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Business Connections 2 through 31

BUS US-24 (Pontiac) BUS US-31 (Niles) BUS US-31 (Pentwater)
CONN US-24 (Erie) BUS US-31 (Holland) BUS US-31 (Ludington)
BUS US-23 (Ann Arbor) CONN US-24 (Woodhaven) BUS US-31 (Muskegon) Jump to Bottom
BUS US-23 (Fenton) CONN US-24 (Taylor) BUS US-31 (Whitehall-Mont.)  
BUS US-23 (Rogers City) BUS M-28 (Ishpeming-Neg.) BUS US-31 (Hart)  

US-2
Ironwood
Western Terminus: Wisconsin state line between Ironwood, Mich. and Hurley, Wisc. (where Silver St crosses the Montreal River)
Eastern Terminus: US-2/Cloverland Dr at cnr of Douglas Blvd in Ironwood, just north of downtown
Length: 1.27 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-2 (Ironwood)
Notes: Until c.2002, BUS US-2 continued westerly from the Michigan/Wisconsin state line through downtown Hurley, Wisconsin via Silver St, then northerly via US-51 back to terminate at US-2. (Although Wisconsin's "business connections" are generally locally-maintained, BUS US-2 through Hurley was under state control since it was concurrently designated with STH-77 and US-51 for its entire length.) At some time around 2002, WisDOT removed all BUS US-2 signage on their side of the state line, meaning BUS US-2 now terminates at the state line. While Silver St (formerly part of BUS US-2 & STH-77) in Hurley from the Michigan state line to US-51/Second Ave is still technically a Wisconsin state trunkline highway, it bears no trunkline signage—not even that of STH-77.
This highway was the only "bi-state Business Connection" in Michigan, and only one of a handful in the entire nation. Ironwood's BUS US-2 is also the second-shortest Business Connection in Michigan, only 1/2-mile mile longer than the shortest, BUS M-32 in Hillman.
History: c.1942-44 - At some point between June 15, 1942 and January 1, 1945, all of M-54 in the City of Ironwood, running via Douglas Blvd, Frederick St, Suffolk St, Aurora St and Silver St, is redesignated as BUS US-2. The sketchiness of maps and documents during this wartime period makes it difficult to pinpoint a more accurate date, although the redesignation may have had something to do with the jurisdictional transfer, as noted below.
  1942 (Aug 17) - A total of 0.3-mile of Silver St and Aurora St from just west of Albany St westerly to the Wisconsin state line is transferred to state control. (The 0.9 miles from just west of Albany St northerly via Aurora, Suffolk, Frederick and Douglas had been previously transferred to the state in 1928 and 1938.) Whether this transfer coincides with the redesignation of M-54 to BUS US-2 is unclear (see above).
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-2 (Ironwood) is freeway or expressway.
Continue on: Wisc STH-77 into Wisconsin
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-2 (Ironwood) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-2 (Ironwood) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-10
Reed City
Western Terminus: Jct US-10 & Northland Dr (Old US-131) north of downtown Reed City
Eastern Terminus: US-10 east of Reed City
Length: 2.09 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-10 (Reed City)
Notes: This highway follows portions of various former US-10 routings through Reed City. Also, prior to 1987, the west half of BUS US-10 was concurrently designated with US-131.
History: 1958 (Dec 12) - A new, two-lane northerly bypass of Reed City for US-10 is completed and assumed into the state trunkline system. The former route of US-10 through downtown Reed City via E Church St and US-131/Chestnut St is redesignated as BUS US-10.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-10 (Reed City) is freeway or expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-10 (Reed City) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-10 (Reed City) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-10
Clare
Western Terminus: US-127/US-10 at the Old 27 interchange north of downtown Clare
Eastern Terminus: US-10 southeast of Clare
Length: 4.53 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-10 (Clare)
Notes: The MDOT General Highway Map of Clare County, and therefore most commercially made maps, label M-115/Ludington Dr west of Clare through Farwell as part of BUS US-10. However, in c.1989-90 when M-115 was relocated to Ludington Dr through Farwell and into Clare, MDOT mislabled it on the map and commercial map makers (Rand McNally, H M Gousha, etc) perpetuated the error. BUS US-10 continues to run concurrently with BUS US-127 along McEwan St north from downtown Clare back to the US-127/US-10 freeway.
History: 1975 (Nov 26) - The new US-10/M-115 freeway bypass of Clare and Farwell in southern Clare Co is assumed into the state trunkline system and opened to traffic, resulting in the removal of US-10 from its previous routing through the downtowns of Clare and Farwell and onto US-27 (present-day US-127) northerly to the new freeway, then westerly via the new freeway back to its existing alignment west of M-115. A new BUS US-10 designation is created at Clare, beginning at the US-10 freeway east of the city and proceeding westerly via the former route of US-10 into downtown Clare, then turning northerly via BUS US-27/McEwen St, terminating at US-27/US-10 on the northern edge of the city. The portion of the former US-10/M-115 from downtown Clare westerly through Farwell to the new freeway remains in the system as an unsigned state trunkline highway.
  c.1989-90 - MDOT decides to re-assign a route designation to the unsigned trunkline portion of the former US-10/M-115 through downtown Farwell and into downtown Clare at the jct of BUS US-27 & BUS US-10. Some MDOT sources seem to indicate the department may have initially intended to make this part of a rerouted BUS US-10, however when the signs were erected in the field, that route was posted as a rerouting of M-115. BUS US-10 remains on the same routing it has occupied since 1975. Most commercial mapmakers, however, continued to indicate M-115 through downtown Farwell and into downtown Clare as being BUS US-10 for many years.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-10 (Clare) is freeway or expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-10 (Clare) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-10 (Clare) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-10
Midland
Western Terminus: US-10 at the Eastman Rd interchange north of downtown Midland
Eastern Terminus: Jct US-10 & M-20 east of Midland at the Midland/Bay county line
Length: 11.62 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-10 (Midland)
Notes: Between downtown and its eastern terminus, BUS US-10 runs concurrently with M-20.
Prior to the completion of the US-10 freeway bypassing the city of Midland, present-day BUS US-10 was designated US-10A (or ALT US-10), while US-10 bypassed the city center via Saginaw Rd.
History 1960 (Nov 15) - Concurrent with the opening of the US-10 freeway bypass of Midland between the present-day Bay City Rd interchange east of the city and the Stark Rd interchange northwest of the city, several state trunkline changes occur:
  • The former route of US-10 through the city via Saginaw Rd is turned back to local control.
  • The portion of US-10A along Bay City Rd and Ellsworth St (east of Lyons Rd) is also turned back to local control.
  • The remainder of US-10A along Ellsworth St (west of Lyons Rd) and Eastman Rd northerly from downtown to Saginaw Rd (former US-10) is redesignated as BUS US-10.
  • Eastman Rd from Saginaw Rd northerly to the new US-10 freeway is transferred to state control in order to bring the newly-designated BUS US-10 back to its parent route.
  • A new routing for M-20 and the newly-designated BUS US-10 is assumed into the state trunkline system easterly from downtown. Beginning at Ellsworth St, the one-way pairs of Lyons & Patrick Rds are transferred to state control easterly to halfway between Washington St and Saginaw Rd. From that point easterly to the new US-10 freeway, M-20/BUS US-10 utilizes a new freeway alignment running immediately south of Patrick Rd with interchanges at Saginaw Rd and Waldo Rd, before terminating at US-10 on the Midland/Bay Co line.
  1963 (July 1) - The routes of M-20 & BUS US-10 in downtown Midland are rerouted onto a pair of one-way streets to improve traffic flow through the city. The former route of M-20 & BUS US-10 along Ellsworth St is turned back to local control, as are other associated street segments, including the one block of Lyons Rd from Ellsworth to Buttles St, the two blocks of Patrick Rd from Ellsworth to Indian St, and the one block of Eastman Rd from Ellsworth to Buttles. The new one-way pair transferred to state control consists of Buttles St from Eastman Rd to Lyons Rd for eastbound traffic and Indian St from Patrick Rd to Eastman Rd for westbound traffic.
    c.1990 - Site visitor Philip Putnam wrote in with details about a realignment of BUS US-10/M-20 near downtown Midland. Until this time, the eastbound route of BUS US-10/M-20 followed Buttles St southeasterly to a 90-degree corner at Lyon St where it turned easterly via Lyon. Meanwhile, the westbound trunkline route followed Patrick St westerly to a 90-degree turn at Patrick St where it turned northwesterly into downtown. Due to long traffic backups at the various traffic signals at these intersections, two new curvilinear alignments were constructed so that Buttles would follow a sweeping route onto Lyon for eastbound traffic while Patrick similarly curved into Indian St. Several other local streets in the area were closed and abandoned to eliminate other potential traffic conflicts. The former route via Buttles St from Haley St to Lyon St is turned back to local control, while the portion of Lyon from Buttles to Grove and Patrick from Grove to Buttles and Indian from Patrick west to Haley is obliterated and abandoned as a public roadway. —Thanks much to Phil for the heads-up!
Freeway: BUS US-10/M-20 is freeway from Washington St easterly to US-10 east of Midland.
NHS: From jct M-20 in downtown Midland to eastern terminus at US-10 east of Midland.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-10 (Midland) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-10 (Midland) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-12
Niles
Western Terminus: US-12/Pulaski Hwy southwest of Niles (east of US-12 & US-31 interchange)
Eastern Terminus: Jct M-51 & US-12 (11th St & Pulaski Hwy) south of Niles
Length: 5.37 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-12 (Niles)
Notes: The original routing of BUS US-12 through downtown Niles was the pre-1961 BUS US-112 routing through town, before US-112 was replaced by the US-12 designation. Even before that, the route was the original routing of US-112 through the city before the southern bypass was completed in 1956.
In 1994, the eastern third of BUS US-12 was transferred from its Main St routing onto 11th St to replace the US-33 designation from downtown Niles to the jct of US-33 & US-12 south of the city. At that same time, a concurrent BUS US-31 routing was added along that 11th St alignment. Then in 1998, as US-33 was removed from the state of Michigan, the BUS US-31 designation was truncated in downtown Niles, while M-51 was extended southerly, co-signed with BUS US-12, to replace US-33 to the Indiana state line.
History: 1957 (Jun 24) - Even though US-12 does not run within more than 20 miles of Niles, the direct predecessor to Niles' BUS US-12 is created on this date. Formerly travelling through downtown, US-112 and M-60 are transferred to a new southerly bypass of the city with the former alignments for both highways becoming BUS US-112 and BUS M-60, respectively. BUS US-112 begins at US-112 (present-day US-12) southwest of Niles where Chicago Rd & Pulaski Hwy intersect and proceeds northeasterly via Chicago Rd to Lincoln Ave, northerly via Lincoln, easterly via Grant St, northerly via Saint Joseph Ave and easterly via Main St through downtown and southeasterly back to the new bypass.
  1962 (January) - ALL of the existing US-112 in Michigan is "decommissioned" in favor of rerouting US-12 via that route from New Buffalo via Niles, Sturgis, Coldwater and the Irish Hills to Ypsilanti and into Detroit. Thus, BUS US-112 at Niles is redesignated to conform to its new parent route as BUS US-12.
  1973 (Nov 1) - Until this time, BUS US-12, US-31/US-33 and BUS M-60 all meet at a rather confusing set of three very closely-spaced intersections at E Main St, 11th St and Oak St. Several realignments are made official on this date to streamline the many different traffic movements at this junction. While a new northbound connector for US-31/US-33 swings traffic easterly from 11th St to hook into Oak St at the southern end of 12th St (existing 11th St from Main St south to Maple St), BUS US-12/Main St itself now swings 45-degrees to the north to intersect BUS M-60/Oak St at a 90-degree angle at the corner of 13th St, then proceeding westerly via Oak St back to Main St. The former route of BUS US-12/Main St from Oak St to Maple St is cancelled as a state trunkline and a portion is even abandoned as a public roadway.
  1994 (Jan 3) - The portion of BUS US-12 from BUS M-60/Oak St southeasterly via Main St to the US-12 & M-60 interchange southeast of Niles is removed from this routing and transferred onto the 11th St alignment, joining BUS US-31 there and supplanting the US-33 designation in the process. US-33 is scaled back to a terminus at the US-12 interchange south of the city at the new eastern terminus of BUS US-12 as well. Main St from BUS M-60/Oak St southeasterly to the Berrien/Cass Co line is turned back to local control, while the (very) short portion of the former BUS US-12 from the county line to the US-12 & M-60 junction remains as a short unsigned state highway stub. It has been reported, however, that this change may have been made in 1987 in terms of signage in the field with the actual jurisdictional transfer taking place in 1994. —Thanks Marc!
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-12 is freeway or expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-12 (Niles) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-12 (Niles) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.
  Routes in Niles, Michigan Throughout the Years - part of Marc Fannin's Roadfan.com website dedicated to the various highways in and around Niles.
  US-12 (Main St.) / St. Joseph River - from MDOT, "This is the fourth largest earth-filled concrete arch bridge known to survive in Michigan, with an overall length of 338 feet."

