Chapter I.  Introduction


1.1.       Article 29(1) of our Constitution says, " Any section of  the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof  having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same." This fundamental right is the base on which the rights of the linguistic minorities has been enumerated in our polity.

1.2.       This is not an isolated thinking but a part of the democratic right of the people anywhere to exist as a self respecting component of nation states. Gone are the days when the options were to fall in line or get executed. Twentieth century did not permit it and the twenty first century is not going to turn its back on these inalienable rights.

1.3.       That this is a global phenomenon which is declared in the resolution adopted by United Nations at different points of time. Thus on December 10, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 2(1) provides that "everyone is entitled to all rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as...language". Pursuant to the International Labour Organisation Convention No. 107 of 1957 concerning Indigenous and Tribal Populations, "protected indigenous populations have the right to be taught in their mother tongue or, where this is not practicable, in the language most commonly used by the group to which they belong".

1.4.       Central to the genesis of the UN Declaration is of course Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which provides that "in those states in which linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of their group,... to use their own language".

1.5.       In the area of education, the Convention Against Discrimination in Education of 1960 prohibits, under Article 1, "any distinction, exclusion or preference" based upon language or other grounds, which "has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing equality of treatment in education". The Convention makes it clear, in Article 2(b), that it does not constitute discrimination to establish or maintain, for linguistic reasons, separate educational systems or institutions.

1.6.       The Convention also provides in Article 5(1)(c), that it is essential to "recognise the right of members of national minorities to carry on their own educational activities, including the maintenance of schools and, depending on the educational policy of each state, the use or the teaching of their own language", provided that "this right is not exercised in a manner which prevents the members of these minorities from understanding the culture and language of the community as a whole and from participating in its activities, or which prejudices national sovereignty".

1.7.       Lest it be thought that these rights are the creation of the United Nations, we can refer to various treaties between different states which explicitly provide for the right to use one's language. Thus the 1516 Treaty of Perpetual Union between the King of France and the Helvetic state contained a provision identifying those who were to receive certain benefits as the "Swiss who speak no language other than German". The Final Act of the Congress of Vienna of 1815  also contained certain protections to ensure the conservation of the Poles' nationality. Indirectly, this treaty resulted in the possibility for the Polish minority in some parts of the empire to use Polish for official business.


1.8.       So far as India is concerned there has never been time when there was no multiplicity of languages. And whether there was a standardized form of language or not, the various forms i.e. dialects existed side by side and had even literature produced in them. Latest instance is that while for a considerable time, Maithili was considered as a dialect of Hindi, it is now enshrined as a separate language in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. So is Dogri.

1.9.       This phenomenon of recognition of more languages for inclusion in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution follows a transition to cognition and revival of languages all over the world. Thus Maori language in New Zealand is now sought to be revived by running what is known as immersion centres. It may be mentioned at Maori is the only significant language spoken other than English in New Zealand. Maori knowing population is 14 %. Almost all Maories are bilingual. English is the official language of New Zealand as well as language for education. It is also known that the Government did its best to wipe out the Maori language and the traditions.

1.10.    But things are now changing. In 1977, a bilingual school was set up followed by two more in 1979. A movement called 'Kohanga Reo' (language nest) was started in 1981. There are now 600 institutes where Maori is taught at pre school level. The teaching is by grand parents to grand children. Maori is the only language of instruction.

1.11.    Another movement 'Kura Kaupapa Maori" was started in 1987. It is immersion primary education in Maori language. It was recognized by the Government in 1990. Some funds were made available to six schools but assistance stopped at that though many schools have since been opened. KKM uses Maori for six years and the condition is that the parents should only use Maori at home.

1.12.    Finally even the State has started to participate. Some bilingual education is given to Maori students through bilingual schools. The number is 10,000 under 5 years of age; 11,500 between 5 and 12 years; and 2,500 between 13 and 17 years. In 1979, Maori was recognized as official language of Maori people. In 1987, a Maori Language Commission was set up.

1.13.    Things have now come to a stage where Eighty-seven percent of Maori children enrolled in some form of early childhood education were learning some Maori language in 1998. 11,980 Maori were enrolled in kōhanga reo (language nest), which represented just over 40% of all Maori children in early childhood services in 1998. Thirty-six percent of Maori students in schools were learning Maori language through immersion or bilingual programmes or as a school subject, in 1998. There were 4,500 Maori enrolled in Kura Kaupapa Maori.  


1.14.    Welsh, the language of Wales is not only being taught in Wales but even in Argentina where  small welsh community exists in Chutbut Province. The Welsh Language Project in Argentina is funded by the National Assembly for Wales and managed by the British Council. The project, which has been in existence since 1997, was extended for three years to 2003. It provided for five teachers in 2000 and three teachers for the two remaining years for the communities in Chubut Province. It also assisted in the training of local teachers of Welsh. The aim is to help the community to become self-reliant in its revival of the Welsh language.

1.15.    Of course, so far as Wales is concerned, Welsh is taught in all schools in Wales. There is a Welsh language media and government legislation to support the development of the language. About twenty per cent of the population use Welsh and the number is growing.


1.16.    Let us take another instance. There are over 1.6 million ethnic Hungarians in Romania. Romanian provisions for respecting the rights of minorities are well developed and existing policies provide extensive rights for education in minority languages.

1.17.    Recently there was a Law enacted on Local Public Administration giving linguistic minorities, in localities where they represent more that 20% of the population, the right to receive services from local authorities in their mother tongue. In these localities, the law also stipulates that the agenda and decisions of the local council will be made public in the relevant minority languages.

1.18.    During the school year 2000-2001, the number of educational units providing teaching in minority languages remained constant but a slight increase was noted in the number of students from linguistic minorities studying their mother tongue in schools teaching in Romanian. A decision has been taken to establish a private Hungarian university, financed with the support of the Hungarian State. Courses were to be started in October 2001 for 450 students.

1.19.    The Government of Hungary has taken several major initiatives to address the problems faced by the Roma minority. The most important of these was the adoption, in April 2001, of a National Strategy for Improving the Condition of Roma. The strategy is a comprehensive and high quality document that was elaborated together with Roma organisations and has been welcomed by them. The strategy covers a 10-year period and sets out a plan of measures to be taken for the first four years. The document sets objectives that include changing negative public perceptions, improving living conditions for the Roma, and encouraging Roma participation in all aspects of civil society. It is anticipated that Roma NGOs will play an active role in the implementation of the strategy. One of the key features of the strategy is its decentralised nature. This is an important consideration since most of the public institutions covered by the strategy (e.g. education, police, hospitals) are managed at the local level. In order to implement the strategy local Roma offices are being set up in each county. Staff, who are themselves Roma, have been hired for these offices.


1.20.     Instances can be multiplied from various states such as Canada, Indonesia, Switzerland etc. but what has been described above is the situation regarding the languages which were at one time sought to be obliterated but are, nevertheless, thriving. In Europe alone there is growing concern for such language groups as Basque, Breton, Catalan, Cornish, Irish, Yiddish, Judeo-Spanish, Occitan, Romany, Sardinian, Sorbian. Corsican, Scotch, Faroese, Frisian, Galician,

1.21.    But what is more important is that now Western Europe has accepted the principle of multi-culturism. Since the end of the Second World War, Europe has been built on respect for the linguistic and cultural differences of its peoples and nations. Of course, the national and official languages of the countries have first to be respected. However, this respect for cultural plurality cannot stop at the plurilingualism of the official languages of the countries: it is total linguistic and cultural diversity which should be progressively taken into account.

1.22.    The European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages remains for Western Europe, the main document which inspires and encourages an increased acceptance of minority linguistic and cultural demands in many countries. This Charter, created to protect and promote regional or minority language rights allows for the studying of demands without putting the unity of the countries concerned into question. This allows for the opening of debates and negotiations which are more difficult to avoid by countries reluctant to recognize their linguistic and cultural diversity. The principles outlined in the Charter clearly show that the protection and promotion of minority languages and cultures will not be confined exclusively to the realms of the private sector, as is too often the case. It requires the creation of public institutions thoroughly compatible with the fundamental principles of Human Rights and the citizenship.

1.23.    Obviously, the path is not easy as most of Europe is attuned to the idea of suppression. The main problem today is understanding the value of diversity, passing from suspicious tolerance to a form of cultural interbreeding. And this composite culture will be founded on complete acceptance of realities inherited from our history and energized by a circulation of culture which would grow exponentially.


1.24.     Fortunately for us in India, we have always accepted the principle of multi culturism. We do not have the tradition of suppression of any language or culture except for some groups which have imbibed the western notions of nation states which lay down that the rise of any group can only be at their cost. But they forget that, as in Economics, so in linguistics, the welfare of any group really adds to the welfare of the society as a whole.

1.25.    It is not to say that we do not come across problems in our endeavor to ensure equality of opportunity to all the linguistic groups.

1.26.    The first problem is the existence of the Eighth Schedule in the Constitution. An erroneous impression is there that the Constitution provides certain exclusive rights to the languages included in the Eighth Schedule. Actually the Constitution refers to Eighth Schedule only at two places; in Article 344 and Article 351. The former refers to the setting up of a Commission which shall consist of Chairman and members who shall represent different languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule. The duty of the Commission was to be to report on the progressive use of Hindi and reduction on the use of English. The latter refers to the development of Hindi and it is stated that it should be enriched by assimilating words from the languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule. It is clear that neither of this gives any thing of substance to the languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule. In fact the whole exercise is meaningless. It would not have made an iota of difference if there was no Eighth Schedule. Article 344 could have said that members would be appointed from amongst “persons representing different languages”. After all the appointment was to be done by the Government and they could choose any one. Simailarly Article 351 could have omitted the words “specified in the Eighth schedule". What difference does it make if the new words are chosen from 14 languages or 114 languages. And according to this words from English and other foreign languages can not be picked up whereas most of the new words have come from there.

1.27.    In the substantive article dealing with the Official language of a State, there is no reference to Eighth Schedule. It merely says, “….. Legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more languages in use in the State or Hindi as the language or languages to be used for all or any of the official purposes of that State: …..".  There is no bar on non scheduled language being the Official Language of a State.

1.28.    In the First  Report itself, Commissioner Linguistic Minorities had remarked that "Some representations have been received for inclusion of certain languages in the Eighth Schedule. This request is made as there seems to be a popular impression that the fourteen languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule are the only languages that are recognized as spoken in India. This appears to be an erroneous impression."

1.29.    However all this has not been able to remove the presumption that the inclusion of a language in Schedule VIII means a special position. The way the Schedule has been modified from time to time does not remove this apprehension that there is something special which is not met on the surface. There is no dearth of politicians and officers who have differentiated between the language included in the Schedule and those not so included. The Census Commissioner in his tables makes this distinction and gives separate tables for their speakers in various States. But apart from this separation of tables, there is nothing adverse against the non scheduled languages. In fact he also makes a distinction between the mother tongues and the languages. Included in the language are the mother tongues which are recognized as the dialects of that language. Even so, the separation does convey an undesirable message.

1.30.    In the views of the present Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, this distinction has caused heart burnings though in reality there is no such distinction at all in so far as the use of the various languages for educational purpose or for communications with the authorities of the Union and the State or even as Official Language of a State. The correct thing will be to forever finish this controversy and abolish the Schedule Eight (with some inconsequential amendments in the redundant Article 344 and in Article 351) and declare, on the lines of Russian Federation that "The languages of the people of the Indian Union are the national wealth of the State." and that "The languages of the people of the Indian Union are under the protection of the State." Furthermore the constitution can say, again in words of the Constitution of Russian Federation that "The Union and the States guarantee to all its people, regardless of their numbers, equal rights to preservation and comprehensive development of the native language, freedom of choice and use of the language of communication."

1.31.    And furthermore that “even if the speakers of a language do not have a state or territory but are in "compact residence", they can use it  "in the official spheres of communication" along with Hindi and State languages.(cf Section 3 of Russian Act)

1.32.    Furthermore it can say that people "not having a written language has the right to create the written form of its native language" [cf Section 10(5) of Russian Act]

1.33.    This will doubtlessly assure the people that their language is not considered as less important than any other language of the country. This will also do away with the excuse of some of the people that the non scheduled languages, especially those without a well used script of their own, do not deserve any consideration. The Government will be saved the botheration of dealing with the periodical demands for inclusion of languages in the Eighth Schedule.


1.34.    Another pertinent question that has been raised sometimes is about whose responsibility the welfare of the linguistic minorities is. Thus in one State the Education Secretary said that there are so many languages in the State and it is not possible for the State Government to look after all the linguistic minority groups. She expected the Commissioner to draw up a Central scheme which will take care of the educational needs of the linguistic minorities. The financial outlay on arranging to fulfill the requirements on this count is expected to be worked out so that necessary funds should be given by the Central Government. In other words, linguistic minorities should be taken off their hands. It must be said that that this was a spontaneous reaction and not a well thought out proposal but it does convey the sentiments of the officers. But then many other states have talked about the financial difficulties.

1.35.    It is admitted that the school (and pre school) education is in the State list. The universalisation of education is the concern  of each and every state.  When the Constitution talks of compulsory and free education for the children up to the age of 14 years, it does not refer to the Union or the State. The Constitution is not for the Union only. It is for both. If the Constitution directs the State to perform a certain obligation, it is expected to do with its own resources. Of course the Constitution prescribes the methodology for the sharing of revenue between the Union and the States through the Finance Commissions in which the requirements for the States can be stated for its consideration by the Finance Commission.

1.36.    Nevertheless it will be in order to consider this in some of its broader aspects. There is no doubt that all the States are committed to provide for universalisation of the primary education. Though the elementary education is the subject allotted to the State Governments, yet the Central Government have launched, from time to time, various schemes for achieving the universalisation of education. Some of these schemes are Operation Black Board, Rajiv Gandhi Mission, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. But this does not take away the basic responsibility of the states to provide education to its citizens especially the young citizens. It is quite feasible that the Central Government, in order to facilitate the growth of the minor languages and the minority languages in different states should launch schemes to open schools for them. But will this be promotion of the ideals which led , in the first place, to the safeguards for the linguistic minorities. It is necessary to bear in mind that when the framers of the Constitution thought of the safeguards, they had in mind the cause of National Integration in making the provisions to treat all the citizens as equals. None was to be discriminated against on the grounds of religion or language. While this applies to the Union as a whole, it also applies to the residents within a State. The primary responsibility for the equal treatment of all its residents is primarily and ultimately the responsibility of  the State Government. Any interference by the Central Government must take this in consideration. It is also likely that any interference on behalf of the linguistic minorities may be counter productive in increasing the dependence of the linguistic minorities on the Central Government on one hand and increasing the hostility of the majority linguistic group on the other hand. There will be possibility of clash between the two sections and that would destroy the basic spirit of integration. It must be borne in mind that ultimately the two have to live in the same state and lead it to prosperity. It was noted by the Reorganization Commission that apart from the bilingual areas on the border of pair of states, there are also linguistic pockets within the state. These areas have their own signifcance..

