and the United Kingdom for its contribution to understanding the role a free economy plays in society. His work has appeared in a variety of academic, professional, and popular publications, including the Journal of the American Planning Association, the Economics of Education Review, Planning and Development, the Wall Street Journal, the Chicago Tribune, the Cleveland Plain Dealer, the Columbus Dispatch, the Cincinnati Enquirer, and the Dayton Daily News. Dr. Staley’s community activities include serving as a member of the City of Bellbrook (Ohio) Planning Board, former chair of Bellbrook Charter Review Commission, and former member of the Bellbrook Board of Zoning Appeals and Property Review Commission. His professional memberships include the American Economic Association, the American Planning Association, the Urban Affairs Association, and the Ohio Association of Economists and Political Scientists. Dr. Staley received his B.A. in economics and public policy from Colby College, his M.S. in social and applied economics from Wright State University, and his Ph.D. in public administration from Ohio State University.

Gordon Tullock received his J.D. from the University of Chicago in 1947 and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1994. A distinguished fellow of the American Economic Association (1998), Professor Tullock has been a major contributor to the development of the theoretical underpinnings of public choice. “Tullock’s hypotheses,” “Tullock’s laws,” and “Tullock’s paradoxes” have shaped the development of public choice and have charted new areas in law and economics and sociobiology. Beginning with his initial publications in the Journal of Political Economy and the American Economic Review, he has published more than 160 articles, 130 communications, and 20 books. For the institute of Economic Affairs (iEA) in London, Professor Tullock has contributed papers to The Economics of Charity (iEA Readings No. 12, 1974), The Taming of Government (iEA Readings No. 21, 1979), and The Emerging Consensus (Hobart Paperback No. 14, 1981), as well as “The Vote Motive,” his essay on public choice/the economics of politics (Hobart Paperback No. 9, 1976). He is currently professor of law and economics at the George Mason University School of Law in Arlington, Virginia.

Richard Vedder is distinguished professor of economics at Ohio University and an adjunct scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. His latest book, Going Broke by Degree: Why College Costs So Much, is due out in May. Other books include Out of Work: Unemployment and Government in Twentieth-Century America (with Lowell Gallaway) and The American Economy in Historical Perspective. Professor Vedder has authored more than two hundred scholarly papers in economic history and public policy and writes frequently for the popular press, including the Wall Street Journal, Investor's Business Daily, and USA Today. Dr. Vedder is an adviser to political leaders throughout the United States and overseas.

Richard E. Wagner is professor of economics and director of graduate studies at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia where he served as chairman of the department of economics from 1989–95. He received his B.S. from the University of Southern California and his Ph.D. from the University of Virginia. Dr. Wagner’s research interests have covered a broad range of topics on matters of political economy and public policy, and have resulted in more than twenty books and monographs and over one hundred articles in scholarly journals. A sample of his book and monograph titles include: The Fiscal Organization of American Federalism, inheritance and the State, Democracy in Deficit [with James M. Buchanan], Public Finance: Revenues and Expenditures in a Democratic Society, Charging for Government, Public Choice and Constitutional Economics, To Promote the General Welfare, Trade Protection in the United States [with Charles K. Rowley and Willem Thorbecke], Taxation and the Price of Civilization, and Parchment, Guns, and Constitutional Order. Journals in which Professor Wagner’s academic publications have been published include: the American Economic Review, the Journal of Law and Economics, Kyklos, Public Choice, the Journal of Monetary Economics, the Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, the National Tax Journal, the Policy Studies Journal, the Cato Journal, the European Journal of Political Economy, Constitutional Political Economy, the Journal of Law and Politics, the Review of Austrian Economics, Regulation, the Journal of Public Finance and Public Choice, and Critical Review. Dr. Wagner is currently a member of the editorial boards of four scholarly journals: Public Choice, Constitutional Political Economy, the Supreme Court Economic Review, and the Review of Austrian Economics.