BUSINESSUS-12
Ypsilanti
Western Terminus: I-94/US-12 at Exit 183 south of downtown Ypsilanti
Eastern Terminus: US-12 just east of the Wayne/Washtenaw Co line (east of Ypsilanti)
Length: 5.30 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-12 (Ypsilanti)
Notes: West of downtown Ypsilanti, BUS US-12 formerly ran via Michigan Ave back to I-94 & US-12, but now runs south along Huron and Hamilton Sts.
History: 1942 (Aug 17) - Nearly twenty years before Ypsilanit's BUS US-12 designation would even become reality, the seeds of its existence are planted when a southerly bypass of the city is officially assumed into the state trunkline system and designated BYPASS US-112. This BYP US-112, running along the same route as today's I-94 from Carpenter Rd easterly to the "US-12 Split," then  northeasterly via present-day US-12 back to Michigan Ave east of the city, is part of the larger "Willow Run Expressway System" built to facilitate easier travel to and from the bomber plants at Willow Run during World War II. At this time, US-112 remains signed via Michian Ave through Ypsilanti.
  1956 - In mid-1956, again prior to the existence of BUS US-12 at Ypsilanti, the route of US-112 is removed from downtown and transferred onto the bypass along with US-12, which is signed concurrently. The former route of US-112 through Ypsilanti is designated BUS US-112, the direct predecessor to today's BUS US-12.
  1962 (January) - ALL of the existing US-112 in Michigan is "decommissioned" in favor of rerouting US-12 via that route from New Buffalo via Niles, Sturgis, Coldwater and the Irish Hills to Ypsilanti and into Detroit. Thus, BUS US-112 at Ypsilanti is redesignated to conform to its new parent route as BUS US-12.
  1971 (Dec 6) - The modernization of a portion of the I-94/US-12 freeway bypassing Ypsilanti results in some major changes to the route of BUS US-12 through the city. The substandard Grove St interchange on the freeway is closed and is replaced by a new one at Whittaker Rd-Huron St. Huron St from the new I-94/US-12 interchange northerly into downtown at Michigan Ave is transferred to state control, as is the nearby Hamilton St from Huron just north of the freeway to Michigan Ave. These two new state trunkline routings form a pair of one-way streets connecting the freeway with the existing BUS US-12 downtown and the BUS US-12 designation is applied to the new route. The former route of BUS US-12 from Exit 181 northeasterly via Michigan Ave to Hamilton St downtown is retained as an unsigned state trunkline for the time being. The net result is a loss of approximately one mile in the length of BUS US-12.
  1985 (Dec 1) - After almost exactly 14 years as an unsigned state trunkline, the former route of BUS US-12 along Michigan Ave from I-94/US-12 at Exit 181 into downtown Ypsilanti is finally turned back to state control.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-12 (Ypsilanti) is freeway or expressway.
NHS: From western terminus at I-94/US-12 south of downtown Ypsilanti to the western jct of M-17 in downtown Ypsilanti.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-12 (Ypsilanti) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-12 (Ypsilanti) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

