San Bernardino

County History


An Illustrated History of Southern California - The Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago - 1890




        The city of San Bernardino lies some six miles south of the mountain range, about four miles north of the Santa Ana river, and three miles from the railway station at Colton. It is 531 miles south of San Francisco, lying on the great thoroughfares that run southeastward, and those which penetrate the desert region of the interior basin. Here converge the roads leading through the Cajon pass to the mining districts of Panamint, Death valley, Hualapa and the upper Colorado; and those from the other mineral regions of Holcomb valley, and, through the San Gorgonio pass, from La Paz, Prescott, Yuma, and the East.

        The Mormons who surveyed and laid off San Bernardino, displayed as much judgment here as elsewhere in their choice of locality, selecting a point about the center of the valley, in the midst of the finest farming land; and flowing past it several streams of living water.

        The city occupies just a mile square, and it was laid off on a liberal scale, viewed with reference to the demands of 1853. But it has stretched since far beyond its boundaries. The streets run according to the cardinal points of the compass, and each thoroughfare is eighty-two and a half feet wide. Those which run east and west are called by the numerals, and those running north and south, by the letters of the alphabet. Each block contains eight acres. The principal commercial street is Third, beginning at C, and running west one mile to the depot; D street between Third and Fourth, and E street between Second and Fourth, also enjoy great business activity, and in these streets trade centers, although it extends beyond these limits.

        San Bernardino was incorporated as a municipality in 1853, and again in 1886. Since 1885, when the Santa Fé Railway established commercial communication between this point and the rest of the great railway system, the progress of the town has been constant, business movement and building being very active, even through what are called dull seasons.

        San Bernardino has two pretty sobriquets—the "Fountain City," and the "Garden City," the first from the abundant supply of water, so unusual in this part of the country. There are 300 artesian wells within the city limits, and their flow is unfailing. Many of the houses have at the top tanks, into which the water for domestic purposes is forced by small steam pumps, run by gas jets. Nearly every dwelling has its own green lawn, and its encircling groups of trees—oranges, peppers, palms, walnuts, apples, and other trees of the temperate and semi-tropic zones, —besides countless climbing vines and flowering plants.

        All the principal streets are traversed by street railways.

        The city is illuminated by gas and by electricity. The dynamo which generates the electricity is run by water-power furnished by Warm creek, enough force to produce electricity sufficient to light the whole valley being provided by 3,000 inches of water, with a fall of forty feet, so that it is expected this system of lighting will be extended to the neighboring towns.

        As has been seen, San Bernardino was laid out as a city by the Mormons in 1853. As first incorporated, it comprehended most of the Mormon settlement. But the ruling powers soon tired of the onerous burden of city government; and dis-incorporated in about two years.

        In August 16, 1868, San Bernardino was re­incorporated as a town, so continuing until May 15, 1886, when it was once more incorporated, as a city, being of the fifth-class.

        The city government, as in all cities of the fifth-class, is vested in a board of trustees, five in number, a board of education, also of five members, a city attorney, city clerk, city marshal, city recorder, city treasurer, and city assessor. There are also, as provided by statute, subordinate officers, as follows: city engineer, health officer, street superintendent, pound-master, chief of fire department and four police officers.

        The city improved very little until 1885–'86, since which time improvements have been many, rapid, and notable.

        Such public buildings, that is to say, municipal and county buildings, as exist are of a remarkably fine style of architecture, handsome, commodious, convenient, and admirably adapted to the purposes for which they are designed.

        The postoffice occupies an edifice erected in 1888 expressly for that use, at a cost of $65,000. It has a frontage of 100 feet on E street, and 120 feet on Court street. Its outside finish is of pressed brick, and the famous brown sandstone from the Sespe (Ventura County) quarries. It is in height three stories, the ground floor being occupied by several stores, besides the postoffice quarters, for which the Government is pledged to pay the nominal rental of $1 yearly for the period of five years; the second floor is devoted to offices; the third floor is given up to lodging apartments. The building is furnished throughout with artesian water, forced to roof tanks, with an ample reserve supply in case of fire. Gas, an arched wagon passage; a fire proof vault, and all the latest improvements for buildings of this kind are here in use.

        The postoffice occupies 80 x 26 feet in the southeastern corner of the ground floor, and it comprises the usual office and passage spaces, with 1,372 boxes and drawers.

        The corps is composed of a postmaster, Nelson S. Gill, and four clerks or assistants, two of whom are ladies. The gross receipts of the last year, as nearly as can be determined at present, were $12,000.

        The new hall of records is to have a frontage of sixty-six feet on Court street. Its exterior finish will be of Colton marble and sandstone from Sespe or Mentone. The style of the architecture is termed "modern Moorish." The interior finish, tilings, panelings, columns, etc., will be of Colton marble, oak wood, iron, beveled plate glass, and cathedral glass. The main entrance will be ten feet wide, with an arch height of sixteen feet; the main entrance hall, twelve by eighteen feet; the treasurer's room, fifteen by thirty feet, with a time-lock, steel-lined vault, 4 x 6 x 10 feet, fire and burglar proof; for special and valuable papers; there is also another vault, seven by four feet eight inches, in this room. The auditor's office is to be fourteen by twenty-four by twenty-two feet, with an inner gallery for the use of copyists and for storing books; the recorder's office is four by thirty-nine feet, with a twenty-two foot ceiling, with all needful conveniences and appurtenances. On the upper floor will be the county clerk's room, forty-four feet eight inches by twenty-nine feet six inches by twenty, with all the necessary fittings and appointments: also three large rooms for uses yet to be determined.

        One of the most commendable features of this edifice is the precaution which has been observed against fire, in its planning. Every opening in the entire building will be protected by a rolling steel shutter. The roof will be entirely of iron and terra-cotta, and neither here nor on the outside will there appear a bit of wood. The back part of the building, forty-eight by forty-eight by ten feet, will be of brick twenty inches thick, with an air space in the center, and tied together every four feet with iron anchors. There will also be built in the walls around the entire building above and below each opening, a heavy two-and-a-half­inch iron band, well riveted at each corner and each connection, making the building earthquake-proof as well as fireproof. The cost of this building will be $40,000. At present it is in process of construction.

        The county court-house was erected in 1878, and up to 1882 it was the finest building in the county. Its cost was some $40,000, but due allowance must he made for the greater cost of building at the time of its construction, for it by no means bears comparison with less costly edifices of later structure. It is, however, a substantial-looking pile, of two stories and a basement, with a cupola. It contains many of the offices of the municipal and county officials, the jail, etc. This building no doubt will be renovated and remodeled, when the completion of the new hall of records shall relieve it from its overcrowded condition.

        The opera house is a well-built and well-equipped structure. Its seating capacity is 800. Its cost was some $60,000. It was built in 1882.

        The principal public-school building in the city is a brick edifice built in the form of a Latin cross. Its plan was taken from the Langdon model of a school-house which took the premium at the Centennial Exposition. Its peculiarity is in having a common central corridor into which all of the fourteen school-rooms open. The furniture is of the latest design of improvement, and the surrounding grounds are well laid out. This institution in aggregation with the other school property of the city reaches a value of $150,000.

        Respecting the fifty acres of land for the County Poor House:—" This tract of land lies west of Fabun's Park, on the south side of the street. It contains about eleven acres in alfalfa, 600 peach trees, three artesian wells. Some of the land is wooded, and will afford fuel for years. Lytle creek runs directly through the land. There are two large reservoirs, one of which receives the continual discharge from two artesian wells, while the third well fills the other reservoir." On this tract was built in 1886, at a cost of $16,400, a fine brick building for a county hospital. This is a well-arranged and well-conducted institution, where the sick can be cared for with all proper requisites, while the establishment is conducted on an economical basis. It has some thirty acres of land all told, mostly under cultivation.

