Astronomical  Cycles,   Time Periods,   &   Facts 


    Below is our collection of ASTRO-FACTS assembled in our efforts to provide the best possible resource of ancient and modern data.                                                                                      copyright 2007

Astronomy is the most venerable of all the sciences. It should be honored and nurtured. Ancient Star Cycles comprehending millions of years of time are the foundation of the history of astronomy. These show the extreme age and sophistication of this science. And we may assume that much of the resources, data, and theory has been lost -or not transcribed through misunderstanding -that it could pass down to us. We make these assumptions on the authority of Franz Boll, the noted German researcher and scholar, who came across Babylonian Star Catalogues labeled "of stars and constellations that are no longer visible to us". The implication is that the Galactic Progress, or our solar system's movement within the Milky Way, naturally changes our perspective of the stars around us because our relative position to them changes as we circle around our home galaxy. Therefore, Galactic Progress and movement was known to the ancient people. Their cosmologers would therefore never have dared to conceive of cycles of millions of years unless they were familiar with Galactic Progress.

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The Sun:

According to modern science the sun is about 4.6 billion years old, and should last another 7 billion years. The heliosphere fills the solar system with a flow of tiny, fast, and electrically charges particles. The sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in our galaxy which are continuously formed, modified, and destroyed. Some of them have formed their own solar systems. The Milky Way Galaxy is only one of more than 100 billion galaxies in the visible universe.


The Milky Way Galaxy.

This is the home galaxy to our Solar System which is located in one of the spiraling arms, and far away from the center near the outer edge of the Milky Way. The name comes from its appearance as a band of spilled milk across the night sky through the zodiac constellations of Gemini/Taurus on one side of the ecliptic, and through Scorpio/Sagittarius on the other side. The Milky Way is about 100-150,000 light years across in diameter. It is estimated that The Milky Way completes a revolution in about 200-220-226 or even up to 250 million years. This number (220) divided by 12 = 18.3 million years. Since the sun’s birth it has circled the galaxy about 18 times.


Some researchers claim that our Milky Way journey passes through dusty interstellar cloud material blocking sunlight from reaching earth, and causing ice ages and ocean level drops.


According to Bob Berman in the Discover Magazine (Sept. 2006) says that we are making a huge loop around the Galactic Core every 250 million years. The entire Galaxy is itself moving in the direction of the Andromeda Galaxy. Furthermore, our neighboring galaxies and our own are being pulled toward what science calls “the Great Attractor”, a mysterious concentration of mass beyond the direction of the constellation Virgo. Berman also hints that our present day science does not have all the answers, because there is no discernable center to the “Big Bang” –if there ever was such a thing. Furthermore, it is conceivable that the universe will stop spreading outward, and may someday halt, and then contract. This could be in emulation of the process of respiration and pulsation which the human body learned from the cosmos.


Richard Muller of Lawrence Berkeley National Labs has discovered mysterious cycles of 62 million years in the rise and fall of biodiversity over the past 542 million years. Muller and his team of scientists collected evidence of ice ages stored at the bottom of the oceans and found that there is a distinct pattern of cycles - an ice age that lasts approximately 90,000 years is followed by a warm period that lasts approximately 10,000 years [This is the Cycle of the Circular/Eliptical orbit range of the earth]. "Astronomy is responsible for almost all climate changes," said project leader Richard Muller, a UC Berkeley professor of physics and a researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. In addition, the researchers examined the astronomical cycles caused by variations in the tilt of Earth's orbit. They found that the tilt cycles match the cycles of the ice ages. "When we look at ancient records of planets, these astronomical cycles appear in the climate record," Muller said. It is important to study ancient climates, Muller said, because the past is often the key to the future.