1.37.    Does the opening of the schools or for the separate sections in the Government schools entail extra expenditure for the State and if so is the extra expenditure very heavy. In that the safeguards ask the State Governments to lower the norms for the number of students in a class of linguistic minorities, some expenditure is definitely involved. While the normal norms for opening a new school is 40 students in a class and teachers are also provide on the basis of the formula- one teacher for 40 students, the norms for linguistic minorities is 10 students to a class at the primary level and 15 students to a class at the middle, upper primary or secondary level. In the schools where there are parallel sections for the linguistic minorities, the same norms apply for opening new sections. This means that there will be more schools and sections in the linguistic minorities areas than in the normal areas. This is also so because the linguistic minorities many times reside in the villages where the density of population is much less. However, it is noted in this context that the similar circumstances exist in the tribal areas and many of the State Governments have relaxed the norms for the tribal areas. Thus Jharkhand has stated that a primary school will be opened for a population of 1500 and a middle school for a population of 3000 whereas in the Chhota Nagpur and Santhal areas the norms will be 1000 and 2000 respectively. A distance criteria for the tribal areas is in addition to this viz. primary school should be within 1.5 kilometers and middle school within a distance of 5 kilometers. This does involve some extra expenditure but it is borne by the State Government in view of their commitment to the cause of the universalisation of education. The same level of commitment is expected for the linguistic minorities and, therefore, the extra expenditure will be borne by the State Governments. This burden can not be passed on to the Central Government or, for that matter, postponed because this is the essence of minimum services to be given to the citizens.

1.38.    One of the suggestions often given is that the Commissioner Linguistic Minorities should be given the powers to enforce his recommendations. It is said that he makes the recommendations year after year and no one cares for them. The very fact that this Report is based on the replies received from only a few states bears eloquent testimony to this aspect. The receiving of a reply to the complaints and representations forwarded to the State Governments by the CLM is a rarity. It is argued that minimum that can be done is to ensure that the Commissioner can be authorised to summon officers of the States to answer to the complaints which are received by the Commissioner and sent to the State Governments for their comments.

1.39.    The proposal is quite attractive for the Commissioner. Any extra powers are always welcome. But will adding one more organization to the galaxy of supervisory bodies would be really productive? Why is it that, in the first instance, such powers were not given to the Commissioner?

1.40.    It is well known that the result of such supervisory role is normally to put the other person on defensive. He defends rather than take positive action. The entire basis of the safeguards was the general consensus that the State Governments would act fairly by the linguistic minorities. They agreed to the safeguards and sometimes even went beyond the strict wording of the Constitution to the spirit behind them and gave the safeguards which were liberal in approach. And what is even more important is that this was not done as a favour to the linguistic minorities but under a genuine conviction that they have a right to these.

1.41.    What then was the machinery which ensured that the safeguards were put into practice. The Commissioner believes that the creation of public opinion was considered to be the driving force for safeguarding the safeguards. It was with this intention that it was directed that the CLM shall make a report to the President every year and that the President shall cause it to be laid before both the houses of the Parliament. This meant adequate publicity to the scheme of the safeguards as also information to the public how the various states were performing. An open debate in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha were the best guarantee that the states were kept on their toes.

1.42.    Unfortunately this practice of discussions in the Parliament was stopped. Perhaps it was a conscious decision. It might have been a temporary lapse but this coincided with a long period in which no one was appointed as the Commissioner Linguistic Minorities.

1.43.    The matter was also regularly taken up in the National Integration Council but that was also given up. Furthermore the subject itself was transferred from the Ministry of Home Affairs to the Ministry of Welfare. It is charitable to think that this was the result of the occurrence of the word ‘minorities’ and the authorities were unable to look beyond the word. Actually the safeguards for the linguistic minorities were never envisaged as a welfare activity. Some of the linguistic minorities are in no need of welfare activities. the Gujaratis in Maharashtra do not need financial assistance which is what the welfare activities have come to connote in India. Subsidies, grants, financial assistance and reservations are the main features of the welfare activities. The  growing attraction for the material comforts have blinded people towards higher values of life. Perhaps the financial outlays are attractive for the persons who want patronage as their main occupation. But all this material ways are irrelevant for many of the linguistic minorities groups. What they need is respect for their language, respect for their culture, respect for their way of life and 'welfare' does not go with the spirit of these.

1.44.    It is not feasible that the duties towards the linguistic minorities can be performed by any agency other than the State Government and its authorities. The safeguards cover so many aspects and are so varied that they touch every facet of the life. If the State Government authorities are not fully involved, no agency, whatever be its size or whatever be its powers can do justice to them. Most of all, the safeguards are practical aspects of democracy in action, a guarantee that the government is of the people and hence for the people. Democracy can not be practiced by an imposed authority even when the sanctions flow from the Constitution. As the Commissioner remarked in a meeting in Kasargod, Kerala, the best guarantee for the implementation of the safeguards is a Government committed to the cause; more than that an Administration properly motivated; and most of all, a people aware of their rights and having willpower to stand up to them whatever be the opposition.

1.45.    It is, therefore, not extra powers that will ensure the implementation of the safeguard but adequate publicity to the rights that the linguistic minorities enjoy or should be enjoying. What is needed is a publicity campaign which should underline the importance of the proposed measures. Whether these efforts can start from the highest level and percolate down to the local administrative layers and the linguistic minorities at grass roots can be a matter of debate. The Commissioner believes that in the hero worship mode that the media generally adopts in India, the efforts, if started at the highest level, attract the attention of the media which then takes it down to the levels which implement the programmes. It is why the Commissioner, present as well  as his predecessors, have been calling for a highest level National Integration Council meeting to discuss the current status of implementation of the safeguards. It is hoped that this recommendation will  meet with favourable results this time. It will be a beginning. Nothing is going to change overnight but a movement will be set in motion. This is the best that can happen.

1.46.    With these remarks we can go on to see how the states have been dealing with their linguistic minorities. Needless to say there are variations from very good to very bad. There are some states which do not even recognize the problem. This is especially true if the languages happen to be the tribal languages. These languages usually do not have their own traditional script and that is what, in the eyes of the officers of the Government, renders them ineligible for consideration. It has already been remarked that this is not a correct approach. It is never difficult to have a script peculiar to a language as Santhali seems to have done to have the script Ol Chiki. However the option of the local scripts already used for other languages can be quite helpful in making use of the technological advances for using the script. It is not correct to say that a language loses anything of its character by adopting a script used for another language. In Dakshin Kannada, Tulu is now being written in Kannada script but is none the poorer as a result thereof. It may be mentioned that Tulu does have a script of its own in which some inscriptions of the eighth and ninth century have been located. This has not stopped the protagonists of Tulu from adopting Kannada script. Similarly in Manipur, though there are attempts to revive the old script Meitei Mayek, Bengali script is, for all purposes, the script. There are still advocates of Roman script for tribal languages in the North East and East. Their claim is that the original dictionaries and other literature of hese languages were written by the missionaries in that script.  But the use of this script was for the benefit of those who did not know any other script and used it  for limited reference purposes must be distinguished from the universal use of the script in education, literature and other fields. It is also a futile argument that knowledge of Roman script will make the Santhalis or others master of English which is said to be ‘the language’. First the idea of knowledge of English being the goal of education is wrong. Secondly having same script does not teach a language. Bengali and Manipuri share the script and yet the words of every day use common to the two languages can be counted on fingers. It is very seldom that script leads to the knowledge of a language though it may facilitate it to some extent. The scholars of Sanskrit are far too few even though Devnagari happens to be the script for Hindi, Marathi , Nepali etc. It will be to the advantage of all concerned to adopt the Indian scripts.


1.47.    Before we close this chapter on introductory remarks, it should be mentioned that an effort was made to collect information about the minor languages. Minor languages meant those languages which are spoken by a smaller number of people who are more or less concentrated in a small area and have not been used extensively in the past. These obviously include the tribal languages but are not exclusively tribal. Dogri, Konkani, Tulu, Khandeshi, Banjara can be cited as examples of minor languages apart from the well known tribal languages like Santhali, Bhili, Gondi, Kodagu and the like despite a large number of speakers. Unfortunately the State Governments have not been able to supply adequate information and alternate methodology will have to be used to collect the information regarding their use in education, media, publications, dramas etc.

1.48.    It may also be mentioned that even now  the linguistic breakup  on the basis of census of 2001 is not available. It is not known what is holding up the release of this data. The figures for various language groups are, therefore, based on 1991 census. Even here the handicap is that the district figures are not available for 1991 census. For this reason, sometimes we have to go back to 1981 census. This does create some problems, especially because many new districts have been carved out of the existing districts and the statistics for them are not available even for 1981 census.

Chapter II. Safeguards


2.1.      It is customary to give a history of the evolution of the safeguards for the linguistic minorities. But this means unnecessary repetition. those who are interested in the details about the series of conferences and meetings which led to the present shape of the safeguards can refer to the earlier reports. These reports are available on the website They can be downloaded. Some other useful information can also be found on the website. We would welcome comments, questions and contributions about the problems of the linguistic minorities. We would specially welcome information about the status of the minor languages, what literature is available in them, how they are being used in education and to what extent as also the literature,. books, periodicals and magazines published in these languages.

2.2.      The safeguards as they apply at present are listed below for ready reference. These include the safeguards provided in the Constitution and also those which have been arrived at by consensus amongst the Chief Ministers and other statesmen.

2.3.      The salient features of the safeguards are :


a.      Translation and publication of important rules, regulations, notices, etc., into all languages, which are spoken by at least 15% of the total population at district or sub-district level ;

b.      Declaration of minority languages as second official language in districts where persons speaking such languages constitute at least  60 % of the population

c.        Receipt of, and reply to, representations in minority languages;

d.      Instruction through mother tongues/ minority languages at the Primary stage of education;

e.      Instruction through minority languages at the Secondary stage of education;

f.         Advance registration of linguistic preference of linguistic minority  pupils, and inter-school adjustments;

g.      Provision for text books and teachers in minority languages;

h.      Implementation of Three Language Formula;  

i.         No insistence upon  knowledge of State’s Official Language at the time of recruitment. Test of proficiency in the State’s Official Language to be held before  completion of probation;

j.         Issue of  Pamphlets in minority languages detailing safeguards available to linguistic minorities;

k.       Setting up of proper  machinery  at the State and district levels.


2.4.      In the chapters that follow we will examine how various states are carrying these out. It may, however, be mentioned that information is available from only a few states. Some of the States and Union Territories which have sent a reply to our questionnaire had little information to give. The study of the reports will be within these limits.

Chapter III. Arunachal Pradesh


3.1.      We have already referred to the reluctance of the Government of Arunachal Pradesh to consider any of its residents as linguistic minority though according to our usual definition. every one belongs to the category of linguistic minority because no language is spoken by more than 50 % of the population. In their reply they have stated that data are not available. This is true for the census 2001 but the data for 1991 are definitely available. In fact we have referred to them in our Thirty Ninth Report. We have given the district wise breakup also. We have shown that the various languages are concentrated in some districts and their speakers are in substantial number to deserve the status of additional official language. The Government of Arunachal Pradesh should undertake serious efforts to develop these languages so that they can take their due place in education and administration.

3.2.      Actually the situation is not so bad for in the reply for the 40th Report, a third language is also mentioned as being taught to students from class VI to VIII. Five languages of the state viz. Adi, Apatani, Bhoti, Khampti and Nishi, spoken by major tribes, have been adopted as the third language.

3.3.      This position applies to question 4 also which deals with areas where there are substantial number of speakers of a minority language. Once the Government accept that the tribal languages should be considered , rest of the things will fall in their due place.

3.4.      English is stated to be the official language of the State. It is also the medium of education. In the three language formula, Hindi also is mentioned. In the matter of recruitment it is said that the knowledge of the official language is necessary.

3.5.      Arunachal Pradesh has stated that it does not have any grievances or complaints from the linguistic minorities which is not surprising as they have no machinery to ascertain shortcomings in this regard. This is all a part of the package. Once the people know that they have a  right to be taught in their mother tongue and they can use it for other purposes also, rest of the things will follow. Then there will be plenty of demands and complaints.

Chapter IV. Assam


4.1.           Assam is another state which has not been able to reply to the questionnaire sent for getting the information for the year 2002 – 03. It is a loss since the State has done so well for the linguistic minorities. Whether it is the question of declaration of minority language as the additional official language for an area or for opening schools where the instructions are imparted through minority languages, the State has a very good record.

4.2.           .Still there are always some deficiencies. Some of these were brought to the notice of the Chief Secretary and other officers when the Commissioner visited the State. It was pointed out by the Chief Secretary that the finances of the State  are not in good shape. It was urged that Commissioner should persuade the Government of India to help. It was pointed out that costs for the preparation and printing of books, for paying salaries of the teachers and for sundry expenditure have to be incurred.

4.3.           One can understand the financial difficulties that the State Governments are facing. It is not something special to Assam. Almost all the states are in similar position. The expenditure on the staff is such that little is left for development activities. In this situation the social services sectors like education become the worst sufferers. It is not proper to question what led to the present situation. One wonders if the Central Government is in a better position. The fiscal deficit is the most talked of thing at the time of budget presentation. Nevertheless they can still help. A recommendation for this will be sent to them. The best way will be to refer the matter to the Finance Commission which is currently constituted and is considering the allocation of funds between the States and the Centre. A special assistance can be provided under the head "Education of Linguistic Minorities" just on the lines of "Upgradation of Jails" for which some funds were made available sometime back by a  Finance Commission. To compare the education with jail is not an appropriate analogy since one liberates and other is for restricting the liberty. But the main idea is that special funds ought to be given by the Finance Commission.

4.4.           On the other hand, a question can be asked from the State Government. Is the education of all the residents of the State not the responsibility of the State Government? If the children do not speak the principal language of the State, is that the reason to discriminate against them? The Constitution directs that all the children should be taught in their mother tongue. Is that responsibility to be avoided on account of shortage of funds? There is also the question as to what extra expenditure will be incurred if, instead of a teacher knowing the principal language, a teacher knowing the minority language is appointed. There may be some expenditure on publishing of books since the number required for the minority language will be a little less. But the facility is being asked for when the linguistic minorities of an area exceed 15 % of the population. That would not be an unsubstantial number and the extra expenditure involved will mean marginal increase. Surely this expenditure is within the means of the State Government provided there is  will. Is it too much to expect that in a district where there are substantial number of linguistic minorities, there should be proportionate number of clerks and officers who know the minority language? Will that entail extra expenditure? Perhaps all these aspects will be considered and a well reasoned proposal for financial assistance will be prepared which the Commissioner will be happy to commend to the Central Government.

4.5.           Another point made was that every one knows Assamese so why talk of the linguistic minorities. This is not true. Data about Assam is not available but some study was done in Manipur in respect of 1981 census where also a similar position was taken by the State Government. It was found that Kabui was spoken by 49,254 persons. Only 20,744 persons were knowing a language other than Kabui. Manipuri was known by 16,246 persons i.e. about 33 %. It can be envisaged as to how many of them were children. The percentage will be much less. Surely the rest of the children deserve to be taught through the language which they know. It is not expected that the situation in Assam will be radically different. Even if it is, teaching through mother tongue is recommended by the educationists for the proper understanding on the part of the child.