        The Bank of San Bernardino.—The custom of commerce has made the banks the recognized depositories of the coin and currency of the company, and hence their deposits indicate the working cash capital in the community where they are situated; the daily transactions over their counter are the truest index to the state of business in that community and the safest criterion by which to measure its prosperity. Reckoning upon this basis San Bernardino occupies a proud position among the sisterhood of counties in Southern California, for her banks are among the most solid and prosperous of the financial institutions in this part of the State.    Of the four banks in the city, the Bank of San Bernardino is the oldest in the county and the one most closely allied with its history and progress. This bank was established as a private banking house, and opened its doors for business in the early part of 1875, with a capital stock of $50,000. Mr. Lewis Jacobs was its founder, and has since been its president and sole manager; throughout its entire existence, the method of management has been conservative and safe, and the Bank of San Bernardino has been the friend and encourager of every worthy enterprise of a public character, thus greatly benefiting and enhancing the prosperity of the county.

        The bank has increased its capital stock to $200,000; has paid $30,000 dividends, and has an undivided surplus of $11,000. It does a general commercial banking business, and from the day it opened to the present, although it has passed through a financial crisis that closed the doors of many of the large banks in the State, it has been ready to meet every obligation when due and presented for payment. The bank-building is situated on the south side of Third street between D and E streets, and was built and fitted up with all the requirements of a first-class banking house.

        LEWIS JACOBS, President of the Bank of San Bernardino, and one of the oldest residents and most successful business men of Southern California, was born in Prussia, Europe, in 1831; immigrated to America at the age of twenty years, and a year later, in 1852, came to California, and to what is now San Bernardino County, then a part of Los Angeles County, before the town of San Bernardino was laid off.

        Being entirely dependent upon his own resources of brain and muscle, he started out to earn a living with a pack on his back, selling goods from door to door. By industry and economy he was soon enabled to establish himself in the mercantile business, as the proprietor of a general store in the young town of San Bernardino. The settlers were all struggling to obtain homes, and there was literally no money in the country, and business had to be carried on entirely by barter and exchange. Mr. Jacobs would sell his customers goods and take their eggs, butter and produce in payment. These he had to haul to Los Angeles, generally with ox-teams, and sell them there for money. As the county and city grew in wealth and population, his business steadily increased in volume and prosperity, until the beginning of 1875, when he sold out his store and opened the first bank in the county, which he has conducted with marked success ever since. While, with the true instincts of a banker, Mr. Jacobs has carefully guarded the interests of his depositors, pursuing a conservative policy in the management of the bank, he has also exhibited a spirit of true loyalty to the county's welfare and progress, by assisting with his money and influence enterprises tending to develop its marvelous resources and demonstrate its wonderful productive qualities. In the trying days of the Riverside colonists, when the founders of that grandest horticultural experiment and success of modern times needed material aid and encouragement, Mr. Jacobs assisted them with both goods and money until they began to exchange the golden spheres for golden coin, and were thereby enabled to repay. His assistance, in the way of cash and credit was a primary factor in the construction of the Bear valley reservoir improvements, which have made the Redlands of to-day and the future possible. In each of these cases Mr. Jacobs had the opportunity to make a fortune for himself, but was content in helping others to lay the foundations of fortunes, he receiving but a moderate interest on the moneys he had furnished.

        Mr. Jacobs has invested considerable capital in citrus fruit lands and improvements in San Bernardino County. On the final settlement with the Riverside company they tendered him four blocks of land of two and a half acres each, as a contribution in recognition a favors received at his hands, but he declined all but one. This he has highly improved and has been offered $13,000 for it. He also has a fine young orange orchard of twenty-five acres in Redlands, which cannot be bought for $1,000 an acre. The subject of this memoir is a living example of what well-directed energy, industry and economy can accomplish under favorable circumstances.

        The Farmers' Exchange Bank, of San Bernardino, one of the most important and substantial financial institutions of Southern California, was organized as a State bank in May, 1881, and opened its doors for business September 1 of that year, with$20,000 capital stock paid in. The officers were Byron Waters, President, and E. H. Morse, Cashier. The bank was situated next door to its present location on the north side of Third street between D and E streets. The career of the bank has been progressive and prosperous, and it has played a prominent part in the rapid growth and development of San Bernardino County to its present proud position. January 1, 1884, Mr. Waters resigned and H. L. Drew succeeded him to the presidency, which office he ably fills. January 1, 1888, Mr. Morse retired from the position of cashier and S. F. Zombro took his place. In 1888 the bank erected the elegant building it now occupies, which is one of the finest and most commodious banking houses on the Pacific coast. It is a three-story structure, 45 x 110 feet, built of brick, with brown-stone trimmings and massive, arched doorways of polished Slover mountain marble. It was erected at a cost of $43,000, and the banking offices, which occupy the first floor, are models of convenience in arrangement and artistic beauty of finish. The best indications of the judicious management and steady growth of the business of the bank is furnished in the statements published January 1 of each year, and is here reproduced: January 1, 1883, capital paid up, $21,900; deposits, $152,725. January 1, 1884, capital paid up, $30,000; surplus fund, $8,797.72; deposits, $163,037.80, January 1, 1885, capital paid up, $50,000; surplus, $12,916.63; deposits, $147,796. January 1, 1886, capital paid in, $50,000; surplus, $10,410; deposits $271,351.63; January 1, 1887, capital paid up, $50,000; reserve, $55,544.62; deposits, $357,000. January 1, 1888, capital paid up, $50,000; surplus, $87,047; deposits, $688,697. January 1, 1889, capital paid up, $50,000; surplus, $96,000; deposits, $328,587. July 1, 1889, capital paid up, $50,000; surplus, $110,000; deposits, $301,142.50. The shrinkage in the business showing in 1889 as compared with the previous year is due to two causes, namely: the depreciation in value and consequent depression in business resulting from the collapse in the speculative boom of 1887­'88, and the establishing of two new banks in San Bernardino.

        Fourteen years previous to his association with the Farmers' Exchange Bank, Mr. Drew had been engaged in the mercantile business in San Bernardino, and had also been extensively connected with mining interests. He was born in Michigan forty-nine years ago, where his early business life was devoted to lumbering and merchandising. On the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion he entered the Union army as a private in the Third Michigan Cavalry, served three years and a half, and rose by successive promotions to the rank of Captain before resigning. Suffering from broken health, partly caused by exposure and overwork during the great forest fires in the fall of 1871, on which occasion he worked continuously for seven days and seven nights, Mr. Drew came to California in 1874, and after stopping a short time in Sacramento and in San Diego, arrived in San Bernardino April, 1875, and has resided here ever since.

        Being an enterprising, public-spirited gentleman, he has taken great interest in the improvement of San Bernardino city and county. He took an active and prominent part in securing the location and construction of the railroad lines belonging to the Santa Fe system in this valley, and is now a director in that company. He is also largely interested in the development of the citrus fruit industry in the county. He owns a 240-acre ranch devoted to these fruits in Old San Bernardino, and in company with some Pasadena gentlemen is planting some 160 acres in that vicinity to oranges this year.