CONNECTORM-13
Southern Terminus: I-75/US-23 at EXIT 164 northwest of Bay City
Northern Terminus: M-13/Huron Rd just south of Kawkawlin
Length: 2.41 miles
Map: Route Map of CONN M-13
Notes: What is now CONN M-13 was originally the northern end of the US-23 freeway in Michigan. The segment of freeway completed in 1961 from M-81 at Saginaw and bypassing Bay City on the west, continued northerly to merge back into existing US-23 at Kawkawlin. Later, as the US-23 (now I-75/US-23) freeway was completed northerly to Standish, this 2.41 mile segment of freeway was bypassed. Initially, the State Highway Dept designated this freeway spur along with the rest of the former US-23 from Kawkawlin to Standish as ALT US-23. When AASHO refused to grant the new Alternate route designation, the former route of US-23 was then redesignated as an extension of M-13 and the short freeway section became CONNECTOR M-13.
On the southbound side of CONN M-13, MDOT has posted "TO I-75" route marker assemblies instead of "CONNECTOR M-13" signs, in order to better guide motorists to the route's final desitination.
Internally, MDOT also refers to CONN M-13 as "Connector 14," which has nothing to do with the route number. Rather, MDOT intially numbered its Connectors sequentially with this being the fourteenth on the list at the time.
History: 1961 (Jan 3) - What would eventually become CONN M-13 is officially assumed into the state trunkline system as a part of the new I-75/US-23 freeway bypass of Bay City on this date and likely opens to traffic about this same time. This new segment of freeway begins at what had been the northern end of the US-23"Saginaw Bypass" at present-day M-13 and proceeds northerly across the new Zilwaukee Bridge and bypasses Bay City to the west, dumping back into the existing US-23 (present-day M-13) at Kawkawlin. Sources indicate it is unlikely the portion of the new freeway north of the US-10 interchange is signed as I-75 at this time, however.
  1967 (Oct 6) - A new 27-mile long stretch of freeway is officially designated as part of the state trunkline system from just northwest of Bay City northerly to Standish and designated as a relocation of US-23 between Kawkawlin and Standish. Initially, the State Highway Department designates the existing freeway from where the new US-23 freeway splits off (present-day Exit 164) to M-13 at Kawkawlin as ALT US-23 and continuing via the former US-23 all the way to Standish. Route markers designating the route as ALT US-23 may or may not be erected in the field, as it seems the designation has not yet been approved by AASHO.
  1968 - By 1968, the ALT US-23 designation has been officially rejected by AASHO and the State Highway Department is forced to find a different designation for the former route of US-23. From Kawkawlin northerly to Standish, a ready replacement is handy with the M-13 designation being extended between those cities. This leaves, however, the short freeway connector once part of US-23 between Exit 164 and Kawkawlin without a route designation. The MDSH remedies this by designating this connector as, of course, CONNECTOR M-13.
Freeway: The entire length of CONN M-13 is freeway.
NHS: From southern terminus at I-75/US-23 to Wilder Rd northwest of Bay City.
Photographs:
Weblinks: CONN M-13 @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of CONN M-13 at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-23
Ann Arbor
Southern Terminus: US-23 at Exit 37 (jct US-23, BUS US-23/BL I-94 & M-17) between Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti
Northern Terminus: US-23 at Exit 45 (the western jct of US-23 & M-14) north of Ann Arbor
Length: 7.42 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-23 (Ann Arbor)
Notes: BUS US-23 runs via the former routing of US-23 through the city prior to the completion of the freeway bypass. The route travels along Washtenaw Ave and Main St through the city, and is concurrently designated with BL I-94 from its eastern terminus at US-23 into downtown at the cnr of Main St & Huron St.
History: 1962 (Nov 28) - The new freeway relocation of US-23 from Milan on the Monroe/Washtenaw Co line northerly to the 1958 relocation of US-23 north of Ann Arbor (at the present-day western jct of US-23 & M-14 at Exit 45) is officially dertermined as a state trunkline highway and likely opens to traffic at this same time as well. The existing route of US-23 from the new freeway east of Ann Arbor (present-day Exit 39) northwesterly via Washtenaw Ave into downtown, then westerly via Huron St to Main St, then northerly via Main St to the Huron River is redesignated as BUS US-23. From the Huron River northerly, the new BUS US-23 designation runs via the freeway segment assumed on Jan 24, 1958, terminating at the triple-decker interchange where the new US-23 freeway ties into the 1958 routing.
  1965 (Mar 30) - When the route of M-14 into Ann Arbor from the northeast via Plymouth Rd, Broadway St and Beakes St is turned back to local control, the M-14 designation now runs concurrently with all of BUS US-23 from the cnr of Main St & Huron St downtown to the northern terminus of the route at US-23.
  1965 (Nov 16) - With the official completion of the M-14 freeway from BUS US-23/Main St westerly to I-94, the concurrency with M-14 is shortened to just that portion from Main St northerly to the northern terminus at US-23.
Freeway/Expwy: BUS US-23 (Ann Arbor) is freeway from jct M-14 at Exit 4 (Main St interchange) north of downtown to northern terminus.
NHS: Entire route.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-23 (Ann Arbor) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-23 (Ann Arbor) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

Former BUS US-23
Fenton
FORMER SIGNED PORTION:
Fmr. W. Terminus: US-23 at Exit 79 (Silver Lake Rd interchange) in northwest Fenton
Fmr. E. Terminus: Cnr Leroy St & Silver Lake Rd in downtown Fenton
Former Length: 1.47 miles

FORMER PARTIALLY-SIGNED PORTION:
Fmr. W. Terminus: US-23 at Exit 78 (Owen Rd interchange) in southwest Fenton
Fmr. E. Terminus: Cnr Leroy St & River St in downtown Fenton
Former Length: 1.90 miles

Map: Route Map of FORMER BUS US-23 (Fenton)
Notes: New! This trunkline route was decommissioned on December 7, 2006 and the alignment turned back to local control when the City of Fenton and MDOT came to agreement as to the transfer specifics. Almost fifty years after it was commissioned, Fenton's BUS US-23 has passed into history.
  BUS US-23 at Fenton was a rather unique route in a few ways:
  • First, it was discontinuous in that two blocks in the middle of the route were transferred to local control in the mid-1970s with the remainder of the route remaining in the state trunkline system for thirty more years.
  • Second, with the middle missing, MDOT chose to only sign the northern "half" of the route via Silver Lake Rd for three decades. The Owen Rd/Shiawassee Ave/Leroy St portion was an (completely) unsigned state trunkline from 1975-2004.
  • Third, BUS US-23 was not indicated on the freeway exit signage along US-23!
  • Fourth, even though the original reason for the discontinuity of the route—a downtown pedestrian mall—was removed in the early-2000s, the two blocks transferred to local control were not "re-transferred" to MDOT so that the route could become a complete loop through the city again.
  Because MDOT referred to the Owen-Shiawaseee-Leroy route—the unsigned portion of the route—as BUS US-23, most commercially-produced maps as well as all online/CD-ROM mapping applications did as well. Unfortunately, this was potentially confusing to the motorist expecting to see a fully-signed route where there was not one. However, several BUS US-23 route marker assemblies began showing up along the historically-unsigned portion of this route in 2004, although the two blocks in downtown Fenton were still not on the state trunkline system and the route was still not signed on the US-23 freeway itself. Please see the "2004" listing in the "History" section below for details.
History: 1958 (Sept 16) - The new 33.5-mile long "Fenton-Clio Expressway" is assumed into the state trunkline system and opened to traffic, beginning at the existing US-23 on the Livingston/Genesee Co line at Fenton and proceeding northerly bypassing Flint and Clio, ending at Birch Run. This new freeway is the relocation of US-23 through Genesee Co. While the former route of US-23 from Main St in Fenton northerly toward Flint is turned back to local control on this date, the rest within Fenton becomes part of a new BUS US-23 routing. Beginning at an intersection with US-23 at the southern end of the new freeway, BUS US-23 runs northeasterly via Shiawassee Ave to Leroy St, northerly via Leroy to Silver Lake Rd, and westerly via Silver Lake to an interchange with the new freeway west of downtown. The segment via Silver Lake is transferred to state control on this date as well.
  1961 (Oct 12) - With the completion of the "freewayization" of US-23 from the Livingston/Genesee Co line southerly toward Hartland, the intersection with BUS US-23 on the county line is closed and the 1.3 miles of BUS US-23 from that closed intersection northeasterly to the cnr of Shiawassee Ave & Owen Rd is turned back to local control on this date. However, nearly 1 mile of Owen Rd from an interchange on the US-23 freeway easterly to Shiawassee Ave is transferred to state control and becomes part of the BUS US-23 loop through Fenton.
  1975 (Jun 23) - In a despirate attempt to keep its downtown from going the route of so many other downtowns across the nation, Fenton decides to turn two blocks of Leroy St its central business district into a pedestrian-oriented shopping area while also demolishing half of its historic downtown buildings and remodeling the rest to more closely resemble a suburban shopping complex. While a new downtown "bypass" route of sorts is built via River St between Leroy and Silver Lake, it is NOT assumed into the state trunkline system and the two blocks of Leroy St turned into the shopping complex is cancelled as a state trunkline highway. This BUS US-23 at Fenton is split into a two-segment, discontinuous route. It is likely at this time all BUS US-23 route marker signs are removed from the Owen-Shiawassee-Leroy portion of the route south and west of downtown, leaving portion via Silver Lake Rd as a signed spur into the center of the city.
  2000 (Nov 20) - Even though the "Fenton Square" shopping complex along Leroy St in downtown Fenton is removed and the street is restored and opened to its pre-1975 configuration on this date, the two "halves" of BUS US-23 in Fenton—marked and unmarked—are not reuinted.
    2004 - Website visitor Don Pavich noticed that several "Business US-23" route marker assemblies have been erected along Owen Rd in the vicinity of the US-23 interchange. It is unclear whether MDOT is attempting to re-sign the entire loop again or if these are stray, erroneous signs mistakenly erected by a contractor. Further exploration by the author in 2005 showed addition route markers along the "unsigned" portion of the route, but the route is still not completely signed, resulting in a "signed" portion and a "partially-signed" portion. Confused yet? — Thanks much, Don!
    2006 (Dec 7) New! - Fenton's BUS US-23 is transferred to local control in its entirety—both the signed and "partially-signed" portions and ceases to be a state trunkline route.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-23 (Fenton) was freeway or expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-23 (Fenton) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of Former BUS US-23 (Fenton) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.
  Leroy Street opening, an historical milestone - an informative article from the Tri-County Times details not only the re-opening of Leroy St but also the history of the failed "Fenton Square" complex.