4.6.           Taking the argument at another plane, it can be said that every one knows English, so why talk of Indian languages or why should the Universities teach in these languages. There are those who have never ceased to argue that Indian languages are not fit for higher studies especially in Science and Technical subjects. The Constitution framers did not find the Hindi numerals as worthy of consideration and preferred English numerals calling them the international numerals. And their successors do not stop at that. They aver that in Indian languages, there is no vocabulary, no books, no flexibility. They scoff at the idea of coining terminology for the scientific terms in Indian languages. The attempts of scholars like Doctor Raghuvira to enrich the vocabulary of Hindi is not  appreciated. No attempt is made to join the issue, to improve upon his equivalent words. He is ridiculed because they are used to a word and find any equivalent word difficult to remember and to use appropriately. To hide their own shortcoming, they resort to ridicule. The most popular phrase for ridiculing him is the 'loh path gamini' which was supposed to be equivalent of railway train. Raghuvira has coined over sixty thousand words but the only example they can cite against him is this one. They would not even bother to read the dictionary to find another word for ridicule. One word is enough to condemn the entire effort. But then will the present day scholars favour the notion that all education from class one should be in English. One wonders. We could, perhaps, find protagonists for it, especially the city people and those whose livelihood depends on English. But their number will be very very small. Just as English can not displace the Indian languages, the principal language can not displace the minority languages and they should not. Mother tongue is mother tongue and there is no substitute.

4.7.           It was surprising to note that it was said that on orders from the Union Finance Ministry, all grants in aid have been stopped. It is well known that the educational services have depended on the Government support and continue to do so. The Government efforts, by themselves, will not be able to achieve the universalisation of education. The Government of India, in the Ministry of Human Resource Development, have been talking about the help from the NGOs. It is, therefore, surprising that Union Finance Ministry should issue such directions. If it is so, it should be reconsidered. In order to attract the private initiative and to reduce burden on the exchequer, the grants in aid for the educational institutions is a must.

4.8.            The Commissioner visited the State and some schools in Guwahati. The impressions were conveyed to the authorities in the State. They were, on the whole, not very adverse. In one of the schools, Commissioner was informed that there is no shortage of the books but there is some delay in the supply of the books. Books are supplied free for class V to VII. (It was a middle school) There were no complaints except that the Headmaster felt that the translations of the textbooks were too tough to be understood by the students. In another school, it was informed that since there was new syllabi for class X, the books are late in arrival otherwise there is no problem.

4.9.           The tough translation is not rare. Many a time the work is assigned to those who have never been teachers in the schools. They do not appreciate the level of understanding of the students never having dealt with them. During this visit there was a headlines in the newspaper The Sentinel on June 11, 2004 "New Arabic curriculum after 30 years". The body of the report contained the following "Mr. Sarma said that experts from Gauhati University, Tezpur University, Agriculture University and others participated in the workshop held for the development of textbooks for the upper primary section," This tells the story. There were no school teachers. Only the Universities were talked of. If under the circumstances, books which can not be followed and which do not appeal to the students and which make the educational experience a pain in the neck and not a pleasure, scare away children and there are dropouts, are produced, can one wonder.

4.10.        In the two Bengali medium schools visited, one Upper primary and other primary,, it was found that there is no shortage of teachers but it was said that the number of students in the upper primary school was coming down. Most of those, who can afford it, are sending the wards to private schools.

4.11.        Once again it is regretted that the reply to the questionnaire could not be obtained and the case of the State is going by default. Incidentally the State now has a senior officer as the Nodal Officer. It is hoped that he will be able to pull up the defaulting officers and send the reply to the questionnaire for the next Report in time for inclusion in the Report.

Chapter V. Andhra Pradesh


5.1.          The population of Andhra Pradesh, as per 1991 census, is 6,65,08,008. Of them 84.77 % have Telegu  as their language; 8.36 % Urdu; 2.77 % Hindi and 1.13 % Tamil. There are no areas where a minority language is spoken by more than 60 %. The list of areas where Urdu is spoken by more than 15 % of the population,  is given but not done for Hindi or Tamil. Hindi does not have such areas but Tamil is known to be in this position in Chittoor district. Kannada, Oriya and Marathi are also the minority languages in some talukas of more than 15 % of the population.

5.2.          Telegu is the official language. Urdu has been declared as the additional official language in 13 districts for recruitment to services, publication of rules etc.; and providing instructions in primary and secondary education.

5.3.          It is stated that the rules etc. are published in minority languages and it is said that office of the Director of Translation has been set up in Hyderabad. The number of rules etc. translated has not been specified.

5.4.          There are separate guidelines for the linguistic minority institutions. Normally the communal roster is followed by the institutes recruiting people in the educational institutes but this is not necessary if these institutions recruit  persons from the concerned minority community.

5.5.          The number of institutions running in the state for the linguistic minorities are as follows:-


Primary Schools

Secondary schools


































5.6.          In the primary education, the linguistic minority schools are run if there are more than 10 students in a class for that language. The number of schools, students and teachers for the year 2002-03 are as follows:-






























5.7.          It is noted that in the past three years, the number of schools in Urdu medium have gone up from 1257 to 2517 and the number of students has increased from 1,62,629 to 3,66,057 i.e. they have more than doubled. In Oriya also there is an increase from 7,579 to 16,016 (an increase of 111 %). There is an increase of 87 % in Tamil; 45 4 % in Kannada; 643 % in Hindi; and 122 % in Marathi. This is indeed a creditable performance for which the Government of Andhra Pradesh should be congratulated.

5.8.          In Secondary Education, Hindi, Urdu, Tamil and Oriya are described as the media of instructions in addition to Telegu and English. The number of schools, students and teachers for year 2002 - 03 is as follows:-





























5.9.          Here also there is an increase in the number of students, The increase is from 53,338 to 64,581 in Urdu, an increase of 21 %. In Oriya the increase is 1209 %; in Tamil 148 %; in Kannada 189 %; and in Marathi 396 %. In Hindi however, there is a fall from 12,358 in 2000-01 to 11,327 in 2001-02 to 7,009 in 2002-03. The number of schools has gone up from 24 to 26 but the number of teachers has come down from 348 to 280. This should be looked into.

5.10.      Advance registers are reported to be maintained in all the schools vide orders issued in 1993,.

5.11.      No shortage of teachers has been reported. But during the visit of the Commissioner to Medak district, in one school, one vacancy of Physics teacher and in another three vacancies were reported. A delegation of the Urdu teachers also said that presently the number of posts for teachers is calculated on the basis of 1:40 ratio and hence no vacancies are shown. Actually for the Urdu schools, according to them, the ratio should be 1:20 as the number of students in the backward areas is low and the ratio of 1:40 can not be achieved. This appears to be a good reason for reviewing the number of posts. It is generally observed that in the rural areas the number of students from the linguistic minority are not in sufficient number to warrant regular teacher student ratio.

5.12.      Another reason for the non fulfillment of the posts of teachers was said to be the 30 % reservation for the women. This does not appear to be a valid reason since women are traditionally attracted to the teaching profession. May be, there is shortage in certain subjects such as Physics but this can be attended to by diverting an equivalent number of posts to other subjects so that the deficiency in women recruitment can be made up.

5.13.      In the information about the training of the teachers, it is informed that 1350 persons were trained in the preceding three years. However, this information is only about Urdu and no information has been furnished in respect of other language teachers.

5.14.      There is said to be no shortage of textbooks. This is also at variance with what was observed in Medak district. The main complaint was about  the non supply of the books. It was informed that Urdu books for class I have still not been received. The position about the workbooks is specially difficult. Only fifty percent of the requirements is usually supplied and that too with a delay of two months or more. Books for class X were received in January/ February. There is a need for closer supervision and for proper arrangements so that the books can reach in time,

5.15.      Urdu and Hindi academies have been set up. Hindi academy does not appear to be active but Urdu Academy has been quite active. The exact amount of grants given to the Academy during the year are not known but the Chairman specified that the funds were substantial and that this was the best financed Academy in the country. Expenditure during the year 2002-03 was given as Rs. 169.50 lakh, Besides a sum of Rs, 534.60 lakh was spent on the construction of Urdu Ghars cum Shadikhanas (marriage houses).

5.16.      Amongst the activities of the Academy are

1.            Makhdoom Award in seven categories related to literature.

2.            Awards on printed books.

3.            Financial assistance for publication of manuscripts

4.            Financial assistance to periodicals

5.            Financial assistance to news agencies

6.            Financial assistance to institutions for seminars etc.

7.            Students (merit) scholarships

8.            Students (EBC) scholarships

9.            Establishment of 18 computer training institutes

10.        Urdu typewriting institute

5.17.      The Academy is also publishing a quality Urdu Magazine called ‘Qaumi Zaban”.

5.18.      The Commissioner also visited the premises of Daily Siyasat, an Urdu newspaper published since 1948. The 'Siyasat' is running the Urdu classes for regular students and adults through various trusts set up by them. They are also conducting training courses for the Urdu medium students desirous of taking up competitive examinations and appearing in interviews. A number of computer courses are also conducted by them to enable the students to get suitable employment opportunities. They are also conducting training in Unani Medicine through the medium of Urdu.  It is not clear what assistance they are getting from the State Government but they are getting assistance in the computer centres from Board for Promotion of Urdu of the Central Government.

5.19.      So far as recruitment is concerned, this appears to be a dark spot. Urdu is said to be the medium of examination for recruitment but it is also said that knowledge of Telegu of the school final standard is compulsory for recruitment. There are also domiciliary restrictions in terms of six point formula. The details of the formula could not be ascertained.

5.20.      The machinery for watching the implementation of the safeguards is described as the Minority Welfare Commission at the State level and District Minority Welfare Officer at the district level. It does not appear that review is done at the secretariat level also. There is no information about regular review by the minority Commission.

5.21.      No pamphlets are issued but the publicity is said to be done through public notification. Whether this is done through minority languages or not is not specified.

5.22.      It is said that there is an authority prescribed at the district level and the state level to receive the complaints etc. but the name of the officer is not given. It is, however, stated that no complaints have been received.  considering that the Urdu Teachers Association met the Commissioner at Hyderabad and gave a long list of demands, it does not appear to be correct that no grievances are brought to the notice of the authorities. Amongst the points raised by the delegation were that “all the officials in these districts should be trained in Urdu. An Urdu translator must be appointed in all the departments. Each Collectorate should have a Urdu cell. The G.Os should be issued in Urdu also. Special Urdu cell is needed for the School Education Department. Urdu should be given due place in the media and communications. Urdu programmes should be telecast and programmes of UGC can also be done in Urdu. Magazines, bulletins and advertisement should be published in Urdu also.”

5.23.      Other demands mentioned were “SCERT should also have a Urdu cell with all the specialisations. It should develop appropriate training material for the teachers. Andhra Pradesh Government is conducting coaching centres for competitive examinations but the number of Urdu medium centres needs to be increased. In-service training opportunities for B. Ed and M. Ed should be given to the Urdu teachers.

5.24.      The increase in the number of posts for the Urdu teachers by reducing the teacher student ratio has already been mentioned above. Increase in the number of Vidya volunteer under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was also mentioned. It was said that in the matter of upgradation, Urdu schools were being discriminated against. All these complaints may not be correct but it would not be proper to say that there is no grievance.

5.25.      Having said that, it still can be said that Andhra Pradesh is liberal in the treatment of the linguistic minorities in the State.

Chapter VI. Orissa


6.1. The  population  of Orissa is 3,68,04,660 as per the census 2001. It was 3,16,59,736 in 1991. The linguistic profile in 1991 was as follows:-



























6.2. There are no areas where any minority language is spoken by more than 60 % of the people but there are areas where their proportion is more than 15 %. These are Sundargarh district for Hindi (21.47 %);  Mayurbhanj for Santhali  (27.05 %);and  Pulbani for Kui (31.49 %). It is noted that only the districts have been named. if these are considered at the tahsil level, there will be many more languages (Ho, Koya, Khond, Telegu, Sabar, Munda etc.) and many more areas.

6.3. Official language is Oriya and there is no other official language. There are no translations of rules etc. in minority languages nor are the representations replied to in any language other than official language and English (perhaps).

6.4. There are no separate guidelines for the recognition of the minority institutes It is stated that 351 institutes are recognized and 213 of them are getting grants in aid. All these appear to be primary schools  The language wise number is given in the paragraph below. Actually the intention was to enquire about the private institutions established and  maintained by the linguistic minorities whether aided or un aided.

6.5. Primary education is up to class VII. It is stated that education is imparted in Urdu, Bengali and Telegu. In view of the fact that primary schools for Hindi and Gujarati are also mentioned, why these languages are left out of the list is not clear. The number of students for a class is stated to be 20.

6.6. The number of schools, students and teachers is given below:-



























6.7. It is stated that out of 202 Telegu schools, 34 are Telegu medium schools while the remaining 168 are bilingual schools. It has also been intimated that one Telegu school in Pattapol, Cuttack was getting grants in aid up to 1990 but it was discontinued due to principle of National Integration Scheme of Government. The matter is sub judice. We would like to be informed about this principle of National Integration and what the dispute is about. In another case, it is also stated that the Government have sanctioned Telegu knowing teachers but only Oriya teachers who have knowledge of Telegu are being posted. It is not understood what is wrong about it. 110 posts of Telegu teachers were sanctioned for newly created districts  but they have not been filled up  It is not known what is holding them up. Who is the appointing authority and what are his problems in not making the appointments.

6.8. It was remarked in an earlier Report that the round figures for number of students in all the languages raised doubts if the statistics are really being collected. The situation in secondary schools is better as will be mentioned below. It will also be seen that there are no statistics for tribal languages Santhali, Kui. Ho etc.

6.9. In the secondary education Urdu, Bengali and Telegu are said to be the media of education besides Oriya and English. Question papers by the Board of Secondary Education are also set in these languages. For the year 2002 – 03, the number of schools, students and teachers is as follows:-























6.10.          It may be mentioned that this information is at variance with that given in the annexure. In the annexure, which gives the number of schools district wise, one Telegu schools is shown in Jeypore district and one in Sundargarh district. These together have 274 students and 11 teachers. In Hindi the number of schools is four and the number of students is 498. In Urdu the number of schools is 46 but the number of students and teachers show only a minor variation.

6.11.          Registers for advance information on linguistic preference of the students are not being maintained.

6.12.          The Three Language Formula is being followed. It has been described in detail in the last Report.  However, in reply to question 29 to 31, the first language is given as Oriya, Bengali, Telegu or Urdu. The second is English and the third is Sanskrit or Persian. Even Hindi is not mentioned. The details given in the annexure show many more variations. This appears to be a case of oversight.

6.13.          There a number of vacancies for the posts of teachers. In Urdu out of 101 sanctioned posts, 30 are said to be vacant. The reason given there for is the financial problem of the state. The number of vacancies for other languages is not shown. It is stated that efforts are being made to engage Swechha Sevi Shiksha Sahayaks to teach in minority languages.

6.14.          It is stated that two Urdu Secondary Training Schools have been established for providing training facilitates for Urdu teachers. Other languages are not mentioned but it is stated that 50 teachers were trained during last year. It is also mentioned that orientation training is given to the teachers by the respective organizations for qualitative teaching in the linguistic minority managed schools.

6.15.          No shortage of textbooks is reported. The books for the primary classes  are published by Textbook Board for Production and Marketing and those for the secondary stage by Board of Secondary Education.