The Earth is subject to it all the movements of the universe, its own Milky Way Galaxy, and its own solar system. The earth also experiences a multiplicity of changes in its own dynamics of axis tilt, wobble, orbital eccentricity and inclination, orbital relativity to the orbits of the other planets, and all other changes that can pertain to a heavenly body. The ancient Hindu even said that the earth changed its size. Working upon the researches of Adhemar and Croll; the Serbian scientist Milankovitch proposed in the 1920’s that all these factors would naturally influence changes in the climate of the earth. The eccentricity of the shape of the earth’s orbit changes from eliptical to round during a cycle of 100,000 years. When the earth has an eliptical orbit, as it does now, the elipse rotates during a cycle of 22,000 years. As well, the astrologers speak of the exaltations and the depressions of the Sun, Moon, and planets. I have always speculated that these terms refer to the changes in the orbits of the heavenly bodies (see Mars and Jupiter’s change in orbits cause the world Flood and Great Fire). There are also variations in the obliquity of the tilt of the earth’s axis ( from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees [presently 23.44])over a period of 41,000 to 46,000 years. And of course, there is the wobble (also called the Precession ) of the earth’s axis which results in the Precession of the Vernal Equinoxes over the period of 25,920 years –producing a cycle of time and events that have been the fascination of humanity forvever. This cycle has a range from 26,000 down to 22,000 years, and back to the higher figure.



Aryan-Vedic-Hindu Cycles.

The astronomical cycles mentioned below come from the ancient Aryan Astronomy from the present day regions of Afghanistan. This astronomy was of the tradition of Zarathustra, and was adopted by the Iranians, the Hindu of India, and the Chaldeans near Babylon. All the numbers are sexagisimal, divisible by 6. All cycles are an enactment of creation-life-dissolution and recreation once again; if the superior cycle will allow it. The world is created, destroyed, and recreated through the four elements of moist-water, hot-fire, dry- wind, and cold- ice.


309,173,760,000,000 years are equal to 100 years of God (Brahma) which represents a lifetime of Braham –a lifetime of the Universe. The Universe is dissolved 36,000 times, after which everything is withdrawn into the god Siva. After this a new universe is born. All these cycles repeat themselves infinitely through waves of creation, preservation and dissolution


8,640,000,000 years: Hindu-Aryan, a day and a night of Brahma. A sexagesimal number; hereafter denoted by (60).


4,320,000,000 years: Hindu-Aryan, a day of Brahma (60).


4,320,000 years sidereal years: Hindu-Aryan Vedic, the caturyuga period. Others call it the Mahayuga (four yugas)


1, 728,000 years the Vedic Satya Yuga Period (1728x.75=1296).


1,296,000 the Treta Yuga Period (.666x1296=864).


864,000 the Dvapara Yuga Period


432,000 years, Kali Yuga period.



“Some Mayan hieroglyphs record dates even as far back as 400 million years ago. The Mayan considered their calendar a gift from the earliest people…(Morton p.193)”.


The Sexagisimal System

The ancient astronomical system was based upon the number six. The ancient people divided the heavens into a circle of 360 degrees divided by 12 zodiac images of 30 degrees each. Charles William Johnson in his The Numbers of the Universe and the Ancient Reckoning System of Mesoamerica has discovered that the number six -in addition to being the core of astronomical cycles –is closely related to size measurements of celestial objects:

216 –fractal of the Moon’s diameter, 2160 miles

432 –fractal of the Sun’s radius, 432,000 miles

864 –fractal of the Sun’s diameter, 864,000 miles

3024 –fractal of the Great Pyramid’s perimeter

Johnson concludes by saying, “The numbers 360c and 260c were chosen numbers within the ancient reckoning system, numbers that were chosen by design, evidently based upon a knowledge of the Universe…

200,000 year cycle of the reversal of the direction of the poles of the magnetic field of the earth. Some estimates are as high as 750,000 years. This does not mean that the earth flips over.


100,000 year cycle of the earth’s orbit from circular to elliptical, and return to circular.


70,000 year cycle of the inclination of the Earth’s orbit –up and down relative to its present orbit.


40,000 year cycle of the tilt of the axis (obliquity) between the range of 22.1 and 24.5 degrees (presently 23.44); with respect to the plane of the earth’s orbit.