        The First National Bank of San Bernardino was organized in June, 1886, with a capital stock of $100,000; and there being no suitable rooms accessible for its occupancy in the city, the corporation purchased the building on the northwest corner of Third and D streets, and had it fitted up expressly for the use of the bank. A large fire-proof vault was built in which was placed the elegant new burglar-proof safe manufactured to order by the Hall Safe &, Lock Company of Cincinnati, Ohio. The bank opened its doors for business on September 10, 1886, with J. H. Smith as president and W. N. Crandall as cashier. A year after the bank opened Mr. Crandall retired and Joseph Brown, the present cashier, was elected as his successor. The career of the First National Bank has been one of continuous prosperity from the day of its opening, and it is now making as much money for its stockholders, notwithstanding the general depression ill business consequent upon the speculative boom of two years ago, as at any time in its history. The bank has regularly paid semi-annual dividends, and has an accumulated surplus of $15,000. It does a large domestic and foreign exchange business, drawing direct on banks in the principal cities of the United States and Europe. The stockholders are mostly residents of the county, and are among the shrewdest and most successful business men in this part of' the State. The bank receives rentals on offices and stores in their building sufficient to pay a liberal interest on the purchase price.

        JOHN HARTLEY SMITH, the founder and president of the First National Bank of San Bernardino, and one of the most thorough business men and experienced bankers in Southern California, was born in Jackson County, Virginia, in 1835. He came to Ohio at the age of fifteen, and in 1853 he came to California and spent two years in the gold mines, chiefly in Mariposa County. He was quite successful, and in 1855 returned to Ohio with considerable money and a fund of experience which has proved of great value to him in his subsequent business career, as well as fraught with pleasant memories. Coming he sailed from New York by way of Panama, crossing the Isthmus on foot. He returned by the same route, but the railroad had been completed across the Isthmus in the interval. For many years Mr. Smith was extensively engaged in steam boating and operating barge lines on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, he superintending the business, in which there was $250,000 capital invested. After the war he was also interested in the banking business for a number of years in Meigs County; and was actively and largely identified with coal mining and the manufacture of salt in southeastern Ohio. The daily output of the coal mines was 10,000 bushels, and the salt works turned out 500 barrels a day. The labor and nerve force necessarily consumed in the management of these various large enterprises proved too much for Mr. Smith's naturally strong constitution, and he was compelled to dispose of his very prosperous business interests, and seek by rest and the most favorable climatic advantages to repair his broken health. He came to Southern California in 1880, and the same year organized the Santa Ana Commercial Bank, the first bank started in that city. Eighteen months after opening the bank failing health again forced him to retire from business, and he sold out and remained out of business a year. He then established the Pomona Valley Bank as a State bank in 1884. In 1887 it was reorganized into a national bank, and its name changed to the First National Bank of Pomona. Selling out his interests there Mr. Smith organized the First National Bank of San Bernardino, of which he has been president since it opened. Each of these three banks founded by him and of which he has been successively the managing head has become prominent among the banking houses of this part of the State. Though devoting his attention almost exclusively to the bank, Mr. Smith has some outside investments, one of which is a large interest in the Southern California Motor Road, one of the finest pieces of property in this region.

        Mrs. Smith, whose former name was Roberts, is an Ohio lady. Their family consists of three sons: Pearl, Harry and Hudson, all boys of school age. Mr. Smith also has a step-daughter, who is married and resides in San Bernardino.

        The San Bernardino National Bank was established in 1888, with a capital of $200,000, The president at organization was J. G. Burt, the vice-president A. H. Hart, and the cashier E. H. Morse. At present the capital is $100,000. the surplus $13,000, undivided profits $22,000, and deposits $170,000. John W. Davis is president, S. E. A. Palmer, vice president, and W. S. Hooper, cashier. This bank does a general banking business and has exchange on all commercial centers.

        The Savings Bank of San Bernardino was established in February, 1890. It is under the same management as the Farmers' Exchange Bank. Its president is Frank Hinckley, vice-president H. L. Drew, secretary and treasurer, S. F. Zombro. Its capital is a $100.000.

        The banks report business to be steadily improving, and they consider the financial conditions as more promising and more satisfactory than during boom times.

        The newspapers of San Bernardino city are: the Times-Index, daily and weekly, edited by L. M. Holt, and the Courier, daily and weekly, edited by A. Kearney. The first named is issued in the afternoon, and the second in the morning.

        The city water-works were instituted as follows: on November 2, 1889, the citizens voted $160,000 of bonds for a system of water-works. The contracts for laying pipes, constructing reservoirs, sinking wells and setting hydrants, are all let, and operations are now (May, 1890), in active progress. The supply will be of artesian water, from an elevation of 205 feet above the city, being very pure and excellent water. By the first of October, 1890, water under pressure will have been introduced into city use. The city engineer estimates that the quantity will be abundant to supply the needs of years hence, even under the conditions of rapid increase. The cost to the city of the electric street lights is $411 monthly, which supports five towers, and, some 175 street lights in suspension.

        During 1888–'89, the municipal government, under the authority of the State law known as the Vrooman act, did a vast amount of execution in the way of beautifying the city and improving its sanitary condition. Among other important features is the completion of the sewer system. About 51,000 feet, or over nine miles of sewer pipe was laid, at a cost of about $85,000, and about 140 house connections were made with it, at a cost of some $14,000. This has revolutionized the system of house-plumbing. The principal streets were graded at a cost of some $8,000; and, at a cost of $4,000 culverts were put down to carry the storm water. At the street crossings were laid good plank walks, costing $2,000, and nearly three miles were laid of artificial stone and bituminous rock sidewalks, which cost about $40,000. The construction of the large ditches on the outskirts of the city has been a marked success. The total expenditure for public improvements during this season was $135,000.

        San Bernardino has taken a decided stand on the telephone system, having numerous local connections, besides others with Riverside, twelve miles distant; Colton, three miles distant; Etiwanda, sixteen miles distant; and Redlands, ten miles distant.

        The first burial-ground of San Bernardino valley was located on a bluff overlooking the lowlands, on the spot where M. B. Garner's house now stands. Many of the bodies from this cemetery were removed to the new graveyard, east of A street, between Seventh and Eighth, just outside the city limits. The Jewish cemetery occupied the adjoining lot on the north, and next to that was the Roman Catholic burying-ground, until a few years since, when that sect purchased a new tract, several miles north of the town. In this old cemetery are buried most of the dead of San Bernardino valley.



        The following is a list of the churches of San Bernardino:

        First Methodist Episcopal.—Corner of Sixth and E streets. Value $30,000. Seating capacity 1,200. Services every Sabbath at 11 A.M. and 7 P. M. Sunday-school at 9:30 A. M.: A. Fussel, Superintendent. Prayer meeting Wednesdays at 7:30 p. m. Rev. George W. White, Pastor.

        Methodist Episcopal Church South.—Fifth street, between D and E. Established fifteen years. Value $8,000. Seating capacity 800. Services every Sunday at 11 A. M. and 7 P. M. Sunday-school at 9:45 A. M. Prayer meeting every Wednesday at 7:00 P. M. Rev. W. B. Stradley, Pastor.

        Congregational.—Corner Fifth and D streets. Organized and church built and dedicated November, 1876. Value $4,500. Has a seating capacity of 200. Services every Sabbath at 11 A. M. and 7:30 P. M. Sunday-school at 9:45 A. M. Rev. J. H. Jenkins, Pastor.

        Presbyterian.—Church corner of E and Park avenue. Value $4,500. Seating capacity 300. Services every Sunday at 11 A. M. and 7:30 P. M. Sunday-school at 9:30 A. M. Prayer meeting every Wednesday evening at 7:30. Rev. John Morrison, Pastor.