6.16.          There are no replies to other questions relating to academies, recruitment , machinery and pamphlets. It may be added that in the reply to the questionnaire for the last Report mentioned Urdu Academy . The year before that Urdu, Hindi and other academies were mentioned. Just what is the position about the Academies should be clarified.



Chapter VII. Uttar Pradesh


7.1.            Reply to the quesionnaaire for the 41st Reprot has not been received from Government of Uttar Pradesh despite a number of reminders and personal efforts.

7.2.            It is known that Uttar Pradesh is well disposed of in the favour of the only linguistic minority in the State i.e. the Urdu speaking population. But the statistics are not normally received when the replies are received. There is an Academy also to look after the development of Urdu but the details of its activities were also not sent last year.



Chapter VIII. Uttaranchal


8.1.          Population of Uttaranchal, as per 2001 census is given as 84.79 lakh and as per 1991 census as 70.50 lakh. It is said that 100 % are Hindi speaking but obviously this is only hyperbole. There are known to be many persons speaking Punjabi and other languages. They would also be represented in some number, however, small. This is an instance of the approach where the facts are overcome by sentiments or general belief.

8.2.          The district wise linguistic breakup has been worked on the basis of data for 1981 census. But many of the districts were later sub divided in subsequent years and new districts formed. Thus the exact linguistic profile of existing districts is not available. It is known that Udham Singh Nagar district has substantial number of Punjabi speaking population. It was earlier part of Nainital district. The exact percentage of the linguistic minority in the district is not known. Only this information will decide what rights the linguistic minorities can get in this area.

8.3.          Amongst the minority institutes are listed the following:

1.         Guru Nanak Boys Inter College, Dehradun

2.          Guru Nanak Girls Inter College, Dehradun

3.         Guru Nanak Girls Inter College, Prem Nagar, Dehradun

4.         Guru Nanak Girls Higher Secondary School, Gavin Nagar, Dehradun

5.         Guru Nanak Boys Inter College, Udham Singh Nagar

6.         Guru Nanak Girls Inter College, Udham Singh Nagar

7.         Guru Nanak Girls Inter College, Nanakmatta, Udham Singh Nagar

8.         Guru Nanak Higher Secondary School, Kashipur

9.         Khalsa National Girls Inter College, Haldwani

It is not clear if these institutes are based on linguistic considerations or religious considerations.

8.4.          Nine secondary schools are mentioned to be running for Punjabi speaking people and 4 for Urdu speaking people.. No grants are being given to them. But in the reply to the question about mother tongues being taught, only Hindi is mentioned. Simultaneously four Urdu schools are stated to be having 604 students and 8 teachers in the year 2003 – 03..

8.5.        Similarly in the similar questions about secondary education, the reply to the question about district wise number f schools, the answer is ‘NIL’ but in the next question nine Punjabi schools are stated to be teaching 2,712 students with nine teachers. Presumably these school are teaching Punjabi as a subject but the medium is Hindi.

8.6.          Registers for advance registration are said to be maintained but to what purpose is not clear since the minority languages are not being taken up at the primary level and no government school appears to be teaching minority languages even as a subject.

8.7.          In the circumstances, the information about teachers or textbooks does not have much significance. Same is the situation for the assistance given to an organizations for development of minority languages. There are, of course, no government run academies for such development.

8.8.          In the Three Language Formula Hindi, English and Sanskrit are mentioned as the three languages. Neither Urdu nor Punjabi are mentioned though some schools are said to be teaching these languages.

8.9.          There is no need to mention anything about the concession for non Hindi speaking people in the matter of recruitment to services.

8.10.        Overall the position in Uttaranchal is bleak for the linguistic minorities.



Chapter IX. Karnataka


9.1.             Karnataka has a population of 5,27,33,958 as per the census 2001. It was 4,49,77,201 in 1991. Kannada is the principal language and its speakers form 66.22 % of the population. The minority languages are given in the table below.































9.2.             There are one taluka each in Dakshin Kannada and Udipi districts where Tulu speakers form more than 60 % of the population. There are four talukas in Kolar district where Telegu is in a similar position. But there is no district of this nature.

9.3.             The areas where the minority language is spoken by more than 15 % of the population are many and have been enumerated. As already stated, they can be seen on our website also.

9.4.             As pointed out, there are only six tahsils where the population of linguistic minorities is more than 60 %. These include four tahsils with Telegu as the leading language and two with Konkani. It was also pointed out, in a meeting with the offices of the State Government, that the two tahsils in Belgaum district which had Marathi as the leading language have now ceased to be so though the number is still above 50 %. Revenue records are, however, being maintained in all these areas in Kannada. It was pointed out that it was unfair to the linguistic minorities even though technically they can not claim their language to be additional official language of the district concerned. With the records being computerised the transliteration of names etc. should not pose much of a problem. It was agreed that this aspect would be considered.

9.5.             Kannada is the official language of the State. There is no other official language. It is intimated that important rules, regulations, notices etc. are published in minority languages in the areas where the linguistic minorities are more than 15 % of the population. Two such rules were published in Urdu in the current period. Directorate of Translation is the agency for such translations.

9.6.             Orders were issued on 5.10.99 stating that the answer to the representations received in minority languages should be replied in that language.

9.7.             There are no separate guidelines for the recognition of minority educational institutions. The normal rules apply . But these institutions are recognised on priority basis without taking into consideration their seniority or date of filing the application . Thereafter further necessary action would be taken to grant recognition as  minority institute as per the Government orders and guidelines. The following table gives the number of the institutions granted recognition and grants in aid.



Grant in aid



















9.8.             Primary education is from Class I to V and the upper primary from class VI to VIII. Education is imparted in the minority languages Urdu, Marathi, Tamil and Telegu. It is noted that it is not yet imparted in Konkani or Kodagu . This is discussed in details else where in this chapter.

9.9.             The norms for starting such classes is 20 for each class. Earlier the norms were given as 15 per class for upper primary (though the recommended norms were 10 for the primary classes and 15 for the upper primary classes). Since the requirement for secondary education is said to be 15 per class, it appears to be a slip.

9.10.          Kannada is taught in the linguistic minority schools from class one. In the reply for the earlier 39th Report, it was reported that Kannada is started from class III but is optional for the first two years. From class V, it is compulsory.

9.11.          The number of schools, students and teachers for the year 2002 – 03 are as follows:-

















9.12.          The State Government have also given the district wise number of the linguistic minority and the general schools in the three languages. Barring minor discrepancies, the linguistic minority institutes are said to be 290 for Urdu, 34 for Telegu and 48 for Tamil.

9.13.          It is noted that the number of students for Marathi are not given though elsewhere there are stated to be 1,015 primacy schools for Marathi. Similarly the information about Gujarati and Malayalam schools is not given though there are 4 of the former and 3 of the latter receiving grants fro the State Government. As already pointed there are no school, yet, for Konkani, Tulu and Kodagu.

9.14.          The secondary education is from class IX to X. The languages used as media are Kannada, English, Urdu, Tamil, Telegu, Marathi and Hindi. The criterion for starting a medium is 15 students for opening the class whereas for continuation strength of 25 is to be maintained in each class.

9.15.          The number of schools are given for three languages viz. Urdu, Tamil and Telegu. The figures for Marathi and Hindi are not given though in an annexure to the reply, the number of secondary schools in Marathi is given as 155.

9.16.          The number of schools, students and teachers for secondary schools are as follows:-

















9.17.          Registers for the advance registration of the linguistic preference are being maintained by all the primary schools but not the secondary schools. There is no inter school adjustments.

9.18.          The three Language Formula lists the languages as under

1st Language

Kannada, English, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi, Telegu, Tamil

2nd Language

Kannada, English, Hindi, Urdu, Marathi, Telegu, Tamil

3rd Language

Kannada, English, Hindi, Urdu, Sanskrit

9.19.          The exact combinations under which the different languages can be taken is not clear.

9.20.          It was intimated in a meeting with the teachers that Minority Language, English and Kannada were to be introduced as subjects from class I. However the second and third languages are non examination subjects up to class III and VI respectively. It was stated that Hindi is left out if Kannada is taken as the third language. The Commissioner would commend the introduction of composite courses on the pattern of Goa.

9.21.          No shortage of teachers is reported at the primary level. As for the secondary  stage, a few posts are said to be vacant. Action to fill them up is being taken. However, it is claimed that there are enough teachers to teach through the minority languages.

9.22.          The vacant posts are as follows:-


Posts sanctioned

Posts vacant



















9.23.          There are no separate training Institutes to train the teachers in minority languages. However, at the district level, the DIETs are conducting training programmes to the in-service teachers in Science subjects to be taught through minority languages. During the year under review there were no training programmes but in the earlier year 2001 – 02, 1450 teachers in Urdu, 200 in Marathi and 100 teachers in Tamil were trained. In the year preceding that the number was 1500 teachers in Urdu.

9.24.          No shortage of textbooks is reported.

9.25.          Kannada and English  are the media of examinations for State Services. There is no minority language. The knowledge of Kannada is compulsory for recruitment. For group D posts, the knowledge required is that of seventh standard. Those selected for group C posts are expected to pass the Kannada test before appointment.

9.26.          These stipulations are against the accepted safeguards. It is specially so for group D posts in such areas where linguistic minorities are substantial in number. For group C posts, it is not clear if the selecting depends upon his knowledge of Kannada or he has to acquire it after selection. In case he has to acquire it, how much time is given to him for doing this. If this is a reasonable time, the situation will not be so bad.

9.27.          As regards machinery, it is intimated that Deputy Secretary to Government Department of Personnel and Administrative Reforms has been designated as Linguistic Minorities Officer at the State level. Aa the district level, Deputy Commissioner is charged with the task of enforcing the safeguards. But there are no committees at both the levels.

9.28.          So far as publicity of the safeguards is concerned, it is said that pamphlets are issued. But the last one issued was far back in time i.e. in 1966. It is said that these are under review. It is hoped that this will be completed soon and new pamphlets will be issued not only in English but in the minority languages also so that those most in need of them can read them and profit by them.

9.29.          The State Government have sent a detailed report about the grievances, the only State to do so. It underlines the seriousness with which the welfare of the linguistic minorities is being viewed. It has been reported that the linguistic minorities used to send their complaints to the Deputy Commissioner of the district concerned. The other channel was through Assistant Commissioner, Linguistic Minorities Belgaum ( the regional office of this organization) who passed on these complaints to Deputy Secretary, Linguistic Minorities Officer.

9.30.          About the grievances, it is mentioned that main complaint was about the display of sign posts in Government buses, offices, roads etc. in Kannada only. The Deputy Commissioner has been asked to look into these complaints.

9.31.          The States Minority Commission faces the financial crunch to maintain a mechanism to implement the safeguards. It has been suggested that funds should be available to encourage the representative Linguistic Minority groups to act as a source of information to the Government in respect of the safeguards.

9.32.          It was noted that though Kodagu has its areas of dominance, it is not being used as the language of instruction. There is an Academy for the development of the language but its activities are not known. It is known that during the year 2002 – 03, an amount of Rs. 12 lakh was allotted to it. The purpose was to develop Kodagu language, literature, art and culture. It is expected to publish  books and also arrange functions for folk dance, But it is surprising that even the Collector Coorg was not aware of the activities . The achievements have not been listed.

9.33.          In contrast the Tulu and Konkani Academies with headquarters at Mangalore, are fairly active. They have their problems with the budgetary allocations but they are active. It was stated that the amounts made available is substantial but there are no non plan funds so that the bulk of the grants received go towards the routine expenditure. In Konkani Academy, the amount of grant was increased from Rs. 7 lakh to Rs. 14 lakh but there was a financial cut and the amount was reduced to Rs. eleven lakh only. Government, in their reply, has stated the amount as Rs. 12.90 lakh. Similarly for Tulu Academy the funds were increased from Rs. seven lakh to Rs. Eleven lakh before the cut was applied. The non plan expenditure is to the tune of Rs. six lakh. This does not leave enough funds for the development activities. The State Government have intimated an allocation of Rs. 13.35 lakh during the year 2002 – 03.

9.34.          Normally after five years of existence the routine expenditure is provided for on non plan side but this has not been done. It is hoped that now that the new Finance Commission is working, the case for the transfer of the routine expenditure to non plan will be made out so that enough fund are available for development of language as such.

9.35.          The Urdu Academy was established in 1977 and has now non plan funds also. The allocation during the year 2002 – 03 was Rs. 8.35 lakh under non-plan and Rs. 10 lakh under plan side. The items are the usual ones viz. publication of books, arrangements of seminars, giving scholarships to students. the Academy is also working on Urdu – Kannada and Kannada – Urdu dictionaries. The actual achievements are not listed.

9.36.          It was reported that Government of Karnataka has provided special funds for the construction of Kannada Bhavan in Bangalore. Similar favour should be shown to the Konkani and Tulu Academies in Mangalore so that they can have a proper home.

9.37.          Despite the two academies being active, it was noted that both Tulu and Konkani are not yet the medium of instruction even at the primary level of education. The development of language has to be to some purpose and the primary purpose is to maintain it. There can be no better avenue than education to achieve this. The office bearers were urged to take up the writing of primers and other books for primary classes so that the children can learn the language early and can learn other subjects through them. A beginning has been made by the Konkani Academy. It has published  a hand book for the teachers of Kindergarten. It is now engaged in preparation of Konkani Reader level I.

9.38.          The Konkani Academy has published books  and also promotes the writers by giving them financial assistance. It has brought out a dictionary with equivalent words in Kannada, Hindi and English along with synonyms in eight dialects of Konkani. A quarterly newsletter is also published.

9.39.          Other non official organizations are also active in the field. Konkani Bhasha Mandal is an organization engaged in the propagation of the Konkani language. It has been organizing a weekly Konkani lecture.

9.40.          Similarly there is a cultural Konkani Heritage Center set up in 1986  which is now starting a high level course for Konkani Performing Arts. Admission process is on. They have constructed a building through  public contribution and have applied to Ministry of Culture Government of India for grants in December 2001.

9.41.          Tulu Academy has likewise been active in bringing out books. It is also collaborating with the University of Mangalore to bring out research papers on the language and the history of Tulu Land.

9.42.          As pointed out earlier the Commissioner visited the linguistic minority schools in Coorg and Mangalore districts. After the visits the main points were brought to the notice of the Secretary Education. These are listed below.

a.      There is a need for relaxation of norms of teacher student ratio (1:40) in the case of Linguistic Minority Institutes. These schools were usually located in territories which were backward and where the linguistic minorities needed special attention.

b.      There is a need for setting up libraries and book banks in Linguistic Minority Institutes to provide reference books and help books in the minority language.

c.There were some Urdu schools being run in the rooms rented from the mosques. The rent for these premises should be paid on a regular basis. For want of payment of rent, some schools were facing eviction or had problems in construction of new rooms. This also needs to be examined as to how they can be provided additional space of which they are in dire need.

d.      There was a general complaint that the books in the minority language are not received in time at the beginning of the session. In one school the teachers said that books are available on time but they were worried that from the year 2005-06, semester system is going to be introduced entailing changes in syllabi and nothing is definite about the new books. It is generally found that, not only in Karnataka but everywhere, that when there is a change in the syllabi, the books are not available in time, more so in the minority languages since it involves translation and the private players are reluctant to take up this non profitable job. If the decisions are taken in time and not in a hurry such hardships can be avoided to some extent.

e.      The rules for recognition for the minority institutions should be clear and transparent  so that the institutions can be sure of their status. They should mention rights as well as the obligations.

f.  Repairs of the school buildings in the areas included in the Urban conglomerate but not yet urbanized is the concern of neither the urban local authorities nor of the Zila Parishad. Consequently their upkeep and maintenance is suffering.

g.      Karnataka Government is introducing semester system at the lower level of the education. There was a general apprehension in the mind of the linguistic minorities that the new system will mean new books and there will be considerable delay in getting them. The books are first prepared in Kannada and then translated and published in other languages. The translation and publishing should be expedited.