36,525 years. Egyptian cycle derived from 25 x 1461 years (Pseudo-Manetho). The return of the star Sirius is their so called SOTHIC cycle of 1461 years. This is part of the computation of the exact length of the year by comparing the sun and the star Sirius.


PRECESSION of the Vernal Equinoxes & numbers in that range.


26,000 years.[not divisible by 6] Mayan, cycle of the Pleiades. The Tzolkin Long Count Calendar. The Pleiades also had a 52 year cycle (26,000 = 52 x 500).


25,920 years. Hindu-Aryan function of the microcosm of breath and the sexigasimal system (25,920 /12 = 2,160 divided by 360 = 6.). [also by 6 = 4320 years, a chronological number.] 25,920 is also used by Plato as the Great World Year.


25,714.28 years. Hindu-Aryan Vedic estimate of Precession

                            @71.42857 years x 360.


24,925 years. According to the historian Manetho in his Aegyptiaca which represents Egyptian history, the reigns of the gods, demi-gods, spirits of the dead, and human kings.


10,800 BC -8,640 BC, the Precessional Age of Leo –a balanced and favorable climate for building and science (based on 25,920 year total precessional period)


8,640 BC -6,480 BC, the Precessional Age of Cancer –a very wet climatic period, unfavorable to human progress and communication.


6,480 BC -4,320 BC, the Precessional Age of Gemini –a very cold climatic period.


5984 -3470 BC about 33 different estimates of the time from Adam to Christ, taken from many authors by Albiruni and Keating.


5411 or 4004 BC estimates for Hebrew Genesis:

                                         Ussher        Hales

                                             B.C.        B.C.

    Creation                          4004         5411

    Flood                               2348        3155

    Abram leaves Haran     1921        2078

    Exodus                            1491        1648

    Destruction of the 

      Temple                           588           586


4,320 BC -2,160 BC the Precessional Age of Taurus, a very favorable and balanced climatic period for all human development.


4300 BC. John Playfair a member of the Royal Society determined in 1790 that the beginning of the Aryan-Hindu Vedas was 4300 BC. His research was based upon 9 different astronomical parameters


3600 years is the Babylonian Saros Period. After that period the first mean motion of the sun has completed a count of 1,296,000, the number of seconds in a circle. The second mean motion of the sun has completed 21,600, the number of minutes in a circle (Dwight William Johnson, Hindu Cosmological Time cycles)


3102 BC, Friday, 18th February. Hindu-Aryan Vedic, the beginning of the present Kali-Yuga. On this date Sun, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury were in conjunction near the star, Zeta Piscium.


3114 BC, August 31st: archaeologists date this as the beginning of the Mayan Long Count. After 13 cycles of 400 years (13x400=5200-3114BC=2086AD. The difference between this date and 2012AD has to do with the Mayan day and month calendar.) Some people say that the next cycle is to begin December 27, 2012, after the transit of Venus across the face of the sun earlier in June.


2160 BC –AD is the time period of Aries which produced an extremely favorable period of human development. This is only true in combination with the other cycles of Galactic Progress and Galactic Season (please see our climate chart).


A period of 2920 years: Employing the technique of cyclic buildup, the Mayans, Babylonians, and Greeks were able to link the cycles of Venus and the moon with mathematical harmony (Aveni 94). This relation of the two cycles was significant, since Venus was universally regarded as an omen-bringer. The seasonal year was just as important to the Mayan and Babylonian (and Greek) agrarian civilizations, since the crop varied with the seasons. Accordingly, the "favored interval" of time measurement was a whole number exactly divisible by all three cycle periods (Aveni 94)--2920 days. The Greeks called this 2920-day cycle the "Octaeteris" (Aveni 95), probably because it is just about 8 solar years. It also encompasses 5 rounds of the Venus cycle, and just about 99 moons (95). A remarkable example is the Mayan discovery of eclipse cycles, which occur at the intersections of several other cycles--those of the moon, earth, and sun. 756 AD, May 10: an epochal date in Hindu-Aryan Vedic 616 AD, July 29. The Great King of Palenque, Lord Pakal ascended to the throne.