        Baptist—First Church.—Third street, between F and G. Value $4,000. Seating capacity 200. Services every Sabbath at 11 A. M. and 7:30 P. M. Prayer meeting on Wednesdays at 7:30 P. M. Rev. A. J. Frost, Pastor.

        The Evangelische Gemeindeschaft hold their regular services every Sunday afternoon at A. O. U. W. Hall on Third street. Sunday-school at 1:45 P. M., and preaching at 3 P. M. German-speaking citizens are kindly invited to attend. Theodore Suhr, Pastor.

        Holiness Church.—Meets every Sunday in Swing Block, corner of D and Fourth street, at 10 A. M., 3 P. M., and evening.

        Latter Day Saints.—Corner of Fifth and G streets. Regular services every Sabbath. David Harris, Minister.

        African Methodist Episcopal Church.—Has regular services every second and fourth Sundays of each month at 11 A. M. and 7:30 P. M., with class at P.M. Building on west side of D street, between First and Second. Charles Augustus, Pastor.

        Roman Catholic.—The church of San Bernardino of Siena was built in 1870. Prior to this Roman Catholic worship had been conducted in two small chapels. The present edifice was erected at the cost of Mrs. Catherine Quinn, the value being some $9,000. This parish includes San Bernardino and a large portion of San Diego County. There are some 100 families of this faith within the city limits. Rev. Father Stockman is the incumbent.



        Silver Wave Chapter, No. 75, O. E. S.—Meets second and fourth Tuesdays of each month in Masonic Temple. Mrs. Susan Clark, W. M.; T. J. Wilson, W.P.

        San Bernardino Council, No. 37, O. C. F.—Meets first and third Wednesdays of each month in A. O. U. W. hall, on Third street, between D and E. L. Caro, Councilor; Mrs. M. S. Rowell, Vice-Councilor; S. C. Benjamin, Secretary; Alfred Steinman, Treasurer.

        Woman's Relief Corps.—The Woman's Relief Corps meets every Saturday afternoon at A. O. U. W. hall. Mrs. Lizzie Reinoehl, President; Miss Ida Seymour, Secretary.

        Young Woman's Christian Temperance Union.—Meets the second and fourth Saturdays of each month at Y. M. C. A. hall, on D street, at 2 P. M. Miss Ellen Ballard, President; Lillie Hisom, Recording Secretary; Florence Gibson, Corresponding Secretary.

        Woman's Christian Temperance Union.—Meets the first and third Tuesdays of each month at Y. M. C. A. hall, at 2:30 P. M. Mrs. L. M. Nickerson, President; Mrs. Tillie Shearer, Recording Secretary ; Miss Mary Bennett, Corresponding Secretary.

        Phoenix Lodge, No. 178, F. &  A. M.—John C. King, W. M.; Henry A. Kellar, S. W.

        Keystone Chapter, No. 56.—Thomas J . Wilson, H. P.; W. L. G. Soule, King.

        St. Bernard Commandery, No: 23, Knights Templar —W . L. G. Soule, E. C.; T. J. Wilson, Gen.

        San Bernardino Lodge, No.146, I. O. O. F.—Meets every Thursday evening at their hall on Third street, between C and D, at 7:30. Frank Perdew, N. G.; J. W. Eber, V. G.

        Magnolia Rebekah Degree Lodge, No. 94.—Meets in I. O. O. F. hall, the second and fourth Mondays of each month. Mrs. A. P. Morse, N. G.; Miss B. Caro, V. G.

        Morse Encampment, No. 51, I. O. O. F.—Meets at the hall on Third street, the first and third Friday evenings of each month. J. W. Eber, C. P.; C. E. Raymond, S W.

        Token Lodge, No. 290, I. O. O. F.—Meets at the hall every Saturday evening at 7:30.

        Canton Lodge, No. 17, P. M., I. O. O. F.— Meets at the hall every Tuesday evening. L. Rheinohl, Com.; C. E. Raymond, Lieut.

        Meridian Lodge, No. 145, A. O. U. W.—Meets every Tuesday evening in their hall on Third street, between D and E.  E. A. Holt, M. W.; N. A. Richardson, Recorder.

        Diamond Lodge, No. 235, A. O. U. W.— Meets every Monday evening in the hall on Court street. E. R. Waite, M. W.; George G. Ashbaugh, Recorder.

        San Bernardino Legion, No .5 , Select Knights, A. O. U. W—Meets every Friday at the A. O. U. W. hall on Third street. C. F. Roe, Commander; S. F. Kelley, Recorder.

        Valley Lodge, No. 27, K. of P.—F. L. Higgins, P. C.; E. H. Shonsis. V. C.; A. Palmer, K. of R. & S.

        Paradise Lodge, No. 237, I. O. B. B.—H. Baruch, President; B. Rowich, Secretary; L. Jacobs, Treasurer.

        W. R. Cowman Post, No. 57, G. A. R.—F. T. Singer, Coin.; J. D. Potter, V. C.

        Besides the above named there are the following organizations: The Ladies' Benevolent Society, the Associated Charities, the Hebrew Benevolent Society, the Native Daughters of the Golden West, the Native Sons of the Golden West; San Bernardino Lodge, No. 220, I. O. G. T.; the Central Labor Union (incorporated), San Bernardino Assembly, No. 8482, K. of L.; Local Union, No. 86, U. B. C. & J. of A.; Typographical Union, Horseshoers' and Blacksmiths' Union, Society of Spiritualists, Old Boys' Hunting Club, San Bernardino Land and Building Association, San Bernardino Fire Department, Horticultural Association, Board of

Trade, the Bar Association, and the Society of Pioneers.

        The San Bernardino Society of California Pioneers was organized in the court-house in the city of San Bernardino, in the county of San Bernardino, State of California, on the 21st day of January, 1888, with thirty charter members.

        Its objects, as stated in its constitution, are to cultivate the social virtues of its members, and to unite them by the bonds of friendship; to create a fund for benevolent purposes in behalf of its members, and to collect and preserve information and facts connected with the early settlement of California, and especially of the county of San Bernardino, with a history thereof from the time of such settlement to its organization as a county; to form libraries and cabinets, and by all other appropriate means to advance the interests and increase the prosperity of the society; to create a fund for the purchase of a suitable lot and the building thereon of a memorial hall to perpetuate the memory of those whose sagacity, energy and enterprise induced them to settle in this country, and to become the founders of a new county.

        The qualifications for the admission of members embrace all persons who were citizens of the United States, or capable of becoming citizens thereof, and who were residents of California prior to the 31st day of December, 1850, and also those who were the residents of the county of San Bernardino at the time of its organization, April 26, 1853; and the male descendants of all such persons also shall be eligible to membership.

        Honorary and life members may he admitted who have rendered distinguished and important services to the State, or to this society; also the wives and daughters of members of this society.

        The meetings of the society have been regularly held every Saturday, at two o'clock, since its organization.

        The first officers of the society, with their age, place of departure, mode of arrival, and place of arrival in the State of California, were as follows:

        George Lord, Sr., age eighty nine, left New York, crossed the plains, and arrived at Steep Hollow, California, in 1849; was and is the president of the society, and has been present at every meeting since its organization, with but one exception, when he was attending the funeral of an old friend.

        John Brown, Sr., the celebrated Rocky Mountain mountaineer and hunter, born December 22, 1817, at Worcester, Massachusetts, seventy-two years of age, crossed the plains with an ox and mule team, and arrived at Sacramento, California, in 1849; he was elected first vice-president of the society.