9.43.          In their comments the officers of the Education department gave the following information.

1.      In Malnad area, there has been a modification of the teacher student ratio to 1:25. This can also be considered for the Linguistic Minority Institutes.

2.      The question of supply of free text books to the linguistic minority institutes are under consideration. DSERT is in charge of preparation of these books. They can be suitably  instructed to provide books in time.

3.      Rent for the school buildings is usually paid by the Zila Prashids. The matter will be taken up with them.

4.      The finalization of the rules for recognition and registration of the minority institutes is under consideration and will be finalized shortly.


9.44.          It was noted that there is no teaching of Hindi in the schools with Urdu medium. In the school visited, there were no Hindi teachers.

9.45.          It was brought to notice that at some places the admission to eighth class is a problem since there are no Urdu medium schools nearby.


9.46.          In Coorg district it was pointed out that there is dearth of teaching aids in the minority schools. To a large extent it depends upon the initiative of the teachers and the Commissioner found an extraordinarily decorated and clean school in Virajpet. But it would help if some leeway is given in the utilization of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan funds for the provision of teaching aids of simple nature. The authorities at Coorg readily offered this assistance on the demand of the teachers. It is hoped that State Government would also issue similar directions to all the district authorities.

9.47.          Commissioner, during his discussions with the Chief Secretary and other senior officers pointed out that it is observed that it is compulsory to qualify in Kannada for recruitment to services. This was not in accordance with the safeguards. It was explained by Principal Secretary, Personnel that it is the practice that for the cutting edge post, like village accountants, the candidates must qualify in Kannada before appointment but that the selection does not depend upon qualifying in Kannada. Commissioner agreed that so long as the candidates belonging to the linguistic minorities were not deprived of equal opportunity to compete for entry into Government Service, there was no problem in this approach.

9.48.          The Chief Secretary promised to look into the position in respect of senior services so that this discrimination can be eliminated.

9.49.          The State has constituted a State Minority Commission for welfare of the minorities. It looks after both religious and linguistic minorities. The Commission has been bringing the grievances of the teachers and students to the attention of the Government. and its Ministers. It was informed by the Chairman that the Government have been very sympathetic to their cause. It is their endeavour to increase the satisfaction level of the linguistic minorities in the State.

9.50.          A Directorate of Urdu and other linguistic minorities has been opened in the Directorate of Public Instruction to look after the linguistic minority schools. It was also stated that though Directorate has been created but the Director is without any powers. It was stated by the Secretary Minority Commission that he had taken up the matter about granting of powers with the Government but there has been no reply. In the absence of powers, the Director has only the job of collecting statistics. The Chairman of the Minority Commission has promised to take up the matter with the Education Minister.

9.51.          Though in the previous years the State Government have assured that there is no shortage of books but the teachers felt that the books were usually not received in time and they had to teach from the Kannada books. It was also stated that the Linguistic Minority schools do not receive the benefits of various schemes such as the Operation Blackboard. In DPEP and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, the literature is not supplied in the minority languages as the Cluster Resource Centres do not cater to the Linguistic Minority schools.

9.52.          According to the representatives of the teachers of the linguistic minorities schools in a meeting held under the aegis of the Minority Commission, it was intimated that a number of posts of teachers are lying vacant. The number is estimated to be  two to three thousand. For the last two years the vacancies arising out of retirement have not been filled up. Consequently the number of students desirous of taking up minority languages is declining. This has, in its turn, resulted in reducing the number of posts due to strict application of the 1:40 teacher student ratio. There is a need to review this ratio in the case of linguistic minority schools.

9.53.          Another  grievance brought to the notice of the Commissioner was about the grant of increment to the linguistic minority teachers who acquired the knowledge of Kannada. This proposal was launched to encourage the non Kannadigas to pick up the regional language. Under the scheme, the increment was granted to all those teachers who acquired the knowledge of Kannada. It was interpreted to include those whose mother tongue was Kannada. They were granted increment. In the meantime there were objections, probably from the Auditor General, that as the non Kannada knowing teachers were exempted from having knowledge of Kannada, they were not entitled for increment under this scheme. Thus those who were not supposed to get the increment when the scheme was initially envisaged got the benefit and those, for whom the scheme was really meant, were left out. The demand was that the benefit of the increment should be given to those teachers of the Linguistic Minority schools who have acquired the knowledge of Kannada.

9.54.          It was noted that the Government of Karnataka had issued orders reiterating the earlier decision that in the areas where the linguistic minorities formed more than 15 % of the population, it should be endeavoured that the answer to the representation received in minority language should be given in the same language. Further the important notices etc. should also be issued in minority languages. This innocuous orders created an unlikely reaction from the protagonists of Kannada language. The Chief Minister was forced to get the orders withdrawn. It was rather unfortunate and it was represented to the Chief Minster that there is nothing alarming about these orders and it flows from the commitment of the State Government for decades to the cause of the linguistic minorities. The Government of Karnataka has been supplied similar orders issued by other State Governments. It is hoped that the State Government will act to get these orders issued again and also that they should be followed.

9.55.          During a visit to Belgaum, it was represented to the Commissioner that though the population of Marathi speaking people in two tahsils of the district were more than 60 %, yet the revenue records were in Kannada. Also the labour department was insisting that the names of the shops must be written in Kannada. The third point was that the proceedings of zila parishad etc. were only in Kannada. The notices etc. are not published in Marathi nor are the destinations of the buses written in Marathi even for buses going to these areas.

9.56.          A reply has now been received. They have merely reiterated the legal position like "there are no instructions from the Government to prepare the records in minority languages. The only directions in the Official Language Act is that notices etc. should be issued in minority languages and that the replies to the representations be given in the minority languages."

9.57.          It appears that the entire point has been misunderstood. It was not merely the legal position that is to be investigated. The point was how to solve the problems faced by the linguistic minorities. It has been clarified that the names of the shops etc. can be written in any language provided they are also in Kannada. The point was how to ensure that the local officers do not use this provision to harass the shop keepers which is what the complaint was about. May be the Labour Department will issue such instructions as suggested in the comments and also see to it that these are followed. Similarly it should be examined how the revenue records can be kept in the language which dominates in an area. Giving the handouts in minority language and keeping the records in languages other than these will be only beating about the bush. If the rules do not permit it, the question of amending the rules can be considered.

9.58.          The statistics for various activities of the State regarding the education at primary and secondary stage could not be given due to non receipt of the information, otherwise this would have a success story which we would like other states to emulate. It is hoped that next year this problem would not be there.

Chapter X  Kerala


10.1.        Kerala is another of those states who, unexpectedly, have not been able to send a reply to the questionnaire for the forty first Report. This would deprive the people of getting the latest statistics about the State. As stated elsewhere, Kerala has been a source of inspiration for the way the safeguards for the linguistic minorities should be implemented. Not only are these fully in place but they are regularly monitored by a committee headed by the Chief Minister. At the district level also there is regular monitoring at the level of the Collector.

10.2.        Kerala has only Tamil and Kannada as the minority languages. The former has significant presence in three districts of Pallakad, Thiruvananthapuram, and Idduki while Kannada has significant presence in Kasargod district.

10.3.        The Commissioner visited Kasargod district and had a round of discussions with the officers as also the representatives of the linguistic minority group. He also visited some of the schools catering to the linguistic minorities. The present report is based on the notes of these meetings and visits.

10.4.        Kerala Government have brought out, in 2002, a booklet with a compilation on the current orders for the safeguards to linguistic minorities. On query, it was informed that the translation of this booklet into Kannada and Tamil is in progress and it will be issued shortly.

10.5.        It is noted that as per the orders dated January 24, 2001, five percent of the seats in four designated higher secondary schools in district Thiruvananthapuram are reserved for the linguistic minorities. Similar orders have been issued for other districts also.

10.6.        It is also provided that in the linguistic minority areas certain percentage of posts are reserved for the persons who know the local languages. This ensures that the linguistic minorities get the attention that they deserve from the Government offices.

10.7.        In the visit to Kasargod it was confirmed that the instructions are also being followed on the ground. In Kasargod, In 1994, 42 posts in the Revenue Department of the district were identified and 28 persons have been appointed. One post was later abolished and remaining were filled in April 2003. The meeting of the District Officers was held on 19.5.2003 to identify and fix the strength of Kannada knowing LDCs in various departments. All departments have been directed to fill up these posts.

10.8.        District level Committee has been set up and has met on 27.11.2002; 10.04.2003; 29.09.2003 and 23.02.2004.

10.9.        During the visit some deficiencies have come to notice. There are still some vacancies in these reserved posts. It was pointed out that in the Education office, with  which the linguistic minorities are more concerned, only one out of 23 clerks is Kannada knowing. Some specialist teachers for Physical Education, Arts and Crafts do not know Kannada and find it difficult to explain the projects etc. to the Kannada knowing students.

10.10.    It was also brought to notice that the textbooks in Kannada were received late. Model question papers were received only in December. The question paper in IT was not available in Kannada . The translation of the books is done by SCERT. It is their publication which is the bottleneck. Normally the books are available with some delay but whenever there is change in syllabi, there is considerable delay in the publication of the books. The syllabi are reviewed every five years. A bigger problem is regarding the work books etc. They are not available even now. The books for Mathematics for class VIII were not available till then though there is demand for up to 4,000 books. SCERT has the posts of the Research Officer and Assistant Professor for Kannada but these are at present vacant.

10.11.    It was also brought to notice that the schools were obliged to buy the encyclopedia in Malayalam when even the teachers did not know Malayalam. They were also expected to subscribe to Malayalam magazines which are of no use to the students.

10.12.    In the police force there are no constables who know Kannada. Though it is expected that the statements will be recorded in the language of the witness, yet there is no way it can be done.

10.13.    It was pointed out that the old revenue records are in Kannada, a language which is not known to the survey officers. As a result there are lot of mistakes and consequent complaints.

10.14.    It is disheartening that even the history is being falsified in the accounts being prepared by the local Zila Parishad nominated scholars. It has been said that Kasargod was always a part of Malayalam state which is contrary to the facts. This region was part of Madras Presidency and before that of the Kingdom of Karnataka.

10.15.    Voters cards issued on behalf of the Election Commission are in English and Malayalam only.

10.16.    Recently a plea was made to Public Service Commission to set the question papers in Kannada. Even the reply to this is in Malayalam and nothing has been done about the demand.

10.17.    There was a demand that Hosdrug taluk should also be declared as a linguistic minority area as it qualifies for that. There used to be 25 Kannada schools in Hosdrug. The number has been  reduced to 11 over the years due to its non inclusion in the linguistic minority area.

10.18.    All these and other comments have been referred to the State Government. A reply is awaited.

10.19.    It was pointed out in the meeting at Kasargod that the Commissioner Linguistic Minorities is a toothless tiger. It can not enforce its decisions. There is an element of truth in the statement. It may be argued that the failure to get a reply to the questionnaire is in itself a proof for this. But this is the limitation with which this office has to live. The organization was not expected to become another supervisory authority. That role was left to the representatives of the people who would express their views through the discussions in the Parliament. The matter can be taken up in the Legislative Assembly also. Perhaps that would be the only way to enforce the safeguards.

10.20.    There may be genuine problems in sending the information for the current year. It is a loss for the State that the work done by them is not available for appreciation or even for information to the M.Ps, other states and others to whom this Report is sent after it is laid in the house. But it is also a loss for this organization and it is very much regretted.

Chapter XI. Gujarat


11.1.        It is a matter of regret that the State government have not been able to send a reply to the questionnaire for the 41st Report for the period  July 2002 to June 2003 despite a number of reminders.

11.2.        It  is a loss since it is known that the State has been leading in the implementation of the safeguards for the linguistic minoroites. It would have been encouraging for other States to be aware of their way of doing this. It is hoped that this gap will not be felt next year.

Chapter XII. Goa


12.1.        Goa is one State which has promptly replied to the questionnaire that was sent to them for preparation of the Forty First Report. The queries raised in this context have also been replied promptly. For this the officers of the State Government are to be thanked. If all the States were as prompt, our task will be easier and that much beneficial to the linguistic minorities.

12.2.        Konkani is the principal language of Goa with 51,52 % of people accounting for it. Marathi is declared as their language by 33.36 %.Other languages are Kannada (4.64 %); Urdu (3.41 %); Hindi (3.17 %) and Malayalam (1.11 %). This is as per 1991 census since the linguistic breakup from the 2001 census is still awaited. It has been stated that there are no areas where the speakers of minority languages form more than 15 % of the total population. Of course Marathi is an exception though it is not so mentioned. Konkani is the Official Language of the State and there is said to be no other Official Language. However, it is added that as per notification Marathi shall be used for the purpose of replies to the communications received in Marathi. It is also noted that Marathi is the medium, along with English, at the secondary level of education. Thus Marathi speaking population should not be having any grievance on this count.

12.3.        It is, however, noted that the important Acts, rules, notifications are not being issued in Marathi. Considering the high percentage of Marathi speakers, it will be in order to issue at least the gist of the important notifications etc. in Marathi for the information of the public. the State Government is also urged to have a regular translation arrangement for such translation.

12.4.        It is stated that the reply to the communication received in minority languages is sent, as far as possible, in the same language. However, a copy of the orders issued in this context has not been sent. In the absence of translation arrangements, this appears to be the intention but not the practice. The words ‘as far as possible’ signify the difficulties faced.

12.5.        So for as the recognition of the minority institutes is concerned, there are no specific guidelines for recognition. They are governed under the provisions of he Goa School Education Act 1984 and Goa Education rules 1986. It is stated that every institution which has applied for recognition has been so granted recognition as per rules.

12.6.        In reply to the question about recognition, a list of some individuals is also given but it is not known in what context this information is provided. We had asked for information about the organizations only. It is also noted that the list of the organizations keeps on changing every year. In the Report for the year 1999-2000, one Urdu, one Kairali and one Kannada organization have been mentioned. Next year the number consisted of two Kannada and four Urdu institutes. This year the number is one Kannada and three Urdu associations. It is felt that this information should be cross checked.

12.7.        In the primary stage of education (class I to IV), Urdu, Kannada, Malayalam, Telegu, Hindi, Marathi and Konkani are mentioned as the languages in which education is imparted. Minimum enrolment criteria for the schools is 15 pupils to a class but for linguistic minorities this is reduced to 10. For the year 2001-02, the following statistics have been given.



































12.8.        For the year 2002-03 the statistics have not been collected in pursuance of the instructions of the Ministry for Human resources Development. The Ministry has urged that in view of the 7th Educational Survey the normal collection of figures should not be done. It is hoped that the questionnaire for the 7th Educational Survey takes into consideration the needs of the linguistic minorities. This will have to be checked up though it is feared that it is too late to suggest any modifications, if needed.