1192 – 1183 BC. The Trojan War, and the final sack of the city.


980 BC -2060 AD Newton’s Theory of Universal History, concluding with the reappearance of Christ.


104 years = 2 Maya Calendar Rounds. According to J.M. Jenkins the 365 day haab cycle, the 260 day tzolkin cycle, and the Venus cycle all synchronize every 104 years. This day is known as 1 Ahau: the Lord, Sun, or Marksman who shoots forth all three cycles from the sun on this day; also known as the Sacred Day of Venus.


76 years which is four times the Metonic Cycle of 19 years or 235 lunations as computed by Callippus (370-310 BC) in an attempt to more closely harmonize the lunar and the solar year.

56 year cycle (davidmcminn.com 1/1/07)  On the same date the ecliptical position of the lunar north node moves only 3 degrees East of the last alignment of the tropical year and lunar nutation.  McMinn says that 9 and 56 year cycles are of significance in earthquake cycles.

52 years (Morton p.135) Toltec sacred ceremony performed every 52 years at Tula at the Temple of the Morning Star, Temple of the Atlantes. A cycle of four lots of 13 years, after which time the 13 months of the 260 day calendar returned to the original starting position relative to the 365 solar calendar. This was celebrated by the ‘start of the new fires’ when the Pleiades appeared in the sky.


28–29 years relate to the movements of Saturn. The retrograde loops return on the same day of the year every 29 practical years during which this planet goes through all the signs of the zodiac. 28 years x 378 days (Saturn’s synodic period) = 29 x 365 days. The Aubrey circle of Stonehenge has 56 holes (28 x2), perhaps to track the movements of Saturn (Heath p.12)


18 -20 year conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn (c. below)


19 years (sometimes recorded as 18.5 -20 years) is the period which the Greeks called the Metonic cycle, after Meton its discoverer. This cycle was a part of ancient tradition world-wide long before the Greeks. In Chaco Canyon, the moon advances along marked points along the horizon to an extreme turning point to retreat over its path again to another extreme in the other direction on the horizon. Then the Moon repeated this journey over a period of 19 years, or 235 lunations which was accurate to within two hours of the sun’s cycle over the same period of 19 years. It is also noteworthy that three years nearly correspond to 37 lunations, accurate to about 3 days. (Heath p.9). Also examine 18 year Saros Cycle of 223 synodic months when the Sun, Moon, and the Moon's nodes again re-align very closely. There is an important half Saros Cycle of of 9 tropical years.


Zadust or Zarathustra, sometimes Zoroaster.


Just to give you an idea of the rarity of Zarathustra’s science (could be as old as c. 7,000 BC): It is said that he calculated a Prime Global Meridian right through the city of Sistan (Nimrouz) located almost halfway between Japan and the Western coasts of Africa, and 33.5 degrees latitude –halfway between the northern inhabitable climes. The ancient Iranians always started the New Year with the Vernal Equinox. Here, Zarathustra calculated the rare appearance of the “New Day”, when the precise point of the Spring Equinox exactly coincided with sunrise viewed from that point in Persia. His mathematical skills were so advanced that his predictions forecast the “New Day” of 1725 BC and 487 BC. The latter event was sighted upon a calibrated square block placed within the central hall of the palace of Tehran. It is assumed that the Magi’s search for the Messiah was based upon Zarathustra’s calculation of the end and the beginning of the Great Galactic Cycle, associated with the appearance of the New Messiah, Jesus Christ. The possible date for Zarathustra is 8,000 BC.


584 day, the average cycle (synodic) of Venus around the earth. This varies between 581-587 days. The Maya were very interested in these anomalies from which they discovered a Great Cycle of Venus which began in August 13, 3114 BC. This Great Cycle is set to end, or repeat, on December 21, 2012. Mayan and Aztec believed that the world had been destroyed and re-created several times by the four elements at the time of the fulfillment of the cycles.