        James W. Waters, Sr., age seventy-five, left New York, crossed the plains, and arrived at Los Angeles, California, in 1844; was elected second vice-president of the society, and was a life-long companion, hunter and trapper with John Brown, Sr. He died at his home in San Bernardino, on the 20th day of September, 1889.

        David Seely, age seventy left Canada, crossed the plains and arrived in what is now San Bernardino, California, in 1850; he and John Brown, Sr., above referred to, are the only survivors of the commission appointed by the Legislature of this State to organize the county of San Bernardino, which they did April 26, 1853. Mr. Seely was elected third vice-president of the society.

        H. B. Harris, treasurer, age sixty-three, left Virginia, crossed the plains, and arrived at Mariposa mines in 1849.

        Henry M. Willis, corresponding secretary, age fifty-eight, left Maryland, came around Cape Horn, and reached San Francisco June 28, 1849.

        John Brown, Jr., secretary of the society, age forty-two, left the Rocky Mountains, crossed the plains with his parents, and arrived at Sacramento, California, in 1849.

        William F. Holcomb, vice-president, age fifty-nine, left Iowa, crossed the plains, and arrived at Hangtown in 1850.

        Sydney P. Waite, age fifty-one, left Kentucky, crossed the plains, and arrived at San Gabriel, California, in 1849.

        Marcus Katz, corresponding secretary, age sixty-six, a native of Baltimore, Maryland, came across the Isthmus, and arrived at San Francisco in August, 1850.

        R. W. Waterman, now Governor of the State of California, age sixty-three, left New York, crossed the plains, and arrived at Butte, California, in 1850.

        Charles G: Hill, age seventy nine, left New Hampshire, came around Cape Horn, and arrived in San Francisco, then known as Yerba Buena, in 1834.

        N. G. Gill, marshal, age fifty-nine, left New York, crossed the plains, and reached Feather river in 1849.

        D. H. Wixom; marshal; native of Iowa, age forty-two, crossed the plains, and arrived in Los Angeles County in 1851.

        At this, date (May 10, 1890) the number of members has increased to ninety-seven, and during the existence of the society five of its members (Hardin Yager, James W. Waters, Sr., Peter Forsee, John Garner and B. F. Mathews) have ended their career on earth. Since its organization the Pioneer Society has taken an active part in all public celebrations; the 4th of July, Admission day, and the Centennial Anniversary of Washington's inauguration as first President of the United States, were celebrated in an appropriate and becoming manner. The arrival of the California Pioneers from New England was made a special occasion for the manifestation of a most fitting welcome, participated in by the citizens generally, including the children of the city public schools. They arrived in San Bernardino on the 17th of April, 1890, and were accorded such a welcome as will never be forgotten by those participating therein. A dramatic and imposing feature of this reunion was the sudden death of General Samuel A. Chapin, of Maine, who delivered before the assemblage in the opera house an address pregnant with sentiment and emotion. Immediately after he sat down it was observed that his head had fallen forward, as if he had swooned; investigation showed that he was dead!—no doubt from excess of emotion. Every honor possible, in word and deed, was shown to his memory by the San Bernardino Pioneers.



        The following is a list of newspapers published in the county of San Bernardino: City of San Bernardino Times-Index, daily and weekly; Courier, daily and weekly; Riverside Press, daily and weekly; Phoenix, weekly; Colton Chronicle, weekly; News, weekly; Ontario Record, weekly; Observer, weekly; Redlands Citrograph, weekly ; South Riverside Bee, weekly; Beaumont Sentinel, weekly; Banning Herald, weekly; Chino Champion, weekly; Rialto Orange Grower, weekly.





        The Rubidoux Rancho was patented in December, 1876, to the Rubidoux heirs, and by them to the Riverside Company. That portion of the Riverside colony north of the Government land strip is situated on the Jurupa Rancho, being held under the original grant and patents from the United States Government, based upon a final confirmation of title by the United States Supreme Court. That portion reaching from south of the Jurupa line to the south line of present improvements is United States Government land, entered by Benjamin Hartshorn, who sold it to the Riverside Land and Irrigation Company. South of this again is a portion of the Rancho San Jacinto Sobrante, confirmed by United States patent. The title to all these lands is perfect and unquestioned, with no liens whatever existing:

        The origin of Riverside was as follows: In November, 1869, the California Silk Center Association was formed in Los Angeles for the purpose of growing silk-worms, and the mulberry-tree, citrus fruits and grapes. To this purpose the superintendent of the company purchased, under authority, over 4,000 acres of the Roubidoux Rancho, and 1,460 acres of Government land on the Hartshorn tract, which adjoined this to the eastward. There had also been made arrangements to purchase from the Los Angeles Land Company 3,169 acres of that portion of the Jurupa Rancho opposite the Roubidoux Rancho, on the east side of the Santa Ana river. At this time was planted, for the nourishment of the silk-worms of the prospective colony, a number of mulberry trees, many of which still exist. The president of this association was Louis Prevost, a French gentleman well versed in sericulture. In April, 1870, he died ; and as he was the only member conversant with the methods of the proposed system, the enterprise of silk-raising was abandoned.

        In 1870 Southern California was just beginning to attract attention as a resort for invalids, and also to call the interest of investors, struck by the large returns yielded by orchards and vineyards. In the spring of that year a party came to Los Angeles to select lands suitable for the settlement of a colony to engage in the culture of grapes and semitropical fruits. Among other objective points they visited in San Bernardino County the tract which had been chosen by the Sericultural Association, and were convinced that it possessed every essential requisite for the success of the proposed colony. Accordingly, on September 14, 1870, were purchased from the stockholders of the Silk Center Association all the real estate, water rights and franchises of the company. After the consummation of this purchase, an incorporated organization was formed, under the name of " The Southern California Colony A­sociation."

        These pioneers were so few in number that their names can be recorded; they were: Judge John W. North, Dr. James P. Greves, Dr. Sanford Eastman, E. G. Brown, Dr. K. D. Shugart, A. J. Twogood, D. C. Twogood, John Broadhurst, James A. Stewart and William J. Linville. Nine of these gentlemen still live to enjoy the wonderful transformations that are taking place about them.

        The first families to arrive were installed in September. During the next two months the lands were surveyed and platted, the water system begun, and other active operations carried forward.

        The first building erected in the settlement was the office of the company, built on the land afterward occupied by the depot of the Riverside, Santa Ana & Los Angeles Railway Company.

        The first child born in the settlement was a daughter of John Broadhurst, born December 26, 1870. The first born in Riverside was a daughter of A. R. Smith, born March 31, 1871.

        The first religions services were held in the company's office, the officiating clergymen being Revs. Higbie and Bates, respectively Methodist Episcopal and Congregational, and Rev. C. F. Loop, Episcopal.

        The first resident clergyman was Rev. J. W. Atherton, during whose administration was built the first church edifice (Congregational).

        In 1871 the citizens built the first school­house, a frame building, which cost $1,200.

        The first merchant in Riverside was E. Ames, who built in 1870–'71, a house still given to commercial purposes. In 1875 B. D. Buet & Brother erected the first brick building in Riverside. It was 25 x 70 feet and two stories high.



        To realize the enterprising and confident character of the people who undertook this work and to estimate properly the great results which through their efforts have been achieved in an astonishingly brief period, it is necessary to review briefly the difficulties with which they contended.