12.9.        Number of district wise schools is as follows:-























12.10.    The reasons for the variation of figures in Para 12.7 and 12.9 may have to be checked up. it may be stated that these figures were given when supplementary information was called for. In the original reply the figures are slightly different. The number of Urdu schools is given as 6 though the number of students is the same. It is also not clear why the number of schools for Malayalam and Telegu are not given. Even if these classes are being run parallel as separate sections in the Konkani or Marathi schools, the number of schools in which these sections are being run can certainly be given. It is noted that the number of schools for Urdu were eight in 1999-2000; seven in 2000-01 and six in 2002-03. The number of schools is coming down but the number of students is going up. In Kannada the number of schools is the same but the number of students is going up. In contrast in Hindi the number of students is going down. It is 495 in 1999-2000; down to 450 in 200-01 and down again to 230 in  2001-02.

12.11.    In the secondary stage of education the requirement of the number of students for a class is stated as 20. Here English and Marathi are the only media but in the supplementary reply, Urdu has also been mentioned. Kannada is also a medium but it is said that the schools are affiliated to Karnataka Education Board.

12.12.    The statistics given are for Urdu and Kannada. Here the number of schools for Urdu has gone up to four and the number of students also shows a rise from 740 to 1065 in two years. Kannada has, however, its up and down movement. The number of students was 818 in 1999-2000; went up to 955 in 2000-01 but came down to 857 in 2001-02.

12.13.    Number of primary schools which are maintaining registers for advance registration is given as 1033. All the 361 secondary schools are maintaining the registers.

12.14.    The three language formula is implemented in the State. The three languages are described as


1st Language English, Marathi, Urdu, Kannada

2nd Language Hindi is introduced in Std. V

Composite language course Sanskrit – Marathi; Sanskrit – Hindi etc are introduced from class VIII.

3rd Language a. English where the first language is other than English.

b. All languages (including regional languages) other than English where first language is English.

c. From Std. VIII onward, any Indian classical language or a foreign language such as Sanskrit, French, Portuguese etc.

4th Language Composite language courses from Std. VIII onwards such as Sanskrit – Marathi, Sanskrit – Hindi etc.


12.15.    No teachers are stated to have been trained during the period.

12.16.    There is no shortage of textbooks. The text  books in other languages are procured from other States.

12.17.    Government of Goa have not set up any academy for the development of any language. A list of the non official minority institutions has been given. These are :-

a.      Kannada Association Vasco

b.      Anjuman-e-Islam Muslim Association, Margao

c.       Anjuman Nurul Islam, Panaji

d.       Federation of Goa Muslim Association and Jamats, Panaji

Their activities are not listed but can be envisaged.

12.18.    It is not stated whether these organizations are getting any financial assistance from the State Government.

12.19.    Though it is not within the domain of the Commissioner, yet it is felt that there is a need to set up an academy for development of Konkani so that it can be used as the medium of instruction in the secondary education also. it is noted that Karnataka has set up an Academy for development of Konkani.

12.20.    English is said to be the only medium for examination for recruitment to State services. The knowledge of regional language is said to be desirable only. There is no reply to the question concerning domiciliary restrictions.

12.21.    It is said that a committee under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary with the Development Commissioner and Director of Education as members and Secretary Education as the Convener has been constituted. However, even to a pointed query, it has not been stated when the committee last met.

12.22.    There is no information about the publicity given to the safeguards for the linguistic minorities.



Chapter XIII. Chhatisgarh


13.1.         The population of Chhatisgarh in the 1991 census was1,76,14,928 and in year 2001 it is approximately 208 Lakh. It is said that 20 % of the population belongs to the linguistic minorities. The languages spoken  are said to be Telegu, Bengali, Oriya, Malayalam. Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi and Sindhi. There is a note that there is no script for the tribal languages. Probably for this reason, they are not included in the list. There is a misconception that if there is no script then the language ceases to be a language. This is not correct. Language is a means of communication of ideas which the language can do without script also. Script is merely a means to put it down on paper. A script does not make a language. For example, the shorthand has a script of its own and those initiated in it can read it or write in it. But shorthand is not a language since it is not a vehicle of communication of ideas nor does it have a grammar and structure of its own distinct from other languages. Once the language is there, any script can be adopted to write it down. It may be Devnagari in the case of Chhatisgarh. Gondi is a language which is spoken by 6.8 % of the population in the State. The epics like Pandvani have been written in Gondi and in Devnagari script. There is a Gondi Hindi dictionary wherein both languages are written in Devnagari. Likewise other languages – Halbi, Oraon/ Kurukh can also be written in Devnagari. It is suggested that this point should not be allowed to come in the way of development of the languages and proper attention should be paid to them.

13.2.        It does not appear that any exercise has been done to identify the areas where the linguistic minorities constitute more than 15 % of the population of the area. If Gondi or Halbi are taken as the languages in their own right, then there will be areas like that. It is hoped that attention will be paid to this at an early date. An attempt was made in the 39th Report to bring home the point by analysing the linguistic profile of the then Bastar district.

13.3.        It is noted that the reply has been sent by the Director Tribal Welfare Department. The information pertaining to the Education Department has not been supplied. it is said to be under compilation. A letter was directly addressed to Director Public Instruction also but it has not borne fruit in terms of data about the schools, students and teachers.

13.4.        In the reply a reference is, however, made to Urdu  and it is said that textbooks are supplied to the students. These are prepared by the Education Department and the State Council of Educational Research and Technology better known as SCERT. Urdu Academy as also been set up but its budget and activities are not stated. It is noted that not even counting the tribal languages, Urdu is not amongst the first five languages of the State. It is hoped that the Government would be more objective in their approach.

13.5.        The three Language Formula is said to be implemented. The alternatives for the three languages are


                                                               i.      Hindi, English, Urdu

                                                             ii.      English, Hindi

                                                            iii.      Sanskrit, Urdu, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Tamil, Bengali, Telegu, and Malayalam


13.6.        This is not in the spirit of the things. The first language ought to be the mother tongue. The second can be Hindi (if it is not the mother tongue) or English. The third language can be English for those whose mother tongue is not Hindi and  any other language for those whose mother tongue is Hindi. It is hoped that State Government  will reconsider the matter.

13.7.        A detailed note regarding the Minority Commission is given but there in nothing in it for the linguistic minorities. Only the provisions in the Constitution have been cited. Thus Articles 29, 30, 347, 350, 350A, 350B are described and the safeguards provided are also listed but unless they are implemented, they have no meaning. It is hoped that Minority Commission will look into the follow up action on their safeguards. However, it is heartening to note that they have taken note of these safeguards. An extract of the thirty seventh Report of the Commissioner Linguistic Minority is included in the brochure. It is hoped that they will advice the State Government about its implementation. A beginning has been made and it is hoped that it will bear fruit.

13.8.        For the rest there is nothing much to describe. No statistics about educational institutes etc. are given. Chhatisgarh has a long way to go yet to provide safeguards to the linguistic minorities.


Chapter XIV. Jammu and Kasmir


14.1.    No reply has been received from the Government of Jammu and Kashmir despite a number of reminders to the questionnaire sent for the 41st Report for the year 2002 -03. Hence we were forced to write the Report without their contribution.

14.2.    It is known that Jammu and Kasmir are not doing much for the linguistic minorities. In fact, even the majorty language Kashmiri was seen to be neglected in the last Report. It was to be seen if there has been any improvement but we are deprived of that opportunity due to lack of response.

Chapter XV. Jharkhand


15.1.                    Jharkhand has a population of 2,69,09,428 as per census 2001. The Reply of the State gives the linguistic breakup as per census 1981, The population was then 1,38,81,142. The breakup is as follows: -

Hindi 61.74 %

Bengali  9.33 %

Urdu     6.88 %

Santhali    5.56 %

Munda      4.64 %

Ho   3.96 %

Kurukh                3.69 %

Oriya       2.53 %

15.2.        There are stated to be no areas where the population of the linguistic minorities is more than 60 %. But no information is given about the areas where the population is more than 15 % of the total population. There is a strong probabiity of such areas being there.

15.3.        Hindi is the official language of the State. There is no additional official language. Nor is there any effort to publish the important rules, regulations etc. in the minority languages.  There is no reply to the question about the representation received in the minority languages and the reply thereto in the same language.

15.4.        The recognition of the educational institutes is governed by the orders issued by the erstwhile Bihar Government. It says that permission from the District Education Planning Committee is required to open a non Government school but minority institutes are exempted from this requirement. Otherwise the norms for both of them are the same. Minority institutes have to inform in advance that they are minority institutes. The institution has to be administered by the minority community. The Board of secondary Education can impose reasonable restrictions regarding competence of teachers, maintenance of discipline, sanitation and supply of drinking water etc. but such regulations shall not be such as to deprive them of their right to establish such institutes. 30 primary and 14 secondary schools are running as minority institutes. These are mainly for Urdu but there are two schools each of Oriya, Bengali, Gujarati and Santhali also. It is also said that there are 833 recognized educational institutions getting Grants in aid. It is assumed that minority institutes are included in them.

15.5.        Primary education is from class I to VII. A question was asked about the number of schools, students therein and the number of teachers which are engaged in teaching through minority languages. But this information has not been given. But there are copies of various orders specifying amounts allotted to such schools for textbooks. In one of the annexure the number of students in secondary schools is also given. Thus the 12 Bengali schools have 6034 students and two Telegu schools have 709 students. No consolidated figures are given though it could have been done. Nothing is mentioned about the medium of instructions at the secondary level.

15.6.        A copy of the orders dated January 8, 2004 is enclosed. It specifies the books to be given to the schools. The languages mentioned are Ho, Mundari, Santhali, Kurukh and Kharia. They are all for class I to V, A copy of orders dated June 4, 2003 is also enclosed. It directs that the mother tongue from amongst the following languages will be taught from class I, in addition to Hindi – Bangla, Oriya, Urdu, Santhali, Oraon (Kurukh), Ho, Mundari, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali. For the Anglo Indian community, English can be taught. It is also directed that Devanagari should be used as the script for the languages which do not have their own script.

15.7.        The three language formula states the languages as follows;-

1.      Hindi First Language

2.   Regional Language Second Language

3.   English Third Language

15.8.          The reference to regional languages as second language is not clear. We generally consider the principal language (in this case Hindi) as the regional language. For other languages in use in the state the word is either mother tongue or the minority language. It is expected that this is what is meant. Furthermore this should have been the first language. It is not clear what will be the third (or second) language for Hindi speaking students.

15.9.         There are stated to be 4,215 posts sanctioned for the primary education out of which 377 posts are vacant. It is said that action is being taken to fill them. The number of teachers in the secondary schools is not given.

15.10.    It is stated that State Tribal Research Institute has been set up for research in tribal languages, but whether this research shall lead to production of books and other teaching aids for the tribal languages has not been specified or that something can be done for protection of the cultural heritage.

15.11.    It is stated that NCERT books are being translated in Bangla and Oriya. Tribal language books are also being translated by the Tribal Research Institute. The languages mentioned are Mundari, Ho, Santhali, Kurukh and Kharia.

15.12.    Hindi and English are said to be languages used as media for recruitment examinations. Nothing is mentioned about domiciliary restrictions.

15.13.    State Minority Commission is said to be the organization designated for implementation of safeguards. Nothing further is mentioned about its activities and how it does the monitoring.

15.14.    There is no reply to the questions about the pamphlets and the grievances.

15.15.    It appears by reading between the lines that the State is committed to the use of tribal and other minority languages for education. Much is being done but is not reflected in the reply received. The statistics are missing but it is hoped that it will be possible to send the information next year so that full picture is shown.

Chapter XVI. Tamil Nadu


16.1.          The population of Tamil Nadu, as per 2001 census, is 6,21,10,839. It was  5,58,58,946 in 1991 census. Of these 4,84,26,818 had given Tamil as their mother tongue which accounts for 86.69 % of the total population. The other languages are :


















16.2.          Other languages account for less than one percent of the state population. More important of them are Saurashtram, Hindi, and Marathi.

16.3.          Deputy Secretary to Government in Backward Classes and Most Backward Classes Welfare Department is dealing with the affairs relating to Linguistic Minorities. Director of Backward  Classes and Most Backward Classes is designated as the Linguistic Minorities Welfare Officer at state level. At the district level also there is District Linguistic Welfare Officer but the Collectors of the districts are in overall charge.

16.4.          It is stated that there are no districts where the linguistic minorities form more than 60 % of the population. The reply is the same for the question relating to 15 % of population but it does not appear to be correct. In the past, many talukas have been indicated with population of linguistic minorities being more than 15 %. Kannada. Malayalam and Urdu figured in the list. It is not known why these are now being left out. It may be pointed out the what is being talked about is the 'areas' and not 'districts'.

16.5.          In the discussions with the officers of the State during the visit of the Commissioner  it was informed that the minority languages are used for the following purposes.


a)      Correspondence with Government offices in minority languages is permitted.

b)      Facilities for registration of documents

c)      Publication of important notices and rules, electoral rolls

d)      Forms are bilingual in regional language and minority language.

e)      Posting of officers knowing local language as far as possible.

f)        Filing of documents in local courts.

g)      Name Boards of public  offices are displayed in minority languages.


16.6.          The use of minority languages is in the areas where linguistic minorities constitute 15 % or more of population. The areas may be indicated.

16.7.          The rules, regulations etc. are not being translated into minority languages. It is also said that the representations are not being answered in the language in which they are submitted.

16.8.          There are said to be no guidelines for recognition/ registration of the linguistic minority institutes. This is at variance with the information supplied earlier which said that the State Government have drawn up the rules in 1998 for such recognition. The Commissioner had offered some comments also on these guidelines. It is not known what happened to them. It is said that since 1.6.91 no Government grant is allowed for private schools. Prior to recogmition, they have to execute a bond saying that they will not ask for such a grant.

16.9.          The main difference between a minority institute and other institute is that the minority institute does not have to take the prior permission to open. It has subsequently to apply within a period of three months. Further the non minority institute must create an endowment of Rs. one lakh whereas the minority institute need not create such an endowment.

16.10.      It is also said that some of the colleges are availing linguistic minority status as per the orders of the civil courts. These colleges claim to belong to Rajasthani, Gujarati, Sourashtra and Malayalam. There are stated to be four colleges which are receiving grants in aid but the application for recognition is pending. Probably they are the same as referred to above.

16.11.      Despite this information, an annexure has been given specifying the names of the minority institutes. This list has 38 Telegu, 2 Saurashtra, one Hindi and one Malayalam (Total 42). 

16.12.       There are 47,198 educational institutions in Tamil Nadu catering to 125.63 lakh students. 3,60,670 teachers are working in these schools. In secondary education 62.63 lakh students are studying in 9,137 secondary, high and higher secondary schools. Instructions are imparted in minority languages, such as Urdu, Malayalam, Telegu, Kannada, Hindi, Arabic and Gujarati. There are 82 high/ Higher Secondary Schools for them out of which 25 are Government High Schools, 11 Government Higher Secondary Schools, 3 Municipal High Schools, 8 aided High Schools, and 35 aided Higher Secondary Schools. The number of students is 24,792. Their breakup is as follows:




































16.13.      The teacher student ratio works out to 1:59 which is much higher than 1:40 which shows that there is a big shortage of teachers for these schools. In fact the shortage will be even higher because there will be some schools where the ratio of 1: 40 can also not be achieved. It does not appear that there are too many linguistic minority students going in for these languages. State Government would like to consider these data and recruit more teachers for these classes.