BUSINESSUS-23
Rogers
City
Southern Terminus: US-23 south of Rogers City
Northern Terminus: US-23 northwest of downtown Rogers City
Length: 4.07 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-23 (Rogers City)
Notes: The only portion of BUS US-23 in Rogers City which was formerly part of mainline US-23 was from US-23 south of the city to the cnr of Third St & Erie St, where M-68 ends today. Originally, US-23 turned westerly here via what is now M-68 before the shorline routing we know today was completed.
Generally, MDOT posts the Great Lakes Circle Tour routes via the closest state trunkline to the Great Lake in question, which is often a Business Connection through a city. However, at Rogers City, MDOT has posted both US-23 and BUS US-23 as the mainline of the Lake Huron Circle Tour for some reason. Signs point motorists to either route as they approach the city.
History: 1940 (Nov 12) - The present-day route of US-23 bypassing Rogers City is officially assumed into the state trunkline system and likely opens on this date to traffic. Not only does the bypass of the city open, but so does the remainder of the shoreline trunkline routing between Rogers City and Cheboygan as part of a relocated US-23. Formerly, US-23 turned westerly at Rogers City via Onaway (along present-day M-68 and M-33) to Cheboygan. The former route of US-23 in Rogers City from the present-day southern terminus of BUS US-23 northerly via Third St to Erie St is redesignated as part of M-65, as is the portion via Erie St westerly from Third to State St and southerly along State back to the new US-23. M-65 now becomes a de facto business connection through the city for US-23 traffic. The former M-91 via Third St northerly from Erie is turned back to local control.
  1942 (Jan 28) - All of Third St from Erie St downtown Rogers City northwesterly and westerly to the US-23 bypass of the city is transferred to state control, a portion of which had been turned back just a little more than a year previous. With this transfer, all of what had been designated M-65 from US-23 south of the city northerly into downtown via Third St and all of the newly transferred portion of Third St northwesterly from downtown is officially designated as BUS US-23. The portion of M-65 from Third St downtown southwesterly to US-23 becomes an extension of M-68.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-23 (Rogers City) is freeway or expressway.
Circle Tour: Lake Huron Circle Tour: Entire route .
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-23 (Rogers City) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-23 (Rogers City) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-24
Pontiac
Southern Terminus: US-24 at cnr of Telegraph & Square Lake Rds south of Pontiac
Northern Terminus: US-24 at cnr of Telegraph Rd & Dixie Hwy northwest of Pontiac
Length: 7.07 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-24 (Pontiac)
Notes: Formerly designated BUS US-10 before US-10 was scaled back to end at Bay City in 1986. US-24 superceeded the US-10 routing from Pontiac northwesterly past Clarkston at that time and, logically, the BUS US-10 routing was redesignated BUS US-24.
Over the years, portions of what is now designated as BUS US-24 through Pontiac had many different route numbers, including M-24, M-24A, M-10, US-10, BUS US-10, etc.
The history listings below include the complete history of BUS US-24 as well as the history of its predecessor, BUS US-10 in its entirety as well.
History: 1961 - This year, the entire M-58 bypass of the City of Pontiac is supplanted by a rerouting of US-10 around the city along the present-day route of US-24. The former route of US-10 through downtown Pontiac is then redesignated as BUS US-10. It begins at the cnr of Woodward Ave & Square Lake Rd and continues northerly via Woodward and Saginaw St to Parke St. At Parke, northbound BUS US-10 uses Parke St northerly to Perry Ave, Perry northerly to University Dr, westerly one block to Saginaw St where it rejoins southbound BUS US-10 traffic which uses Saginaw in its entirety through downtown. From there, BUS US-10 continues northerly via Saginaw and northwesterly via Oakland Ave out of the city to a terminus at US-10 at the cnr of Telegraph Rd & Dixie Hwy.
  1964 (Nov 30) - In a major overhaul to downtown Pontiac, several downtown streets are closed and a new traffic "loop" completely encircling the downtown core is built, assumed as a state trunkline and opened to traffic, removing all north-south through traffic from the downtown area. The new loop, christened "Wide Track Drive" after the popular tagline for the Pontiac automobiles of the General Motors stable, begins at Woodward Ave at the cnr of Osmun Ave and continues northerly via what was previously known as Parke St to Perry Ave, then continues mostly on new alignment around the east and north sides of downtown to Cass Ave. From Cass, Wide Track Dr continues southeasterly parallelling the Grand Trunk Western tracks back to Woodward Ave, thus completing the loop around downtown. At the same time, Cass Ave from Oakland Ave northwest of downtown to Wide Track Dr is transferred to state control. All of Wide Track Dr with the exception of the portion between Oakland and Cass Aves becomes part of the BUS US-10 route, with Oakland from Wide Track to Cass becoming one-way northbound only and the newly-transferred Cass Ave becoming the southbound BUS US-10 route. The former BUS US-10 segments in downtown along Perry Ave from Parke-Wide Track to Water St and along Saginaw from Judson to Water are abandoned as a public streets, while the portion of Perry from Water to University as well as University from Perry to Saginaw, Saginaw from Wide Track (south) to Judson and from Water to Oakland Ave, and Oakland from Saginaw to Wide Track are all turned back to local control.
  1970 - The route of US-10 between downtown Detroit and Pontiac is relocated off Woodward Ave and onto the John C Lodge Frwy and Telegraph Rd. The portion of Square Lake Rd between Telegraph Rd and Woodward Ave south of Pontiac, formerly part of US-10, becomes an extension of BUS US-10 so that route can continue to meet up with its parent route on the southern end.
  1986 - With the "decommissioning" of all of US-10 south of Bay City—and the northerly extension of US-24 along the former route of US-10 from southwest of Pontiac to the Clarkston area—the route of BUS US-10 in Pontiac is redesignated as BUS US-24 in its entirety.
  2000 (Sept 5) - Wide Track Drive in downtown Pontiac is renamed, in its entirety, to Woodward Ave. This reflects both the City of Pontiac's desire to tap into the "Woodward Reniassance" taking place up and down that historic thoroughfare, as well as reflecting the realization that GM's Pontiac division is no longer headquartered in Pontiac and while GM does still manufacture vehicles within the city, Pontiacs themselves are no longer made in Pontiac.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-24 is freeway or expressway.
NHS: From southern terminus at US-24/Telegraph Rd to jct M-59 in downtown Pontiac.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-24 @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-24 at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

CONNECTORUS-24
Erie
Southern Terminus: I-75 at Exit 2 south of Erie
Northern Terminus: US-24/Telegraph Rd near Erie
Length: 3.63 miles
Map: Route Map of CONN US-24 (Erie)
Notes: CONN US-24 is not signed as such in the field. Instead, bearing "TO I-75," "TO US-24" and/or "CONNECTOR I-75/M-125"route marker assemblies, depending on the location.
This route is also known as "Connector 1" and "Connector 2" internally by MDOT for inventory purposes. The "Connector 1" portion is the east-west segment of Luna Pier Rd between US-24/Telegraph Rd and M-125/S Dixie Hwy, while "Connector 2" is the portion from I-75 at Exit 2 northerly to M-125/S Dixie Hwy.
The history listings below not only detail the historical background of CONN US-24 (Erie) but also the two preceeding route designations at this location, US-25A and US-24A.
History: 1935 (Jan 7) - All of what today comprises CONN US-24 is transferred to state control on this date. The east-west segment between US-24/Telegraph Rd and US-25/Dixie Hwy (present-day M-125) is part of a new M-151 routing, while the north-south segment, itself an extension of Toledo's Summit St, is designated US-25A although it would be several years before the highway is fully completed.
  1936-37 - The north-south (Summit St Extension) portion of US-25A is graded and laid out, but not yet surfaced.
  1943-44 - The Summit St Extension is finally hard-surfaced from the Ohio state line north to US-25/Dixie Hwy.
  c.1945 - At some point soon after fully opening to traffic, US-25A is redesignated as US-24A, a designation Ohio extends southerly into downtown Toledo to meet back up with US-24 there. (Prior to this, the highway on the Ohio side of the state line was simply designated OH SR-577.) In addition, since the route is now signed as an alternate to US-24, US-24A is extended northerly via US-25/Dixie Hwy to M-151, then westerly concurrently with M-151 on Luna Pier Rd to a new northern terminus at US-24/Telegraph Rd.
  1957 (Jun 17) - More than 25 miles of the new Detroit-Toledo Expressway (present-day I-75) is officially assumed into the state trunkline system on this date, although the freeway itself may have opened to traffic as early as 1956. Beginning at US-24A three miles north of the Ohio state line, the new freeway runs northeasterly past Monroe and into Wayne Co and becomes a northerly extension of the route of US-24A. The remaining portion of US-24A from the new freeway northerly to US-24/Telegraph Rd is likely stripped of its US-24A designation, however it is unclear if a replacement designation is assigned at this time or if the highway becomes just another stretch of unmarked state trunkline.
  1960 (Oct 5) - The segment of I-75 from US-24A (the Summit St Extension) southwesterly into Ohio is officially determined as a state trunkline and likely opens around the same time. This signals the redesignation of all of US-24A from the Summit St Extension northerly past Monroe into Wayne Co as part of the new I-75 route between Toledo and Detroit and the decommissioning of US-24A in its entirety. The portion of US-24A along the Summit St Extension from I-75 southerly to the Ohio state line is turned back to local control on this date as well. The remainder of the 'original' US-24A—from I-75 northerly to US-25/Dixie Hwy, then northerly via US-25 to M-151/Luna Pier Rd and westerly to US-24/Telegraph Rd—remains a state trunkline highway and will be designated CONN US-24 at some point in the future.
  1965 (Nov 15) - M-151 from US-23 in southwestern Monroe Co easterly to US-24/Telegraph Rd near Erie is turned back to local control, with the remaining segment between US-23 and US-223 retaining the M-151 desgination. The short portion of M-151 between US-24/Telegraph Rd and US-25/Dixie Hwy becomes solely a part of the US-24 connector route.
Freeway: No portion of CONN US-24 is freeway or expressway.
Expressway: CONN US-24 from southern terminus at I-75 northerly to Suder Rd/Temperance Rd is expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: CONN US-24 (Erie) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of CONN US-24 (Erie) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