Bernard Way is an assistant professor of political science and the director of the politics program at Christendom College. He received a Ph.D. from Boston University in 1998. His academic background includes work in the fields of international relations, American government and politics, and the politics of Europe, with specializations in the areas of American foreign policy, the politics and history of Russia (and the former Soviet Union), Central European politics, American political thought, military history, and diplomatic strategy. Dr. Way has taught courses in those subject areas at Christendom College, Boston University, Northeastern University, the University of Massachusetts at Boston, and at The American University in Washington, D.C. While at Boston University he was an Earhart Research Fellow at the institute for the Study of Conflict, ideology, and Policy. Prior to coming to Christendom College, Dr. Way worked at the institute of World Politics and on Capitol Hill as a legislative assistant handling foreign affairs, defense, and intelligence issues in the office of Rep. Dana Rohrabacher. During the 103rd Congress (1993–94) he was a fellow on the minority staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. in addition, Dr. Way worked as a National Security Fellow at the American Defense institute in Alexandria, Virginia, where he wrote policy briefings on current foreign policy issues and served as a commentator on a variety of radio and television talk shows. Dr. Way served four years of active service in the U.S. Navy and had duty assignments in the Office of Naval intelligence in the Pentagon and at the National Security Station in Washington, D.C. His other academic degrees include an M.A. in national security studies from Georgetown University (1988), an M.A. in the field of Soviet and East European Politics from the Monterey institute of international Studies (1983), and a B.A. in history from the University of the Pacific (1981).

Walter E. Williams is the John M. Olin Distinguished Professor of Economics and former chairman of the economics department at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. He received his Ph.D. in economics from UCLA. Dr. Williams is the author of over eighty publications that have appeared in such scholarly journals as Economic inquiry, American Economic Review, Georgia Law Review, and Social Science Quarterly, as well as such popular publications as Newsweek, The Freeman, National Review, Reader’s Digest, Cato Journal, and Policy Review. He has made scores of radio and television appearances that include Nightline, Firing Line, Face the Nation, Milton Friedman’s Free to Choose, Crossfire, NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, Wall Street Week and many more. Dr. Williams writes a weekly syndicated column that is carried by approximately 130 newspapers and was a regular commentator for Nightly Business Report. He is also a regular substitute host for the Rush Limbaugh show. Professor Williams has authored six books: America: A Minority Viewpoint; The State against Blacks, which was later made into the PBS documentary Good intentions; All it Takes is Guts; South Africa’s War Against Capitalism, which was later revised for South African publication; and Do the Right Thing: The People’s Economist Speaks. He has received numerous fellowships and awards, including Hoover institution National Fellow, Ford Foundation Fellow, Valley Forge Freedoms Foundation George Washington Medal of Honor, Adam Smith Award, and George Mason University Faculty Member of the Year. Professor Williams has frequently given expert testimony before Congressional committees on public policy issues ranging from labor policy to taxation and spending. Dr. Williams is a member of the Mont Pelerin Society and the American Economic Association.

Gary Wolfram is George Munson Professor of Political Economy at Hillsdale College and president of Hillsdale Policy Group, a consulting firm specializing in taxation and policy analysis. He is currently chairman of the board of trustees of Lake Superior State University, served as a member of Michigan’s State Board of Education from 1993 to 1999, was chairman of the Headlee Amendment Blue Ribbon Commission, and has been a member of the Michigan Enterprise Zone Authority, the Michigan Strategic Fund Board, and the Michigan State Housing Development Authority Board. Dr. Wolfram’s public policy experience includes serving as Congressman Nick Smith’s Washington office chief of staff, Michigan’s deputy state treasurer for taxation and economic policy under Governor John Engler, and senior economist to the Republican Senate in Michigan. Professor Wolfram graduated summa cum laude from the University of California at Santa Barbara. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of California at Berkeley and has taught at several colleges and universities, including Mount Holyoke College, the University of Michigan, and Washington State University. His publications include Towards a Free Society: An Introduction to Markets and the Political System and several works on Michigan’s tax structure and other public policy issues. Dr. Wolfram was also named one of the top twenty-five runners in Michigan of the past twenty-five years by Michigan Runner Magazine.


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