520 day cycle 13 x 40 days which is 3 eclipse cycles


260 day cycle of 13 x 20 days. Mesoamerican (see below). Also, the 9 moon sacred cycle: 9 x 28.8 days = 260 days


173 day cycle in the moon’s motion that is imposed by the sun’s gravitational field as the earth-moon system circles the sun. A factor in predicting solar eclipses (Corliss, Ancient Infrastructure p.52)


40 day cycle is used by many religions for their Paschal, Lent, and Nativity cycles. As well, the menstrual cycle varies between 21 – 40 days. 40 x 12 x 9 = 4320, is a noted sexagismal. Also a double of the number 20.


The number 20 is the count of the fingers, thumbs, and toes. This is an ancient day count system, just as the number 10 is the digits of both hands


Maya Astronomical Cycles & the planetVenus:


One of the many important Maya and Mesoamerican calendars is the Tzolkin -based on 13 months of 20 day periods =260 days. Every 52 years the Tzolkin cycle synchronizes with the ordinary or vague year (the Haab) of 365 days. This period is known as the Calendar Round. 52 years is also part of the Pleiades Cycle of 52 x 500 = 26,000 years.


There are other cycles of 18 months of 20 day periods = 360 days to which five sacred extra days are added to form the ordinary year. According to John Major Jenkins the 260 day cycle was important in planting and harvesting of crops. It also approximates the human gestation period 9 x 29 == 261


Archaeologists have established a date of Aug. 31, 3114 BC as the beginning of the latest Maya Cycle which supposedly ends on Dec. 27, 2012; because 13 cycles of 400 years = 5,200 years.


Venus statistics:

This planet is almost the same size as our earth. Venus takes 224.7 days to complete one orbit which is almost circular with only a minimal eccentricity, and inclined only 3.394 degrees to the general plane of the axis of the sun? Its axis is tilted 177.36 degrees which means that it is upside down to the earth and spinning in the opposite direction to us. It spins extremely slowly completing one rotation in 243 days.


Mr. J.M. Jenkins says, “That Venus worship gave rise to astronomy, science, math and probably civilization itself…As we know, civilization itself was spurred forth by the goddess…” More importantly, he tells us that 5 Venus cycles equals 8 years:

          5 years x 584 days = 2920 days divided by 365 = 8 years


During this 8 year period, Venus traces a pentagram, a five-pointed star around the circle of the ecliptic. Also 13 of these 8 year periods = 104, called a Venus Round. This 104 is of course 2 x 52 years –and therefore is a synchronization of the sacred Tzolkin, the Haab, and the Venus Round –as well as a factor of the Pleiades cycle.


Also it may be wondered if our time system of 7 days of 52 weeks, plus one day = 365 days of the year –may have been another factor within this all encompassing synchronization.


John Major Jenkins writes, “Unfortunately, the Maya were unable to perfect their Venus Calendar. A slight difference between the true cycle of Venus and the 584 day approximation employed by the Maya made long term predictions unreliable.” That which Jenkins has written is the exact point of all astronomy. Namely, to record approximations in numbers –while the real cycles fulfill themselves in relation to the zodiac, the cup of the Grail. The Galactic Era of Pisces naturally concerned Venus. And on a world-wide scale, people were trying to fit generalizations to the movements of this favorite planet. The Maya never hoped or believed that they would discover a magic law of motion for Venus, when they knew that all planets go through their cycles and rythyms.


Great Conjunctions of Jupiter & Saturn:

Jupiter revolves around the Sun in a period of about 12 years; while Saturn takes almost 30 years to go a full circuit. Therefore, every 18 -20 years both planets are in conjunction. The last time was May 31, 2000. The next conjunction will occur on Dec. 2020.

There is a discernable Trigon (triangular) Pattern of the conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn which repeat almost every 20 years about 120 degrees backward (opposite to the direction of the progress of the Sun) in the 360 degree circle of the zodiac.

copyright 2007