CONNECTORUS-24
Wood-
haven
Southern Terminus: US-24/Telegraph Rd near Woodhaven
Northern Terminus: I-75 at Exit 34 near Woodhaven
Length: 2.08 miles
Map: Route Map of CONN US-24 (Woodhaven)
Notes: This connector route via Toledo Hwy (also known as Dix-Toledo Hwy) was formerly a portion of US-25 before that route was removed from Michigan in the mid-1970s.
Internally, MDOT also refers to CONN US-24 (Woodhaven) as "Connector 3," which has nothing to do with the route number. Rather, MDOT intially numbered its Connectors sequentially with this being the third on the list at the time.
History: 1967 (Feb 9) - While still about six years from the debut of the CONN US-24 route near Woodhaven, an event which will ultimately shape the future of the route occurs. On this date, all of what had been part of US-25 via Dix-Toledo Hwy and Dix Ave (also known as Toledo Ave) in the Woodhaven, Brownstown Twp, Southgate, Lincoln Park areas and points north is turned back to local control. The portion of Dix-Toledo Hwy between US-24/Telegraph Rd and I-75 remains part of US-25 with the US-25 designation being transferred onto I-75 from Dix-Toledo northerly into Detroit.
  1973 - This year all of US-25 north of Cincinnati, Ohio is "decommissioned," including the entire route in Michigan. Some portions of US-25 are co-signed with other highways, which retain their other route designations, while some segments are given new route designations, such as M-125 and M-3. The short connector via Dix-Toledo Hwy, however, linking US-24/Telegraph Rd and I-75, does not receive its own standalone route number but is rather designated CONN US-24.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of CONN US-24 (Woodhaven) is freeway or expressway.
NHS: Entire route.
Photographs:
Weblinks: CONN US-24 (Woodhaven) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of CONN US-24 (Woodhaven) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

CONNECTORUS-24
Taylor
Western Terminus: US-24/Telegraph Rd in Taylor, just south of the Telegraph Rd & Eureka Rd intersection
Eastern Terminus: I-75 at Exit 35 in Taylor
Length: 1.51 miles
Map: Route Map of CONN US-24 (Taylor)
Notes: For a short time, this all-freeway connector highway was the temporary northern terminus of I-75 south of Detroit, while the Fisher Frwy was under construction to the north.
Internally, MDOT also refers to CONN US-24 (Taylor) as "Connector 4," which has nothing to do with the route number. Rather, MDOT intially numbered its Connectors sequentially with this being the fourth on the list at the time.
History: 1963 (Dec 16) - What would eventually become the connector between I-75 at Exit 35 and US-24/Telegraph Rd in southern Taylor is officially determined as a state trunkline highway on this date, along with the portion of I-75 from US-25/Dix-Toledo Hwy northerly to the new connector. At this time, the connector is actually the northern end of the I-75/Detroit-Toledo Expwy, shuttling traffic between the completed portion of the freeway and US-24/Telegraph Rd, which is signed for a short time as "TO I-75."
  1964 (Jun 12) - The extension of the I-75/Detroit-Toledo Expwy northeasterly from the "connector" is officially determined on this date beginning at the existing freeway just north of the Pennsylvania Rd overpass and continuing northeasterly toward Detroit. However, it will be a few more years before the freeway itself is completed and the "connector" remains part of the I-75/TO I-75 route over to US-24/Telegraph Rd.
  1967 (Feb 9) - The I-75/US-25/Detroit-Toledo Frwy likely opens on this date from the "connector" northeasterly through the Downriver communities toward Detroit. The "connector" surrenders its position as the "TO I-75" route, which is relocated to the M-39/Southfield Hwy-Frwy corridor, and becomes the I-75-to-US-24 connector route is has been known as ever since.
Freeway: Entire route.
NHS: Entire route.
Photographs:
Weblinks: CONN US-24 (Taylor) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of CONN US-24 (Taylor) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-24
Western Terminus: US-41/M-28 & Lakeshore Dr northwest of downtown Ishpeming
Eastern Terminus: US-41/M-28& Teal Lake Ave in Negaunee north of downtown
Length: 4.87 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS M-28
Notes: While BUS US-41 provides the downtown loop from US-41/M-28 in nearby Marquette, BUS M-28 serves the same function at Ishpeming and Negaunee. Similarly, while Marquette's BUS US-41 had previously been co-signed as BUS M-28, the inverse was the case here as today's BUS M-28 (then designated M-28A) had previously been signed as US-41A as well.
In a 1999 "route-swap" between MDOT and local road agencies, BUS M-28 was rerouted on its western end. Previously, the highway ran westerly from downtown Ishpeming via Greenwood St & North Lake Rd, ending at US-41/M-28 in the West Ishpeming neighborhood. That route was turned back to local control when MDOT assumed control of Lakeshore Dr from Greenwood-Division Sts northwesterly to US-41/M-28, shortening the length of BUS M-28 by less than a mile.
The route history below includes an expanded set of listings due to the rather confusing history of this route:
History: 1937 (Sept 27) - With the determination and likely completion of the new US-41/M-28 northerly bypass of both Negaunee and Ishpeming nearly a month earlier on August 30, the former route of US-41/M-28 from the new highway west of Ishpeming easterly via Greenwood St and Division St through downtown Ishpeming continuing easterly into Negaunee via County Rd to M-35 at Silver St is turned back to local control. The former route of US-41/M-28 from Silver St & County Rd notherly via Silver St, easterly via Jackson St and Main St, northerly via Teal Lake Ave to the new bypass remains a trunkline designated as part of M-35. The former route from west of Ishpeming to M-35 in Neguanee is thence removed from all internal MSHD maps as well as the official Michigan highway map.
  1939 - The 1939 official Marquette County Road Commission map shows present-day BUS M-28 as "US-41A" and "M-28A." — Thanks to Dyche for the information!
  1946 - The former route of US-41/M-28 through downtown Ishpeming to M-35 in downtown Neguanee is once again shown on the Official Michigan highway map beginning this year, although no route marker label accompanies it. It is unclear whether this is a simple error, whether it indicates the route is now "marked-and-maintained" by the MSHD but not officially part of the trunkline system, or some other reason.
  1948 - Two separate internal State Highway Dept sources show the former route of US-41/M-28 through downtown Ishpeming to M-35 in downtown Negaunee as being on the state trunkline system, although other sources claim it would not be re-determined for another decade along this route. One source clearly states this route is US-41A/M-28A and that it runs concurrently with M-35 through downtown Negaunee back to US-41/M-28. The other source denotes the highway as M-35A, beginning at M-35 in downtown Neguanee and proceeding westerly through Ishpeming and terminating at US-41/M-28 west of that city.
  1950 - The 1950 official Marquette County Road Commission map shows present-day BUS M-28 as "US-41A" and "M-28A." — Thanks to Dyche for the information!
  1951 - An MDOT "Act 51" map of the City of Ishpeming drawn this year to fulfill requirements of Act 51 of 1951 labels the route of today's BUS M-28 through Ishpeming as ALT US-41/ALT M-28.
  1955 - Beginning with the April 1 issue of the Official Michigan highway map, the so-called "US-41A/M-28A route" through Ishpeming and Negaunee is, once again, removed from the map.
  1958 (Sept 16) - The former route of US-41/M-28 from west of Ishpeming through downtown and into Neguanee to M-35 transferred to local control in 1937 is reassumed into the state trunkline system on this date and officially designated BUS M-28 once and for all. At Negaunee, BUS M-28 turns northerly to run concurrently with M-35 via Silver-Jackson-Main-Teal Lake back to US-41/M-28 north of downtown. This new BUS M-28 route is now clearly marked as such on the Official Michigan highway map.
  1964 (Dec 29) - Due to unstable surface conditions and subsidence caused by the caving in of unmaintained underground iron mines on the south side of Negaunee, M-35 is rerouted to bypass the city on the east and the route of M-35 from the BUS M-28 jct southerly to Palmer is turned back to local control, in part, with the remainder abandoned as a public roadway. Thus, BUS M-28 now runs by itself through downtown Negaunee.
  1999 (July) - The route at the western end of BUS M-28 is altered when the City of Ishpeming petitions MDOT and the Marquette Co Road Commission for a jurisdictional transfer. The City proposed MDOT take over control of Lake Shore Dr from the Greenwood St-Division St intersection west of downtown northwesterly to US-41/M-28 in the northwest part of town, signing it as a rerouting of BUS M-28. Consequently, Greenwood St west of Lake Shore Dr in Ishpeming and the rest of the existing BUS M-28 west of Ishpeming to US-41/M-28 west of the city would be transferred to the city and county, respectively. All parties agree to the transfer, which is made official in July.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS M-28 is freeway or expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS M-28 @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS M-28 at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-31
Niles
Southern Terminus: BUS US-12/Main St in downtown Niles (cnr Front St & Main St)
Northern Terminus: US-31 at Exit 7 (Walton Rd interchange) northwest of Niles
Length: 5.69 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-31 (Niles)
Notes: The BUS US-31 designation at Niles is scheduled for official "decommissioning" some time in 2006. This move is not completely suprising, as MDOT seems to have always gone out of their way to not acknowledge the existence of this route, first by only partially posting it along the US-31 freeway and then by never including it on the official Michigan transportation map. The state will reconstruct Walton Rd from the US-31 freeway easterly to Old US-31 in 2006 and upon completion of the project, transfer jurisdiction of the route back to Berrien Co. The remainder of BUS US-31 along Old US-31 between Walton Rd and BUS US-12 in downtown Niles will become either a southerly extension of the unsigned OLD US-31 route or be incorporated into the M-139 extension, should that take place.
  As noted in the history listings below, BUS US-31 was "halved" in the late-1990s and is now a spur route entering downtown Niles from the north. (To this day, no commercial mapmaker has gotten the configuration of BUS US-31, either pre-1998 or present, correct!) It could be surmised this action was taken in preparation for the eventual "decommissioning" of US-33 south of Niles. Had this not been done, 11th St would have been signed BUS US-12/BUS US-31/M-51 and MDOT seems to dislike any concurrencies, let alone a triple-concurrency!
The length of Niles' BUS US-31 prior to its late-1990s truncation was 11.93 miles.
History: 1987 - BUS US-31 at Niles debuts this year when the segment of the US-31/St Joseph Valley Pkwy freeway from US-12 west of the city northerly to Walton Rd opens to traffic. At Walton, US-31 turns northeasterly via Walton to the existing route of US-31 northwest of Niles. Beginning at Walton Rd, the former route of US-31 southeasterly into Niles is redesignated as BUS US-31 to BUS US-12/Main St. From there, US-31 had temporarily turned southwesterly via BUS US-12 and US-12 to what had been the northern end of the freeway. The new BUS US-31, however, turns easterly downtown via BUS US-12/Main St to US-33/11th St, then southerly via US-33 on 11th St to US-12 south of the city where the BUS US-31 route turns westerly to follow US-12 back to the US-31 freeway where it terminates.
  1992 - When the next phase of the US-31/St Joseph Valley Pkwy is completed from Walton Rd northwest of Niles to Berrien Springs, the BUS US-31 designation is extended southwesterly via Walton Rd to terminate at the Walton Rd intersection. (This intersection would later be converted to an interchange in the next few years.)
  1998 - BUS US-31 is sliced in half when all of the route south of downtown is removed, leaving it as a spur route from the north. Between BUS US-31/Front St and M-51/Fifth St, Main St retains the BUS US-12 designation. From Fifth St easterly to 11th St, M-51 now joins BUS US-12 along Main St, while what had been BUS US-12/BUS US-31 along 11th St becomes BUS US-12/M-51. US-12 between 11th St and the US-31 freeway remains just US-12.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-31 (Niles) is freeway or expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-31 (Niles) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-31 (Niles) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.
  Routes in Niles, Michigan Throughout the Years - part of Marc Fannin's Roadfan.com website dedicated to the various highways in and around Niles.