        The lands they selected lay not along the low flats bordering the river, but upon the higher "mesas" or tablelands, to irrigate which (and irrigation only could give life to the enterprise) the water must be led out upon those mesas miles away from the channel of the river, and hundreds of feet above it. To do this would require a higher order of engineering skill, and a far greater expenditure of money, than had hitherto been devoted to such purpose in the neighboring section. For this reason the project was ridiculed, and its failure predicted, by the residents of the neighboring territories which were better watered.

        The plains upon which they located were pasture lands only, destitute of water for domestic use even, and, owing to the deficiency of the annual rainfall, they had never yielded further growth than a scanty supply of feed for a few months each year to roving bands of cattle and sheep; from June to November they were almost as dry and barren as the desert.

        There was no railway nearer than Spadra, some forty miles distant, and this extended only to the small lighterage port of San Pedro, through Los Angeles, then a comparatively small and unimportant town. By this route, and over forty miles of rough and sandy roads must be brought everything that was required for the use of the colony; and to all appearances, the only outlet for the products of their fruit farms would for some years be over the same route.

        It required nearly a year's time and the expenditure of some $50,000 before the waters of the Santa Ana were conveyed through the new channels to the original town plat of Riverside; and no planting of trees or vines to any considerable extent could be safely done until there should be sufficient water available for permanent use.

        The first plantings were made in the northern portion of the city as now incorporated, that part being now the principal business center, in which are built the hotels, churches, postoffice, schools and business blocks, whose rapidly increasing number is fast displacing the beautiful groves of orange trees that surrounded the earlier homes of the pioneer settlers.

        The growth of the settlement was quite limited up to, and inclusive of, the year 1874, at whose end only some 1,500 acres had been brought under cultivation. This, however, was enough to prove the undertaking feasible and practicable, and by the success thus far others were encouraged to locate here and unite with those already on the ground.

        When the village plat of Riverside was surveyed in 1870–'71, the lands adjoining the village were placed on the market at $20 and $25 per acre for the choicest locations. Some of these same lands, with water facilities and improvements, consisting mainly of orchards and vineyards, have recently been sold for as high as $1,600 per acre. Village blocks of two­and-a-half acres, which sold in 1871 for from $100 to $200 each, are now in the business district, and worth, according to location, from $7,000 to $15,000 each.

        These are the lands for which, it is said, Rubidoux received $2.50 per acre; and a contemporary of this prior owner relates how, the two being then members of the board of supervisors, early in the '60's, Rubidoux said he would pay no more taxes on that portion of his rancho south and east of the Santa Ana river (now embracing all of Riverside), because it was "utterly worthless," and he caused it to be stricken off the assessor's roll, but after some years reclaimed it.

        During the years of 1875 and 1876 was formed the Riverside Land and Irrigating Company, which purchased all the lands and the water rights of the original corporation, the Southern California Colony Association. It also purchased some 3,500 acres from Messrs. W. T. Sayward and S. C. Evans, who then owned the Hartshorn tract, now Arlington. The same number of acres was purchased from the Tin Company tract, and these purchases procured the consolidation of all the contiguous landed interests in a territory nearly fifteen miles long and three miles wide, including all the rights to water that had been appropriated from the Santa Ana river for these lands, for domestic use, irrigation, and manufacturing purposes. This company expended, during these and the immediately succeeding years, some $200,000 in enlarging and extending the first canal, and in constructing the lower canal and the ditches and structures required for such an extended system of irrigation, at that time the largest and most comprehensive in California.

        The new territory was subdivided into ten-acre lots, conveniently located upon broad avenues, which are intersected at distances of half a mile by cross-streets. The chief of these, Magnolia Avenue, together with its northern extension, Brockton Avenue, is twenty miles in length, extending from the business center of Riverside in a southwesterly direction to the base of the Coast Range of mountains, and through South Riverside. Of this distance, seventeen miles is an air line; that part of the avenue running through this portion is 132 feet wide, divided by rows of handsome evergreen trees into two roadways and two sidewalks. During these years of astonishing progress, large areas of land were planted to the orange and lemon, and to the raisin grape; also many other varieties of plants and trees, fruit-bearing and ornamental, evergreen and deciduous, were planted, but no vineyards were ever planted here to the grapes used in the making of wine.

        As the growth of the settlement steadily increased, constant additions were required to the systems of water supply; and during the years 1885, 1886, 1887 and 1888, large expenditures were made for water, both for irrigating and domestic purposes.

        The growth of the colony from its foundation to the present time is best shown by the following summary of the population and the wealth of the place: population, 6,000; acreage under cultivation, 10,000; number of citrus fruit trees, 650,000; number of raisin grapevines, 1,350,000; number of acres of alfalfa, 600; number of deciduous fruit trees, 200,000; assessed value of property for taxation, $4,000,000; annual value of farm and orchard products, $1,100,750; length of main canals, fifty miles; length of distributing canals, 125 miles; length of pipe lines of all sizes, forty-two miles; length of streets and avenues, 175 miles; length of street railways, fifteen miles; cost of water system, over $1,000,000; cost of street railways, $73,000; cost of gas works, $30,000; cost of church property, $100,000; cost of school property, $125,000. Incomes from fruit farms for past year: citrus fruits, $630,000; raisins, $357,000; deciduous fruits dried, $80,000; hay, nursery stock, etc., $33,750.



        Few towns of its size have so many denominations represented as has Riverside. There are thirteen different organizations, and ten church edifices.

        The first church here was the Congregational, which was organized in 1872. The first church built for its use, on the corner of Vine and Sixth streets, was sold to the Disciples of Christ, when the older organization in 1887 occupied its fine new building near the center—the largest church in the city, which, with its parsonage, is worth $25,000. It contains a fine pipe organ. There are some 200 members and a flourishing Sunday-school. Rev. T. C. Hunt is pastor.

        The Methodists organized a few months after the Congregationalists, and the church had a steady growth, the chapel originally built for its use giving way in 1881 to a fine modern building. This property, including a $2,000 parsonage, is now very valuable. The church membership has more than doubled during the past few years. Rev. W. M. Sterling is the pastor.

        The third church organized here was the Baptist. Notwithstanding this congregation had a struggle for existence during its first few years, it is now one of the most prosperous in the city. It has very valuable property on one of the principal business streets, the seating capacity of the church being about 400. The Women's Christian Temperance Union have occupied the parlors of this church for several years. There is a church membership of over 225, and one of the strongest Sunday-schools in the city. Rev. Charles Button was for many years the pastor, and the prosperity is largely due to his efforts. He resigned last spring, and Rev. Charles Winbigler is the present pastor.

        The Universalists organized in Riverside in 1881, holding services for two years in public halls. They then built a neat chapel on a principal business corner. This will probably be replaced shortly by a larger church in a quieter location. Rev. Dr. George H. Deere is the incumbent.

        The Roman Catholics organized in 1886, and immediately began the erection of a brick church, costing $5,000. It has been sufficiently finished to make it available for the holding of services. When completed, it will be one of the largest and finest church edifices in the county. Father Stockman is the incumbent.

        Since 1885 the Church of the United Brethren has had an organization here, and it has a neat church building, erected in 1887, at a cost of about $3,000. Rev. M. S. Bovey is pastor.

        A new church (Swedenborgian) organization was effected in Riverside in 1885, with twenty-five members. The congregation owns a church building, and holds regular services. Rev. B. Edmiston is pastor.

        All Saints' Church (Episcopalian) is a beautiful edifice, with a parsonage attached. Among the features of the interior is a font of pure California onyx. A large surpliced choir furnishes excellent music, and many prosperous organizations are connected with the parish. The congregation is large and steadily increasing. Rev. B. W. R. Taylor is the rector.