16.14.      There is no discrimination in respect of fees to be charged or the Government Welfare schemes such as free uniform, mid day meals and free bus pass etc. between those studying through Tamil or through minority languages. Textbooks are prepared and printed by the Tamil Nadu Text Book Corporation. Recruitment of teachers is made through Teacher Recruitment Board. 43 posts are said to be vacant. But in the discussions held with the representatives of linguistic minorities, they said that the number of vacancies is much more. Of one school in Royapettah, Chennai, it was said that the post of Geography teacher  has been lying vacant since 1982 and it is not even notified in the current advertisement.

16.15.      At the primary education level, the data are as follows:-































16.16.      At the middle level, the data are as follows:-























16.17.      Once again the number of teachers appears to be less than the requirements. In the middle level of education, there are three classes from VI to VIII but the number of teachers in Urdu work out to be only 2.2 per school. It is the same in Kannada and less, 1.7, in Malayalam. Obviously all the classes do not have teachers and some classes will have to be combined. This is not very conducive to maintenance of standards. No doubt there is demand that the educational supervisors should inspect the academic standard of these schools. It is probably hoped that such inspections will bring to the notice of the officers, what can already be surmised by statistics that more efforts are required to maintain the academic standards by providing more teachers. It has been represented to the Commissioner that vacant posts in the Linguistic Minority schools can not be filled up as the posts were sometimes reserved for SC candidates. However, the States Minority Commission has taken up successfully the question of giving up the communal roster system (reservations for SC and ST) for Urdu teachers. As a result many vacancies could be filled up.

16.18.      At the secondary level the number of schools, students and teachers in the year 2002- 03  is as follows:-



Minority Schools

General Schools







































16.19.      It is noted that for the year 2000-01, 11 schools (5 minority, 6 general) have been shown. Their number was six (2 minority, 4 general) in year 2001 – 02 but this year none is shown. It may be mentioned that  Sanskrit is not considered a minority language. Nor is Arabic though this year also 10 institutes are shown by the State Government in the category of minority institutes.

16.20.      It is also noted that the number of Gujarati institutes has gone down from 4 (1 minority, 3 general) in year 2000 – 01 to 2(both minority) this year. It is, however, noted that the number of students has gone up from 324 to 333. How this is achieved is not clear.

16.21.      There are orders to maintain the registers for advance registration but the number of schools maintaning them could not be furnished. For the secondary schools, it is said that 82 linguistic minority schools are maintaining Advance Registers.

16.22.      In respect of the inter school adjustment, it has been said that 'as each school having instruction through particular minority language, the question of inter school adjustment does not arise'. Actually the intention was that in the area where linguistic minority is in substantial numbers, the situation may arise where the number of students who desire education through a particular language is not sufficient but if they can be adjusted in a nearby school where also there are students desiring that language, the two together may be in a position to reach the figure which would enable them to adopt that language as the medium. This would require registration by all the schools, minority and general, so that the number of students can be determined.

16.23.      As regards the Three Language Formula, it has been said that Two Language Formula is being followed. We had suggested in the last Report that for the linguistic minorities, this Formula can be modified to include mother tongue, Tamil and English. A representation was also made in this regard which has been described below.

16.24.      For the training of teachers, Urdu Teacher Training Sections are attached to Government High School for Muslims, Thayar Sahib Street, Chennai and Government Teacher Training Institute (Women) Royapettah; Telegu Teachers Training Section in Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri while that for Malayalam is attached to Theroor Teachers Training Institute.

16.25.      Textbooks in the minority languages of Telegu, Malayalam, Urdu and Kannada are translated versions in subjects like Mathematics, Science and Social Sciences. These books are printed and supplied by Tamil Nadu Textbooks Board.

16.26.      State Government have set up State Minority Commission which looks after both the religious and linguistic minorities. The Commission is presently headed by Thirumati Sister Annamma Philips. It was set up in 1990 and has been reconstituted in 1999. It is working for the redressal of the grievances of the linguistic minorities also. The Commission is the channel for recommending the institutes for recognition as minority institutes.

16.27.      The Government have set up Academies for development for Telegu, Malayalam and Urdu. Unfortunately none of them has been made functional yet. Urdu Academy has a vice Chairman now but rest of the members are still to be nominated. It is hoped that all the three academies will become operational in near future and work towards preservation of culture of the respective linguistic minorities. It is reported that an amount of Rs. 1 Lakh has bee earmarked for the Urdu Academy.

16.28.      The possession of adequate knowledge of Tamil is not insisted upon at the time of recruitment to public services. However, after appointment, they have to pass a test of proficiency within a prescribed period. It was said that no person had his services terminated as a result of not being able to clear the test of proficiency.

16.29.      Despite the good work being done in Tamil Nadu, there are still some points to be attended to. These were brought out during the visit of the Commissioner to the State. Some of the grievances are –

16.29.1. There were complaints about the non-recognition of the institutes. It is learnt that the recognition is given on a year to year basis. It has been stated in an earlier Report that Tamil Nadu was amongst the first few States to formalise the recognition principles. As a result, it should not be difficult to grant recognition early and on a durable basis with the rider that if, in between, the terms and conditions are not observed, the recognition can be withdrawn.

16.29.2.  It was said that whereas earlier the teacher student ratio for linguistic minorities was 1:15, it has now been changed to 1:40. Due to the enforcement of this condition, many a school had to wind up the minority language sections. Director, Minority Welfare (and Secretary Minority Commission) explained that there was no revision in the student teacher ratio in respect of the linguistic minority institutions. This reassurance is satisfactory and it is hoped that this ratio will not be disturbed more so as some of the linguistic groups are educationally and socially backward and there is a tendency not to send the children to schools on flimsy grounds like the distance from the school. Meanwhile it is hoped that the need for education will be felt in these groups so that the ratio automatically comes closer to normal ratio.

16.29.3.  Another point raised was the level of the Tamil test which the entrants to government service had to pass. It was said that whereas in Andhra Pradesh, the level of the examination of Telegu test was of the 5th or the 6th standard, that in Tamil Nadu was of the 11th class level. Even the class IV employees are required to pass the test. Probably it can be waived in their case.

16.29.4. There was a demand that Tamil should be included as a subject in the secondary level so that all the students can learn the regional language. This should also enable the scrapping of Tamil test held on entry into service. In this context it was argued that the two language formula should be modified in the case of the linguistic minorities and they be allowed to take up Tamil as the third language. Presently there are orders that Tamil can be taught after school hours but this experiment is not successful as no financial assistance has been made available. Moreover, there is no Board examination involved so that the proof of having learnt the language is not available. Similar is the fate of the teaching of language as ‘avial Tamil”. 

16.29.5. One of the problems cited was that there were not enough trained Urdu teachers. This was because of a vicious circle. Admission had been denied to the students who had studied through the medium of Urdu in the Teachers Training Schools. This would be the case for other minority languages also. It has been suggested that some seats in the B. Ed classes should be reserved for the students who had minority language as their medium of instruction as has been done in Kerala.

16.29.6. It was said that presently, in Tamil Nadu, even a post Graduate in Urdu can not be appointed a Urdu teacher since he has not done B. Ed. Since there is no further scope of employment, the Urdu courses in colleges are now facing closure. This is also the result of the lack of teachers at the school level so that the students who reach the college level do have a weak foundation in languages and can not stand up to the standards expected of them in the colleges.

16.29.7. There was also a demand that linguistic minority students who are studying in English and Tamil medium schools should be given a chance to take their mother tongue as a subject.

16.29.8. There is a representation  from Saurashtram community for teaching the language in the schools run by them in Madurai, Dindigul, Paramegudi and other places.

16.29.9. Karnataka Sangha has represented that Kannada language course for under graduate students in Madras College Chennai is being withdrawn from the year 2004 – 05. This course has been there since 1884 and should not be discontinued.

16.29.10.                 Similarly Gujarati is being discontinued from Higher Secondary curriculum from year 2004 – 05. It would be adverse for the interests of the Gujarati community.


16.30.      Tamil Nadu had a good track record of caring for the linguistic minorities and it is hoped that they will be able to solve the problem listed above so that  they can do still better. It was heartening to note that State Minority Commission has said that 'a community may constitute a minority based on language even though it may not have a script. It would be enough if they have a separate spoken language. Though it may not be very relevant for Tamil Nadu, it is hoped that other states will take note of this opinion.



Chapter XVII. Tripura


17.1.        Tripura has a population of 31,91,168, as per the 2001 census and 27,57,205 as per the 1991 census. The linguistic profile of the State is as follows:-




















Bishnupriya Manipuri



Halam Kuki




17.2.        The Kokborok speaking population is more concentrated in the West Tripura and South Tripura districts where their population forms 23.22 % and 28.82 % of the total population.

17.3.        English, Bengali and Kokborok are the official languages of the State. But it is said that the Acts, rules etc. are not translated into any minority language. As was pointed out in the last Report, the Official Language Act requires that the Acts and rules should be published in Kokborok also but it was not being done. The position is still not clear.

17.4.        It is said that representations are received only in English and Bengali. These are not being received in Kokborok probably because there are no translation bureau and the people have stopped giving representations in this language because of absence of response.

17.5.        There are no separate guidelines for the recognition of the minority language institutes. It is reported that 587 primary and 81 secondary schools in Kokborok are recognised. But this is the number of the total schools. Actually the intention in asking this question was to find out the number of linguistic minority schools run on the private initiative.

17.6.        Primary education is from class I to V while upper primary is from class Vi to VIII. Kokborok, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Manipuri and Chakma are used as the media for instruction at the primary level. The year of introduction and the classes for which these are being used is shown in the following table:-




Introduction year


I to XII


Bishnupriya Manipuri

I to V


Meitei Manipuri

I to III


Halam Kuki

I & II






17.7.        SCERT is working on six languages. There is an advisory body for each of these languages. A three member committee has also been set up to consider the question of development of Kokborok in future. They are expected to submit their report in three months' time.

17.8.        For the year 2002 – 03, the data for the students is as follows:-










Halam Kuki




Bishnupriya Manipuri









17.9.        As pointed out above, Chakma is included from the new session and its student strength is not indicated above. It shall form part of the Report for the next year.

17.10.    The criteria for instruction through minority language is that there should be 40 students in a school and minimum ten in a class. It was represented to the Commissioner that the orders have been issued that Chakma, which is being introduced this year, is to be the medium only if there are 30 students in a class (i.e. Class I). It was argued that these orders are not in the interest of Chakma. In the opinion of the Commissioner, in order to persuade the parents to send their wards for study through Chakma,, there should be some relaxation in this rule. The State Government will like to look into this and extend same facilities to Chakma as extended to other minority languages.

17.11.    At the secondary level Kokborok is the only minority language used as medium. And there is just one school with 225 students and ten teachers. There is definitely scope for increase in the number of schools but at least a beginning has been made.

17.12.    Advance registers are not being maintained. This ought to be done because it will enable the authorities to plan according to the requirements.

17.13.    In the Three Language Formula the first language can be chosen from amongst English, Bengali and Kokborok. The second language is either English or Bengali. In the third Hindi and Sanskrit are offered.

17.14.    No shortage of teachers is reported. Minority language teachers are being trained through DIETs and SCERT. The latter is organizing orientation programmes. Number of trained teachers at present is states as;

Kokborok 715

Bishnupriya Manipuri     45

Manipuri   25

17.15.    It is said that 60 % of the teachers of Bishnupriya Manipuri and Manipuri have been trained by SCERT. For Kokborok, it is regular process and the number of teachers trained in the last three years are 63, 69 and 63.

17.16.    No shortage of textbooks is reported. Books for the primary section are prepared by SCERT and at the higher level by Tripura Board of Secondary Education.

17.17.    In order to develop Kokborok, an organization, Tribal Research and Cultural Institute, has been set up in 1971. Its budget during the current year was Rs. 30 lakh. It undertakes publication of books, conducts research and does documentation. There are some non-Governmental organizations also. There are Kokborok coaching centres which have been operating since 1988 and were given grants of Rs. 10 lakh this year. The exact number of such centres is not indicated. Bishnupriya Manipuri Sahitya Sanskriti Academy was set up in year 2002 and was given a grant of Rs. 70,000 this year. It is engaged in the task of development of literature and preservation of culture.

17.18.    For recruitment to the services, English and Bengali are the media of examinations. Knowledge of regional language is said to be compulsory but the standard is reasonable and is stated to be madhyamik for class III. There are no domiciliary restrictions.

17.19.    The machinery for the implementation is said to be the advisory committees. It appears that this question has been misunderstood. Actually the Government were expected to outline the official level machinery which is given the responsibility of seeing to it that the safeguards are being implemented and that there is an authority to review the implementation. At the district level the Deputy Commissioner or some other officer can be given the charge and at the State level some department can handle the review  and also the complaints, if any, about the non-implementation of safeguards.

17.20.    In the circumstances there is no surprise that no grievances are said to exist. There has been no publicity material to inform the linguistic minorities of the concessions or facilities that can be extended to them.

17.21.    It is noted that the Government are concerned about the slow development of languages. Probably as more persons come to know of the intentions of the Government the pace will pick up.

17.22.    Commissioner has visited the State and had discussion with the officers of the State and other representatives of the minority languages. It was informed that in the State, teaching at the primary stage is through all the languages except for Mogh. In Mogh also the advisory committee for development of school books has been constituted.

17.23.    It was intimated that a Language Commission is contemplated which will take a long term look at the question of development of all the languages. Tribal Research Institute is also working for the development of the languages.

17.24.    The SCERT is publishing four six-monthly magazines in different languages. They are

Khumkai Kokborok

Chinkai Bishnupriya Manipuri

Sadak Chakma

Chumthang Meitei Manipuri

17.25.    It is learnt that following the recommendations of the Tripura Education Commission, English has been introduced from this year in class I itself. 1,20,000 books have been printed and distributed for this purpose. Earlier it was being taught from class III. This decision is going to add avoidable burden on the students in the first year of their life at school. It is doubtful if this is going to improve the standard of English. On the other hand it may lower the standard of other languages.

17.26.    Chakma has a script of its own but the books published by SCERT are in Bangla script. Books for other languages except Halam are in Bengali script. The books of Halam Kuki are in Roman script.

17.27.    The State is presently sincerely engaged in the task of development of the languages. It is hoped that the development of languages and their use as medium of instruction for the elementary education will be a reality in the near future.

Chapter XVIII. Nagaland


18.1.        Nagaland has a population of 12,09,546 as per 2001 census. All the recognized tribes speak their own language/ dialect which are written in Roman script. In each  district the dominant tribe is in majority and the rest of other tribes are in minority.

18.2.        The main languages are



















Chakru/ Chokri





















18.3.         Of the eight districts in Nagaland, seven districts viz. Kohima, Mokokchung, Tuenseng, Wokha, Mon, Phek and Zunhebooto are inhabited by one predominant tribe and they would constitute almost 90 % of the population. Hence these districts may be categorized as the districts with more than 15 % or even 60 % of linguistic minorities. Population of Dimapur is mixed but the breakup is not available.