US-31

Holland
Fmr. So. Terminus: US-31 at Exit 47 on the south side of Holland (at the Washington Ave/Blue Star Hwy interchange)
Fmr. No. Terminus: US-31 at jct BL I-196/Chicago Dr east of downtown Holland
Former Length: 4.30 miles
Map: Route Map of FORMER BUS US-31 (Holland)
Notes: For many years, the City of Holland and MDOT had been at odds over the matter of additional downtown parking spaces, speed limits and traffic signal timing. Holland had been able to create and maintain a vibrant, healthy downtown business, shopping and entertainment district over the past few decades. Unfortunately, the City may have done too good of a job as there was a perceived dearth of convenient parking spaces in the downtown area and they had butted heads with MDOT over the state's insistence that all three through traffic lanes on Seventh & Ninth Sts be maintained based on current traffic volumes. Finally, in January 2004, an agreement was tenatively reached between the City and MDOT to transfer a few blocks of Seventh St to the City with the City maintaining all Business Connection signage for the benefit of motorists.
By the Summer of 2004, however, MDOT was in talks with the City of Holland and the Ottawa Co Road Commission to turn back all of BUS US-31 and BL I-196 "inside" the US-31/Holland bypass to local control. These talks resulted in the August 2004 jurisditional transfer of essentially all of BUS US-31 (and that portion of BL I-196 co-signed with BUS US-31) to local control. The Ottawa Co Road Commission took over the portion of the route along Chicago Dr from 8th St northeasterly to US-31, while the City accepted the remainder of the route, with the exception of the portion of Washington Ave/Blue Star Hwy from Matt Urban Dr southerly through the US-31 interchange on the south side of town. Reportedly, this remaining portion of trunkline was retained by MDOT to facilitate the eventual reconstruction of the US-31 & Washington/Blue Star interchange in the future. While the road commission removed all trunkline signage along Chicago Dr soon after the transfer, the City of Holland took until May 2005 to remove all BUS US-31, BL I-196 and LMCT route signage through the city, replacing some of the former trunkline route marker assemblies with trailblazer signage ("TO US-31"), however several of the necessary turns are not signed, resulting in a confusing and unfortunate situation for visitors and tourists. Also unfortunate is the continued existence of BUS US-31, BL I-196 and LMCT route signage along US-31 itself, now directing motorists to a non-existant business route. It is hoped MDOT will be able to rectify this situation soon.
This author believes the turnback the entire "Holland Business Loop" (BUS US-31 & BL I-196) in exchange for a few additional parking spaces will cause more negative side effects than positive. While additional downtown parking spaces may be needed to ensure downtown Holland remains healthy and a desirable place to visit, the loss of a marked route into and through the city for tourists and casual visitors will likely do much more harm than not adding the new on-street parking spaces. In fact, since the Lake Michigan Circle Tour is only signed along state trunkline routes, the removal of BUS US-31/BL I-196 through Holland will also mean the loss of the Circle Tour routing as well, thus another blow to the City's tourist prospects. In an era of waning manufacturing jobs, tourism is becoming an increasingly more important industry for the area. The removal of the convenient signed and mapped route will very likely hurt the City. To that end, the author contacted various civic leaders in Holland with a letter expressing the above concerns. A presentation was also given to the Holland AM Rotary in mid-August 2004, linked from the Holland Business Routes: The Turnback page.
History: 1955 (Aug 3) - The so-called US-31 "Holland Bypass" is officially assumed into the state trunkline system from US-31/Washington Ave south of the city northeasterly to M-21/Chicago Dr east of downtown, where the 1950 relocation of US-31 continues northerly toward West Olive. (The bypass first shows up on the October 1954 Official Highway Map, however, so it is unclear whether it opened in late-1954 or in 1955.) At that time, the former route of US-31 through Holland via Washington Ave, Michigan St, River Ave, Eighth St and Chicago Dr is redesignated as BUS US-31.
  1963 (Dec 16) - The I-96/US-31 (present-day US-31) freeway is officially determined as a state trunkline from the jct of BUS US-31 & US-31 (the "Holland Bypass") south of the city heading toward Saugatuck and Douglas. The present-day "unique" interchange at the southern end of BUS US-31 is also completed at this time.
  1971 (Oct 18) - Until this time, two of Holland's major downtown streets—River Ave from Eighth St southerly and Eighth St from River Ave easterly—have been state trunkline highways. The City of Holland, mindful of modern-day pressures on the central business district and the growing suburban shopping centers, decides to convert its major downtown street into a more pedestrian-friendly zone, albeit while maintaining one lane of one-way traffic westbound and featuring angle parking. Thus, Eighth St between River Ave and Lincoln Ave is turned back to the City, while Seventh & Ninth Sts between Pine & Lincoln Aves as well as Pine & Lincoln Aves between Seventh & Ninth Sts are transferred to the state. Now, northbound BUS US-31 traffic turns easterly from River Ave onto Ninth St to Lincoln Ave, and northerly one block via Lincoln to Eighth. Southbound BUS US-31 traffic now jogs northerly via Lincoln Ave to Seventh St, westerly via Seventh to Pine Ave, southerly via Pine Ave to Ninth Ave, easterly via Ninth to River Ave where it meets its former route heading southerly from downtown via River.
  c.1990s - In the early 1990s, Ninth Ave from Lincoln Ave easterly to its end is tranferred to state control and a new double-curve connector roadway between Ninth and Eighth Sts is built. This becomes the new north/eastbound route for BUS US-31/BL I-196.
  1998 - After Seventh St was reconstructed in 1995 and Ninth St reconstructed this year, both streets—along with the rest of the BUS US-31/BL I-196 route "inside" the US-31/Holland Bypass, it can be assumed—are "scheduled" to be turned back to local control. This transfer, for whatever reason, does not take place.
  2004 (Jan, Aug 4) - After years of constant back-and-forth between MDOT and the City of Holland over adding additional parking spaces on either Seventh or Ninth Sts downtown, the city and state supposedly reach an agreement in January whereby a short portion of Seventh St is to be turned back to the city, while Business Connection route markers for BUS US-31/BL I-196 would remain "for the benfit of motorists." However, by the Summer, MDOT, the City of Holland and the Ottawa County Road Commission have initiated talks to turn back the entire length of BUS US-31/BL I-196 within the city from US-31 east of downtown to US-31 south of downtown. On August 4, the Holland City Commission votes to accept these streets from MDOT.
  2005 (May) - Even after accepting the majority of the former BUS US-31/BL I-196 route through the city, Holland waits nine months before removing the trunkline route markers during May. A few "trailblazer" signs are erected simultaneously, though not at all of the required turns, providing additional points of confusion for visitors and tourists. The only signs now remaining for the business route are along US-31 itself.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of FORMER BUS US-31 (Holland) was freeway or expressway.
Circle Tour: Lake Michigan Circle Tour: Formerly entire route.
Photographs:
Weblinks: Holland Business Routes: The Turnback - Detailing the transfer of control of both Business Connections in the City of Holland -- BUS US-31 and BL I-196 -- to local control due to a perceived lack of parking downtown. This page explains some of the other negative side-effects of the transfer and offers other possible solutions.
  Retain Holland's Business Routes - presentation given to Holland AM Rotary meeting August 18, 2004.