        A Second Presbyterian Church (Calvary) was organized in the city proper in 1887, beginning with over forty members. Services are held in the Young Men's Christian Association Hall. The membership is steadily increasing, and within a short time a fine church building will be erected. Rev. R. H. Hartley is pastor.

        There are also Swedish and German Lutheran church organizations.

        The Arlington Presbyterian Church is located on Magnolia avenue, three miles from the business center. It has a beautiful property amidst luxurious orange groves, and is in a prosperous condition. This church was organized in 1879. Rev. H. B. Gage is the pastor.

        The following is a list of the



of Riverside: F. & A. M., Evergreen Lodge, No. 259; R. A. M., Riverside Chapter, No. 67; K. T., Riverside Commandery, No. 28; K. P. Sunnyside Lodge, No. 112; U. R. K. P.; I. O. O. F., Riverside Lodge, No. 282; I. O. O. F., Star Encampment, No. 73; I. O. O. F., Canton Sherman, No. 25, P. M.; G. A. R., Riverside Post, No. 118; W. R. C., Post No. 34; Riverside Rifles, Company C, Ninth Regiment, Captain J. N. Keith, organized 1890; W. C. T. U.; Orange Growers' Association; Society of Christian Endeavor.

        Riverside has an excellent daily and weekly newspaper, the Press, edited by Hon. E. W. Holmes, and also another good weekly, the Phoenix.

        The Riverside cemetery is on the southern side of the settlement.



        The 14,000 acres of irrigable land embraced in the Riverside colony are under the system of ditches constructed and owned by this water company. The owner of each acre of land entitled to water from this company's system has two shares of the company's stock attached to the land, and transferable only with that land, so that the company is composed entirely of users of water.

        There are about thirty miles of main canals, and nearly eighty miles of laterals. The amount of water now running in the canals is about 3,500 inches. On the upper canal, some three miles above Riverside, there is a drop of about forty feet, giving a water-power equal to about 300-horse-power, which is utilized by the Electric Light Company.

        The domestic system is separate in its working from the irrigating system, while it is owned and managed by the same company. The water is piped from the wells in a seventeen-inch main, and delivered under a pressure of 170 feet. The carrying capacity of the pipe is 225 inches, or about 3,200,000 gallons per diem. The main is laid below the town for over seven miles down the valley, thus bringing pure artesian water to the doors of most of the citizens, from the source of supply, which is fifteen artesian wells, eight miles above the town. The water is remarkably pure and soft. The domestic water system cost about $250,000, and the irrigating system over $600,000. The officers of this company are: Joseph Jarvis, M. D., President; J. Frost, Vice-President; G. O. Newman, Engineer; D. Cornell, Secretary.



        Riverside is located on the main line of the Santa Fé between San Diego and the East, by which road all points on their system in Southern California, as well as those in the Eastern States, are readily accessible. The city is also connected with the county seat and other principal towns of the county, by a standard-gauge steam motor line which starts from the heart of the city. It makes close connection with the Southern Pacific at Colton, whence the traveler can reach Los Angeles, San Francisco, or all points at the East. This motor line runs almost hourly trains and brings the residents of the county to the east and north of the city within a few minutes of town. The Riverside & Arlington street-car line is standard-gauge, and as it extends seven or eight miles down the valley it affords a cheap and easy mode of reaching any part of the beautiful Magnolia or Brockton avenues, and the delightful orange orchards along them. A trip over this road in reality affords a view of the garden spot of California. Since its establishment about two years since, this line has been a paying one. Hall's addition railway connects Park avenue, about two miles distant, with the center of the city, and it is aiding materially in the development of one of the most promising suburbs. The Riverside railway is something over three miles long. It cost over $25,000, having been built to connect the East Side and Santa Fé depot with the principal hotels and the business section. It will be extended ultimately to accommodate a large and growing settlement toward the Box Spring hills.



        Riverside has reason to be proud of the building her generous citizens have erected for the use of the Young Mens' Christian Association. The lot was donated by F. A. Miller. The front of the building is principally of pressed brick and Colton marble. The height from the sidewalk to the top of the tower is sixty feet. The building contains an assembly-room seating 325, with aisles and rostrum, reading-rooms, library, gymnasium, lavatories, etc., besides rooms designed for renting for stores, offices, or lodgings. The property is worth over $20,000. The Officers for the present year are: president, J. H. Goodhue; vice-presidents, G. F. Herrick and Dr. J. M. McLean; recording secretary, R. J. Pierson; general secretary, Moore Hesketh; treasurer, C. H. Scott.



at the head of the banking firms in Riverside, is the oldest bank in the city, and can boast the largest capital—$200,000—of all banks in San Bernardino County. Its officers are: A. Keith, President; Dr. J. A. Brenneman, Vice President; O. T. Dyer, Manager; E. C. Dyer, Cashier, and J. H. Goodhue, Assistant Cashier. Directors—W. H. Dyer, A. Keith, Orrin Backus, O. T. Dyer, J. A. Brenneman, E. C. Dyer, C. J. Gill.

        The gentlemen named above constitute a part of the wealthiest and most esteemed and reputable portion of the citizens of the county.

        Mr. O. T. Dyer founded the establishment in 1880, under the firm name of Dyer Brothers, with a capital of $30,000. His brother, W. H. Dyer, and sisters, Misses A. J. and E. C. Dyer—the latter of whom is still cashier—were partners with him in the venture.

        In 1885, the increasing demands of the prosperous and growing town of Riverside rendered an enlargement of facilities advisable, and the Riverside Banking Company was incorporated, with a capital of $200,000, as above mentioned.

        The institution as a whole has done much for Riverside. It has facilitated the bulk of the prominent enterprises for the welfare of the community, and rendered practicable many of the projects and improvements by furnishing the funds for the undertaking, this being its most important branch. Although it carries on a regular banking business in all its departments of foreign and domestic exchange, collections, discounts, etc., the majority of its business is derived from loaning money for depositors, Eastern and foreign capitalists, and of its own funds. Its correspondents are the National Bank, New York; Merchants' National Bank, Chicago; Pacific Bank, San Francisco; First National Bank, Los Angeles, and Consolidated National, of San Diego.



        The incorporation covers the whole territory of the Riverside tract, or some fifty-six square miles, of which two square miles, being the old village of Riverside with its recent additions, form the business center of the city. Of this tract, thirty-three square miles are divided into tracts for small fruit farms of five, ten, twenty, and forty acres; twenty-one square miles are still used for grazing purposes, being above any system of irrigation existing at present, although it can he watered from the upper tributaries of the Santa Ana river.

        At the time of incorporation in 1884, the assessed valuation of property in the city proper was $1,099,041; it was $3,589,783 in 1887; $3, 982,899 in 1888; and $4,391,460 in 1889. This shows that the growth of the place was neither sensibly accelerated by the " boom," nor checked by the cessation of that abnormal impulse. The city has no debt. The rate of taxation for 1889 was only .55 on $100 for municipal uses.

        As an incorporated city, Riverside ranks only as of the sixth class, but her increase in population is sure to give her, and that right speedily, place in the fourth class.

        The government consists of a board of five trustees, city clerk, recorder, marshal, superintendent of streets, and city engineer.

        There is a fire department, and a military company, etc.