BUSINESSUS-31
Muskegon
Southern Terminus: US-31 at jct I-96 in Norton Shores (southeast of Muskegon)
Northern Terminus: US-31 northeast of Muskegon
Length: 9.60 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-31 (Muskegon)
Notes: The only portion of BUS US-31 in Muskegon which is not limited-access in some way (either as freeway or expressway) is the one-way pair in downtown: eastbound via Muskegon Ave and westbound via Webster Ave.
Unlike many other Business Connections, much of the route of BUS US-31 in the Muskegon area was either formerly part of US-31A or a new route constructed on new alignment instead of part of its parent route -- in this case US-31.
A relocation of BUS US-31 in downtown Muskegon is nearing completion. A State of Michigan document, since removed from their website, best described the project: "This project would include the construction of a connector from Shoreline Drive to the US-31 Business Route (BR). Once this connection is completed by the local road agency, MDOT will turn back the US-31 BR one-way pair downtown and assume jurisdiction over Shoreline as the new BR. The existing BR in this area is congested due to successful redevelopment activities. This new BR location will provide a route with the capacity to safely and efficiently handle through traffic, while providing the areas of downtown Muskegon with the level of access to accommodate redevelopment."
The history listings below include the predecessor route of US-31A at Muskegon.
History: 1932 (Oct 29) - A new bypass of Muskegon is officially assumed into the state trunkline system on this date, beginning at US-31 at the cnr of Getty Ave southeast of Muskegon Heights and proceeding northerly via Getty Ave into Muskegon to Marquette Ave, then westerly via Marquette back to US-31/Ottawa St northeast of downtown Muskegon. US-31 remains along its route from US-31A northwesterly via Merriam Ave, westerly via Lincoln Ave, northerly via Peck through Muskegon Heights and into Muskegon, northwesterly via Terrace Ave in downtown Muskegon, then northeasterly via Ottawa St out of the city.
  1940 - In the first half of 1940, the routes of US-31 and US-31A in Muskegon are flip-flopped, at the same time US-16 is routed into the city from the southeast—it had formerly "ended" in Grand Haven. US-31 now turns northerly via Getty Ave to Marquette St and westerly via Marquette to Ottawa st, while US-31A now runs northwesterly via Merriam Ave & Lincoln Ave and northerly via Peck St and Terrace St into downtown Muskegon and northeasterly via Ottawa St to US-31 at Marquette St. The 1940 iteration of US-31A is the direct ancestor of present-day BUS US-31.
  1940-41 - At some point soon after US-31A is moved to its "through-town" routing, it is redesignated as BUS US-31 in its entirety, either later in 1940 or in early 1941.
  1951 - When the mainline US-31 route is removed from the Getty St/Marquette Ave route and tranferred onto the Hile Rd/Harvey St/northside Access Road route, the length of BUS US-31 in Muskegon is extended on each end. North of downtown, BUS US-31 is extended northerly via Ottawa St from Marquette St (the former route of US-31) to a jct with the northside "Access Road" at the site of the present-day jct BUS US-31 & M-120. Southeast of Muskegon Heights, BUS US-31 is extended southeasterly along the former route of US-31 from Getty St via a route obliterated by present-day Seaway Dr and Grand Haven Rd to Hile Rd, where the new US-31 bypass turns easterly.
  1959 (Oct 22) - A major date in the route of BUS US-31 at Muskegon, with the major change being the official assumption of the Seaway Dr route bypassing Muskegon Heights officially determined as a state trunkline. In addition, the existing US-31 bypass routing along Harvey Rd from Laketon Ave southerly to Hile Rd is converted into a full freeway and a segment of new US-31 freeway is opened from Hile Rd southerly into Grand Haven. Thus, BUS US-31 now begins a the US-31 & US-16 jct and continues northwesterly via its present-day routing to Merriam Ave where it now continues due westerly via Seaway Dr before turning due northerly into downtown Muskegon via Seaway Dr. Downtown, BUS US-31 splits into two one-way pairs, northbound via Muskegon Ave, soutbound via Webster Ave. At Terrace St, BUS US-31 resumes its former route via Terrace & Ottawa northeasterly to US-31 north of the city. The former route of BUS US-31 via Merriam Ave, Lincoln Ave, Peck St and Terrace St from south of Muskegon Heights northerly to Muskegon Ave in downtown Muskegon is turned back to local control.
  1961 - The State Highway Dept temporarily "marks and maintains" (as opposed to officially receiving control of) several streets in downtown Muskegon to assist in traffic flow. From US-31/Ottawa St, southbound BUS US-31 now turns westerly via Eastern Ave to Western Ave, then southwesterly via Western to Terrace St, then southeasterly via Terrace back to Ottawa and the existing route of BUS US-31.
  1962 - The concurrently designated US-16 along BUS US-31 from US-31 southeast of Muskegon to Sixth St in downtown Muskegon is "decommissioned" and a new BS I-196 spur routing is "commissioned" in its place.
  1963 - The newly concurrent BS I-196 routing along BUS US-31 is redesignated as BS I-96 when the "parent route" of the Interstate running from Muskegon to Grand Rapids is redesignated from I-196 to I-96.
  1964 (Jun 30) - A northerly extension of the US-31 freeway from the northeast corner of Muskegon northerly toward Whitehall and Montague is officially determined on this date and likely opens at the same time. Since the new northside connector for BUS US-31 is not yet complete, BUS US-31 is temporarily extended northwesterly from its former terminus via M-20 along what had been US-31 on the Veterans Memorial Causeway into North Muskegon, then northeasterly (still) via M-20 from North Muskegon to an interchange with the US-31 freeway at the present-day M-120 interchange.
  1965 (Jan 20) - A new northside expressway/freeway connector from the M-20 (present-day M-120) jct easterly to a new triple-decker interchange with US-31 northeast of the city is completed and opened to traffic. BUS US-31 is removed from the M-20 (present-day M-120) route and transferred onto the new connector, terminating at US-31 at the triple-decker interchange. BUS US-31 is also removed from its former Ottawa St routing between Bayou Ave and M-20 and transferred to its present-day routing.
  1965 (Jun 25) - The remainder of the relocation project for BUS US-31 through the north side of Muskegon is completed when the present-day route of the highway via Muskegon & Webster Aves and Seaway/Skyline Dr is officially assumed into the state trunkline system between Terrace St and Bayou Ave. The former route of BUS US-31 via Terrace St and Ottawa Ave (as well as the marked-and-maintained route along Eastern Ave, Western Ave and Terrace Ave north of Webster) is transferred to local control.
  1984 - Likely in preparation for the transfer of the BS I-96/M-46 route via Sixth-Western-Mart in downtown Muskegon to local control on April 1, 1986, the BS I-96 route markers along BUS US-31 are completely removed, leaving just BUS US-31 along Seaway Dr.
  c.1994 - The first segment of Shoreline Dr opens as a local street from BUS US-31/Seaway Dr just north of  Southern Ave around the north side of downtown near the Muskegon Lake shoreline to Terrace St. This is the first step in an eventual rerouting of BUS US-31 through Muskegon.
  2004 - The final link in the new Shoreline Dr routing is expected to be completed and opened to traffic. Sources say Shoreline Dr will then be transferred to state control as a relocation of BUS US-31, with the existing route of BUS US-31 along Muskegon & Webster Aves turned back to local control.
Freeway: 1. From southern terminus at US-31 to Grand Haven Rd in Norton Shores.
  2. From Getty Ave northeast of downtown Muskegon to northern terminus at US-31.
Expressway: 1. Seaway Dr from Grand Haven Rd to the Muskegon Ave-Webster Ave split just southwest of downtown.
  2. Skyline Dr from the Muskegon Ave-Webster Ave split notheast of downtown to Getty Ave.
NHS: Entire route.
Circle Tour: Lake Michigan Circle Tour: Entire route.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-31 (Muskegon) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-31 (Muskegon) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-31
Whitehall- Montague
Southern Terminus: US-31 east of Whitehall at Colby Rd interchange
Northern Terminus: US-31 north of Montague at B-15/B-86/Fruitvale Rd interchange
Length: 4.88 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-31 (Whitehall-Montague)
Notes: With the exception of short portions along Colby Rd and Fruitvale Rd at each end of the highway, BUS US-31 follows the former routing of US-31 through the twin cities of Whitehall and Montague.
History: 1964 (Jun 30) - The US-31 freeway segment from Muskegon northerly to north of Montague in northwestern Muskegon Co is officially assumed into the state trunkline system on this date and likely opens to traffic at the same time. Existing US-31 along Whitehall Rd from Colby Rd southerly to North Muskegon is transferred to local control, while both Colby Rd from Whitehall Rd easterly to the new US-31 freeway and Fruitvale Rd from Whitehall Rd to the new freeway are transferred to the state as part of a new BUS US-31 routing. From the US-31 freeway, the new BUS US-31 continues westerly via Colby Rd past Whitehall Rd, through Whitehall via Colby St and Thompson Rd, then through Montague via Dowling St and Water St, continuing northerly via Whitehall Rd. At Fruitvale Rd, BUS US-31 officially turns easterly via Fruitvale to a terminus with the new US-31 freeway as well as continues straight northerly via Whitehall Rd for approximately one mile to the new US-31 freeway connector roadway.
  1975 (Apr 16) - A northerly extension of the US-31 freeway from north of Montague into Oceana Co is officially determined and likely opens around this same time. Thus, the Fruitvale Rd routing of BUS US-31 from Whitehall Rd easterly to the US-31 freeway becomes the sole signed route for the highway. What had been signed as part of BUS US-31 via Whitehall Rd from Fruitvale northerly to the freeway connector—which is abandoned and obliterated—as well as the former US-31 from that point notherly to the Oceana Co line remains an unsigned state trunkline highway.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-31 is freeway or expressway.
Circle Tour: Lake Michigan Circle Tour: Entire route.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-31 (Whitehall-Montague) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-31 (Whitehall-Montague) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-31
Hart
Western Terminus: US-31 at Polk Rd interchange southwest of Hart
Eastern Terminus: Cnr State St & Johnson St in downtown Hart
Length: 2.30 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-31 (Hart)
Notes: Hart's BUS US-31 is a spur-route from the freeway into downtown. For many years it was not indicated on many state and commercially-produced road maps.
History: 1975 (Apr 16) - Even though the new US-31 freeway is over a year from completion in central Oceana Co, a new trunkline spur routing is determined at Hart, beginning at the proposed freeway interchange with Polk Rd west of the city proceeding easterly via Polk Rd to State St, then northerly via State to Lincoln St. The existing US-31 bypass of Hart remains signed as US-31 and it is likely no BUS US-31 signs appear at Hart at this time.
  1976 - The next segment of the US-31 freeway is completed and opened to traffic from M-20 at New Era to Polk Rd at Hart. Traffic is shunted off the new freeway and directed easterly via Polk Rd to the existing US-31/Oceana Dr routing. (The 0.37 mile of Polk Rd from State St easterly to Oceana Dr would be transferred to the state on March 23, 1977 as a "temporary measure"—this route is still an unsigned state trunkline as of 2004.) It is unclear whether the State St route of BUS US-31 from Polk Rd northerly to Lincoln St is posted as BUS US-31 in the field at this time.
  1978 - With the further northerly extension of the US-31 freeway from Polk Rd west of Hart to BUS US-31/Monroe Rd southeast of Pentwater open to traffic, the temporarily posted route of US-31 through Hart is removed and BUS US-31 route marker assemblies may begin appearing at this time along Polk Rd and State St.
  1988 - BUS US-31 at Hart appears on the Michigan Official Transportation Map for the first time this year.
  1989 (Aug 14) - Two blocks of BUS US-31 in downtown Hart are transferred to local control. The portion of State St from Lincoln St southerly to Johnson St becomes a city street moving BUS US-31's terminus to the cnr of State St & Johnson St.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-31 (Hart) is freeway or expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-31 (Hart) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-31 (Hart) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-31
Pentwater
Southern Terminus: US-31 southeast of Pentwater at the Monroe Rd interchange
Northern Terminus: US-31 northeast of Pentwater at the Oceana Dr interchange
Length: 6.99 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-31 (Pentwater)
Notes: BUS US-31 at Pentwater follows a former routing of US-31 through that community.
History: 1955 (Aug 3) - A new easterly bypass of the greater Pentwater area is officially determined as a state trunkline highway on this date via present-day Oceana Dr from Monroe Rd northerly to the Oceana/Mason Co line. The former route of US-31 through Pentwater is redesignated as BUS US-31.
  1976 (Dec 14) - A segment of US-31 freeway from Polk Rd at Hart to BUS US-31/Monroe Rd east of Pentwater is determined as a state trunkline on this date, but will not open to traffic for a couple more years. Thus, the BUS US-31 routing via Monroe Rd continues to run easterly to existing US-31/Oceana Dr.
  1978 - The segment of US-31 freeway officially determined in late-1976 opens to traffic. The route of BUS US-31 is shortened by approximately one mile to end at the new Monroe Rd interchange. The former BUS US-31 along Monroe Rd from the new freeway easterly to Oceana Dr becomes a temporary routing for mainline US-31 traffic.
  1980 (Oct 16) - Yet another segment of the US-31 freeway is assumed into the system and opens around the same time from BUS US-31/Monroe Rd northerly to BUS US-31 at the cnr of Washington Rd & Oceana Dr, thus resulting in a very slight lengthening of the route of BUS US-31 on the north end to meet the new freeway. What had been the temporary US-31 routing between the freeway via Monroe Rd from the freeway easterly to Oceana Dr and part of BUS US-31 prior to that becomes an unsigned state trunkline at this point.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-31 (Pentwater) is freeway or expressway.
Circle Tour: Lake Michigan Circle Tour: Entire route.
Photographs:
Weblinks: BUS US-31 (Pentwater) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-31 (Pentwater) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

BUSINESSUS-31
Ludington
Southern Terminus: US-31 southeast of Ludington at the Pere Marquette Hwy interchange
Northern Terminus: US-10 on the east limits of Ludington (See Note below.)
Length: 3.1 miles
Map: Route Map of BUS US-31 (Ludington)
Notes: This particular BUS US-31 follows the former route of US-31 in the Ludington area.
History: 2004 - When the segment of the US-31 freeway on the east side of Ludington in 1990, all of the former route of US-31 in Mason county was retained as an unsigned state trunkline highway. Then in 2004, the portion of Pere Marquette Hwy (Old US-31) from the US-31 & Pere Marquette interchange southeast of Ludington southerly to the north Pentwater interchange on the Oceana/Mason Co line is turned back to local control, leaving the portion of Pere Marquette from the US-31 interchange northerly on the state trunkline system.
  2005 (Spring) - A brand-new BUS US-31 designation is signed for the first time along Pere Marquette Hwy, the former route of US-31, on the east side of Ludington, from the Pere Marquette Hwy interchange along the US-31 freeway northerly to US-10. As of early May 2005, BUS US-31 route marker assemblies are posted along the new route, but not along the intersecting highways. It is also unclear if MDOT will sign this new route as a spur, terminating on the north at US-10, or as a full loop, by co-signing it along US-10 between Pere Marquette Hwy and the US-31 freeway interchange.
Freeway/Expwy: No portion of BUS US-31 (Ludington) is freeway or expressway.
Photographs:
Weblinks: • BUS US-31 (Ludington) @ Michigan Highway Ends - photos of the termini of BUS US-31 (Ludington) at Dan Garnell's excellent Michigan Highway Ends website.

   

 


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