        There are three banks; two daily newspapers; five good hotels; ten large packing-houses for the handling of citrus and other fruits; one cold storage and ice works; one lemon-curing establishment; one fruit cannery; eight dry-goods, clothing, and shoe stores; ten grocery stores; one music store; three millinery stores; two stationery and book stores; four jewelry stores; four drug stores; four hardware, tin, and plumbing establishments; three large livery stables; two harness stores; two furniture stores; five tobacconists; two bakeries; two planing mills; three lumber yards; five large boarding­houses; three restaurants; two large carriage shops; crockery stores; carpenter shops; black­smith shops; laundries, etc., etc.

        The medical and legal professions are both well and largely represented by a number of firms and individuals; and the interests of the real estate and insurance business are especially cared for by representative firms in those branches.

        In January, 1879, was formed the nucleus of a free public library, which now circulates about 1,500 volumes.

        In the Loring Opera House, Riverside boasts a little gem of a theater, second only to the New California of San Francisco in its appointments. Its interior finish is exquisite; chairs of the most improved style, beautiful draperies, lights by both gas and electricity, make this house a thing of beauty. Its scenery, stage appointments and fittings generally are all that could be desired. A feature especially to be commended, is the supplying of the stage with an asbestos fire-proof curtain and steel-clad doors, and the provision of several roomy exits, to guard against loss of life by fire. The seating capacity approximates 1,000. This theater is situated on the ground-floor of the Loring block, a three-story edifice owned and built in 1889 by a stock company. The cost was $30,000.

        On the first floor of this building are the apartments which the city occupies for the transaction of municipal business, on a ten-years' lease. On this floor are the offices of the city clerk, board of health, and a large court­room with a jury-room adjoining, also the Riverside Free Library and Reading Room. On the second floor is a large room destined for the meetings of the city trustees, with smaller rooms for the city engineer, superintendent of streets, etc. On the ground floor is the city marshal's office, also the quarters of the fire department; and in the basement is the jail, with fine equipments, including six steel cells. Each floor has a fire-proof vault for the safe-keeping of records.

        The following are the present officers of the city:

        Board of Trustees—E. W. Holmes, president; M. Hoover, W. P. Russell, W. A. Hayt, H. E. Allatt:

        Library Trustees—Rev. Dr. George H. Deere, Prof. N. C. Twining, E. W. Holmes, A. S. White, C. J. Gill.

        Board of Health—E. W. Holmes, president; C. C. Sherman, secretary; W. J. McIntyre, Bradford Morse, J. W. Johnson.

        City Clerk and Assessor, Ad. S. Alkire; Marshal, Bradford Morse; Treasurer, J. M. Drake; Recorder, W. W. Noland; City Attorney, W. J. McIntyre; Superintendent of Streets, C. W. Finch; City Engineer, J. W. Johnson; Health Officer, C. C. Sherman; Chief of Fire Department, J. N. Keith.

        If it is the proud boast of San Bernardino County that she possesses more school property in proportion to assessed valuation than does any other county of the State, Riverside may claim double eminence in this regard, since she leads by a great deal the rest of the county in the value and class of school property. The new High and Grammar-school building at Riverside is justly ranked among the very best school­houses in California. It is a magnificent structure, massive, substantial, and admirably arranged for school uses, combining the greatest solidity and the best arrangement of rooms with the finest architectural results. It contains four rooms for high-school use, with capacity for 100 students. There are at present some seventy students, a number of whom are non-residents, under three teachers in this department. Moreover, five grammar classes have quarters in this building, with another soon to be organized, on account of the increased attendance. Besides the roomy vestibules and halls, there are rooms for the library, the office of the superintendent, a tenement for the janitor, and the necessary ante-rooms. A two-story brick addition will contain lavatories, closets, etc., to be supplied with artesian water from the city mains, and to have main sewer connections. Although this building is deemed almost fire-proof, it is provided with apparatus to fight fires, with sufficient pressure to throw water over any part of the building. This building cost about $65,000.

        The Sixth street school is a four room wooden building, with a principal and three assistants, in charge of the primary grades.

        The Arlington district school is a handsome wooden building, containing grammar, intermediate, and primary grades.

        The Magnolia school is a mixed class, and there are two other primary schools in the city.

        The minor school-houses of Riverside represent an aggregate cost of some $10,000.

        Outside of the incorporated limits of the city are the following schools: the South Riverside district, having a beautiful two-story brick building, which cost over $20,000; the fine new building at East Riverside, which cost $15,000; and fine new buildings at Rincon district and South Riverside.

        There are twenty teachers employed in the Riverside schools.



        Riverside has 6,300 acres of land under cultivation. Of this acreage a considerable proportion is used for grain, hay and vegetables, and another large portion is planted to trees not yet bearing. By a conservative estimate, this land in five years from the present will produce double the amount, in money value, of the present yield. This year's harvest has brought: for oranges, $675,000; raisins, $350,000; dried fruits, $75,000; or a total of $1,000,000. Besides this there have been produced large quantities of green fruit, alfalfa, barley and vegetables, which will increase the crop to fully $1,250,000, or about $200 to the acre. As high as $350 per acre was obtained from a four-year-old budded grove the past season, and there are about forty orchards in the county which paid ten per cent net, on valuation of $2,000 and upwards per acre the last crop.

        The first car-load of the State's shipment of the crop for that season was sent from Riverside, December 9, 1888.

        It is more than superfluous to cite here the world-wide fame of Riverside fruits, whose superiority is everywhere conceded. Yet it may be pertinent to recapitulate the prizes awarded to the fruit-growers of Riverside at the World's Exposition in New Orleans, in March, 1885, as follows:

        Gold medal for the best twenty varieties of oranges grown in California.

        Gold medal, for the best twenty varieties of oranges grown in the United States.

        Gold medal for the best twenty varieties of oranges grown in world.

        Silver medal (the highest premium offered in this department) for the best display of lemons, from any part of the world.

        In this competition were met oranges and lemons from various districts of California, from Sonora and other Mexican States, from Louisiana, Florida, the West Indies, and various places along the Mediterranean.

        Riverside fruits have repeatedly taken first prizes at State and district California fairs.

        Some idea of the rapid development and the present extent of orange-growing as an industry may be had by a comparison of the amounts of annual shipments. From twenty car-loads during the season of 1880–'81, the exportation had grown to 760 car-loads in 1887–'88, and to 1,049 car-loads, or 310,262 boxes, in 1888–'89. This export brought into the county some $720,000 in cash. This shipment, 925 car-loads, or 263,879 boxes, were from the groves of Riverside, whence in 1880–'81 were shipped but 15 car-loads, or 4,290 boxes.

        Raisin culture as an industry of Riverside may be said to have begun in 1879 with the beginning of regular shipments of raisins, the total output in that year being reckoned at 30,000 boxes. It has steadily increased from ear to year. Since 1879 the average annual yield per acre has been 206 1/3 boxes per acre, which, it must be remembered, comprehends also the very light crops of those years when the vineyards were first coming into bearing. At present the average yield is 274 boxes per acre.

        The shipments of raisins in 1887 footed up 180,000 boxes; in 1888, 215,000 boxes, and in 1889, 225,000 boxes. Thus this staple netted to the producers of Riverside over $350,000 this season, so that the proceeds on raisins for several years past will be seen to range from $150 to $250 net per acre, oftener the latter.

The income of Riverside from only three items: oranges, lemons and raisins, exceeds $1,000,000 annually. The total income of Riverside planters for the year 1889 was over $1,100,000, or $350 to each man, woman and child engaged in agricultural pursuits. The crop for 1890 will exceed in value last year's harvests, and the average per capita will be greater. The deciduous fruits also are grown in considerable quantities, and with profit, but their importance is not to be compared with that of citrus fruits.


Transcribed by Kathy Sedler.

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