18.4.        English is the official language of the State. None of the tribal languages has been declared as official or additional official language. There is no recognized regional language of the State also. It is said that arrangements have been made to translate important notices in languages or dialects but no details have been given nor is it said if there is any translation machinery at present. There is no translation bureau in the State. No arrangements are in place to receipt of representations and reply thereof in the tribal languages.

18.5.        All dialects of the State are given importance but there are no orders for providing instruction through mother tongue. However, instructions are imparted through Ao, Angami, Lotha, Sema, Chokri, Khezhe, Konyak, Semi Naga, Leangmai, Rengma, Phom, Chang, Sangtam, Kuki, Khiamnungam and Yimchunger. The statistics of students receiving instruction through these languages are not available.

18.6.        At the higher level, English is the only medium.

18.7.        Three language formula means only English and Hindi but developed local dialects or alternate English can be taken as third language.

18.8.        No data about the teachers has been provided.

18.9.        Textbooks of minority languages are still in the process of development and therefore there is a shortage in almost all the minority language textbooks.. Text books are prepared through the literature Committees of the various tribes and the Language Development Cell of the Department of School Education.

18.10.    There are no academies functioning in the State. Probably it is too early for them.

18.11.    English is the medium of examination for recruitment to state services. The knowledge of the local languages is not a pre requisite for recruitment but preference is given to candidates who know one of the Naga languages of Nagaland. Domiciliary conditions prevail.

18.12.    There is no formal machinery but the Chief Secretary looks after the matters pertaining to linguistic minorities

18.13.    It may be remarked that even if there is no statistics given in respect of primary education or the details about the work already done on the developments of the languages, the State seems to be going in the right direction. But it is not proper to call these languages as dialects. Even the Census Commissioner recognizes them as languages because they are linguistically different from other languages.

Chapter XIX. West Bengal


19.1.         The population of West Bengal is 8,02,21,171 as per 2001 census and 6,80,77,965 as per 1991 census. 88.98 % of people speak Bengali while 6.81 % have Hindi as their mother tongue. Urdu speakers form 2.21 % and Nepali 1.31 %.

19.2.        There is no area where the linguistic minorities are more than sixty percent of the population. However, the areas where they form more than 15 % are:-














19.3.        It is noted that the information is given for the district level and not for the sub-district level.  In the previous reports, it had been intimated that Asansol municipality in Burdwan district was the area where Hindi is spoken by 35 to 40% of population and Urdu by 24 %. Similarly, Champadani municipality of Hoogly district was declared as an area where Urdu is spoken by 24 % of people. Darjeeling district is the area where Nepali is spoken by more than 60 % of population. The variation is not clear in respect of Nepali in Darjeeling district.

19.4.        Bengali is the official language for the State. Nepali is the additional official language for Darjeeling district. District Officers in Darjeeling District have been asked to issue the rules, regulations etc. in Nepali but the number of such orders issued in Nepali is not available. There is a translation office in Writer’s Building for translation from English into Hindi and Urdu and vice versa. Translation work for Nepali is done in Nepali Academy. It is stated that the reply to the representations is sent in the same language.

19.5.        There are no separate guidelines for the recognition of the linguistic minority institutions. The institutions are recognized on merit. This information is at variance with the information given in the reply for the 39th Report which said that the guidelines framed by Tamil Nadu are under consideration for adoption. It is not known if this exercise has been given up or is still under consideration.

19.6.        It is stated that for the primary education (which is from class I to IV), Hindi, Urdu, Oriya, Telegu and Nepali are being used as media besides Bengali. Number of students is given as minimum 40 which shows that there is no relaxation for the minority language schools. It was envisaged that the norms for such schools should be relaxed to 10 per class at the primary stage. There is no mention of Santhali which was also cited in previous years for education at primary level. Regional language is said to be taught from class VI onwards in these minority language schools.

19.7.        The data for the primary education for the year 2002-03 are as follows:-



























19.8.        There are also 71 other educational institutes for Hindi, 12 for Urdu and one for Nepali. It is assumed that they are higher secondary schools as the words H/S appear after the number.

19.9.        It will be seen that the teacher student ration for Hindi is 1:50 which is above even the stated norms. It appears that there are vacancies of teachers. Similar is the position for Urdu where the ratio is 1:66. For Nepali it is 1:44.

19.10.    Information about the secondary education was said to be not available.

19.11.    To the question whether registers are being maintained for advance registration of the linguistic preference of the students, the reply is “not in practice”. It is not clear what this means. It can either mean that the registers are not maintained and there are no orders to that effect. Or it can also mean that orders are there but actually they are not being maintained. This requires clarification.

19.12.    Information about the number of teachers and their training is not supplied as also about the availability or otherwise of the textbooks in minority languages. As stated above there appears to be a number of vacancies.

19.13.    About the three Language Formula, the information is as follows:-


First Language                    Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, Nepali, Oriya, Telegu

Second Language            English

Third Language                    Sanskrit, Arabic, Hindi


19.14.     It is said that the copy of the G.O. in this regard is not readily available. This G.O. would have helped in finding out how the options are to be exercised. It is not clear if Bengali has to be taken as the third language or not in case the first language is not Bengali. The information about whether the knowledge of Bengali is required for entry in the State Services is also not given so that it is not known if the non-inclusion of Bengali in the school curriculum leads to later disqualification for the linguistic minorities.

19.15.    The Government of West Bengal have set up a Committee under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary to monitor the implementation of the safeguards. the Principal Secretaries of Hill Affairs, Development & Planning, I & C A, School Education, Minorities Development & Welfare Departments and Secretaries of Municipal Affairs and Panchayat Departments are the members. The Committee was constituted in April 2004 and has already met. It has decided to identify the minorities, district wise, as preliminary to the task of monitoring the implementation of the safeguards.

19.16.    Other information (establishment of Academies, recruitment rules, pamphlets etc.) has not been given but it is intimated that Minorities Welfare and Development Department has been set up to look after the interests of the linguistic and other minorities. It is hoped that the Department will be able to collect all the information and send it for inclusion in the next Report.




Chapter XX  Punjab


20.1.           It is regretted that Punjab has not sent a reply to our questionnaire for the forty first Report of this ofice despite a number of reminders at all levels. Hence we had no option except to compile the Report without their contribution.

20.2.          Punjab has been lukewarm to the safeguards for the linguistic minorites. We had expected that we will notice some improvement in the situation but we are deprived of this opportunity due to lack of response from the State Government.

20.3.       It is hoped that we will have the feed back from Punjab in time for the next Report.



Chapter XXI. Bihar


21.1.The population of Bihar is said to be 8,28,78,796 as per census 2001. It was 6,45,30,554 in 1991. The linguistic breakup is given as

                        Hindi                            5,67,76,375                 87.98 %

                        Urdu                               70,66,617                    10.95 %

21.2.The areas where Urdu is spoken by more than 15 % of population has  been specified. They are Sitamarhi (15.85); Darbhanga (20.12); Katihar (26.39); Purnia (28.52); Kishan Ganj (53.61) and Araria (32.80).

21.3.Hindi is the official language for the State. Urdu has been declared as additional language for specified purposes for the entire State. These are

1.      Receipt of and reply to representations

2.      Acceptance of documents in offices

3.      Publication of Rules, Regulations and Notices

4.      Issue of important circulars and orders

5.      Publication of important advertisements

6.      Publication of Gazette

7.      Exhibitions of important sign boards

21.4.It is stated that the publication of rules, notices etc. is done in minority language but no statistics are given. In fact the reply to the relevant question is 'NIL'. It is, however, stated that there are Urdu translators and Assistant Translators at district level and there is a Official Language Department at the State level. It is hoped that publication of rules etc. will be done in the minority language in the near future.

21.5.Similar is the position of the reply of representations in minority languages. There are orders but it is not known if any follow up action is taken as no data has been given.

21.6.There are no separate gudielines for recognition of the minority institutes. they are registered as per normal rules. It is said that information is being collected about the number of registered institutions.

21.7.It is reported that Hindi, Urdu and Bengali are being used as languages for imparting instructions at primary stage of education, which is from class I to V. In the minority schools, Hindi is taught from class I itself. But no statistics about schools, students or teachers have been given.

21.8.Similar is the position of secondary education which is said to be from class VII to XII. It is noted that Class VI is included neither in primary nor in secondary stage.

21.9.The information about teachers and textbooks is said to be under collection.

21.10.      There are two Academies, one for Urdu and other for Bengali. Their year of establishment is 1972 for Urdu and 1983 for Bengali. Their budget for the year 2002- 03 is Rs. 20 lakhs and Rs. 5 lakhs respectively. Their activities for the year have not been indicated. Only the objectives in very broad terms have been indicated.

21.11.      In addition, one other institute is also listed. It is Bihar Anjuman Taraqui-e-Urdu. It has been given a grant of Rs. 4 Lakhs during the year 2002 -  03. The objectives are not mentioned.

21.12.      As regards the machinery for implementation of the safeguards, it is mentioned that State Minority Commission is doing this at the state level. There is also the Minority Welfare Department.  But whether there is any periodical review of the implementations is not indicated.

21.13.      The reply of Bihar is more or less a formality and does not add much to our information. It is hoped that more information will be forthcoming from them.







Chapter XXII. Madhya Pradesh


22.1.     Madhya Pradesh has a population of 6,03,85,118 as per census 2001. It is 4,85,66,242 for the 1991 census. Hindi is the language of almost 85 % of the population while Bhili/ Bhilodi (3.35%), Gondi (2.24%), Marathi (1.94 %) Urdu (1.85 %) and Oriya  (1.09 %) are described as the minority languages. It may be mentioned that Sindhi is another important language. Its speakers are concentrated in some pockets but overall their proportion is not very significant at 0.49 %. It is noted that Bhili speakers are mainly in rural areas (98.57 %). Same is the case with Gondi (98.82 %).

22.2.                       The areas where speakers of Urdu form more than 15 % of the population have been specified but the similar information about Marathi or Gondi is not given. Areas specified for Urdu are Huzur tahsil in Bhopal; Kurwai tahsil in Vidisha and Burhanpur tahsil in Khandwa. It is noted that percentage of all the tahsils is mentioned as 20 whereas it should be different for different tahsils.

22.3.                       Hindi is the official language of the State and there is no other official language. Directorate of Language exists but its role in translating the rules, regulations is not described. There is no provision for translation of important rules etc. in Urdu in the Tahsils where there are more than 15 % Urdu speakers present. The replies to the representations in minority languages is sent in Hindi only.

22.4.                       There are no separate rules for recognition for minority institutions. It is reported that there are 2,533 institutes of Urdu which are recognized. Besides 2,962 madarsas are said to be running but they are not recognized. There is no application from Urdu schools pending with the State Government for recognition.  It appears, however, that this number does not refer to the linguistic minority institutes but the total number of schools, Government and non Government, teaching Urdu or through Urdu. As regards grants, the number of institutes which applied for grant are 775. Out of them grants have been given to 446 and 329 cases are pending. It is hoped that they will be disposed off early.

22.5.                       There is no mention about the schools or the institutes for Marathi or other languages.

22.6.                       Urdu and Marathi are said to be the minority languages used at the primary level for instructions. Previously Sindhi, Oriya and Telegu were also mentioned but this year they are not mentioned. The agreed norms of 10 + 40 are applied. Regional language Hindi is taught from class I. For the year 2001-02 the number of students is 26,964 for Urdu and 7,538 for Marathi. Figures about other languages have not been given. The figures for year 2002-03 are said to be under collection.

22.7.                       For the middle schools the number of students for Urdu is 4,456 and for Marathi 16,654. Here again there is some problem since the number of Marathi students is more for middle schools than for the primary schools. This should be verified by the State Government. There is no mention of other languages.

22.8.                       For the secondary education (class IX to XII), Hindi, English are the only mentioned languages. Urdu and Marathi are not mentioned nor is Sindhi. Even here the number of students required is given as 10 for a class and 40 for the school. In the norms accepted by consensus the figures were 15 + 60. Statistics are said to be attached but are not found.

22.9.                       In an annexure which gives district wise number of primary schools for Urdu and Marathi, the number is given as 311 for Urdu and 140 for Marathi. It may be recalled that last year the number mentioned was 327 for Urdu and 59 for Marathi.

22.10.                   The number of secondary schools mentioned in the annexure is 161 for Urdu and 129 for Marathi.

22.11.                   Advance registers for recording the linguistic preference of the students are not being maintained. There are no orders to that effect.

22.12.                   In the annexure the number of teachers at the primary level for Urdu are 642 for 26.964 students. However, in reply to question 33, it is said that there are 2100 sanctioned posts of teachers There are no vacancies but there is demand for 3000 extra posts. .At the secondary level there are 84 sanctioned posts but there is need for another 538 posts. (193 in grade 1 and 345 in grade 2). All these data relate to Urdu and there is no mention about Marathi or for any other language

22.13.                   For the training of the teachers the Madarasa Board is said to be available for Urdu teachers. For the rest the normal training institutes are there. The data about the number of teachers trained is said to be under collection.

22.14.                   Textbooks are said to be available for primary and secondary classes.

22.15.                   In the three language formula, reference is made to Hindi, English, Urdu and Marathi for all the three language groups. In the third language group Sanskrit, Sindhi and Gujarati are also included. This formulation differs from those of earlier years. If this is a conscious decision, a copy of the new orders issued may be sent.

22.16.                   Urdu and Sindhi Academies are functioning in the State. A Non Government organization known as Garib Nawaz Foundation of Muslims is said to be in existence which  has received grants from the State Government. to the extent of Rs. 41,76,747 for extension of educational facilities to the minorities. Its exact role for the linguistic minorities is not specified nor are the details of the schemes sent. On the face of it, it appears to be an organization for the religious minority. Promotion of Urdu may be incidental only.

 Urdu Academy is running a number of schemes for promotion of Urdu language. A quarterly magazine is being published. Books for library have been purchased. It has organized a Mushaira in Ujjain on 16-8-2003, in Satna on 19-10-2002, in Bhopal on 31-10-2002, in Rajgarh on 12,13-9-2002. In July 2002 a meeting was organized to welcome writers namely Sarva Shri Parvez Ahmed and Azra Naqvi. Dr Shafiqa Farhat was facilitated on launch of her book on 30-3-2003. A poetry session was held on 3-3-2003. The Academy has also assisted five organizations for organizing programmes. 27 libraries have also been given financial assistance. Two books were also published by the Academy. Urdu is being taught through two teachers to non Urdu knowing people.

22.17.                   There is no information about Sindhi Academy. It is mentioned in the report for the Urdu Academy that Punjabi academy was provided with equipment at a cost of Rs. 1,86,000. However the State Government have not mentioned Punjabi Academy, its set up of activities in their reply.

22.18.                   Hindi and English are the only two languages permitted as media for State Services examinations. There is no reply to the question whether the knowledge of regional language is necessary for getting into Government job. Nor is there any reply to the question whether there are domiciliary restrictions.

22.19.                   Commissioner Public Instructions is the Nodal Officer for the linguistic minorities. To keep a watch on the implementation of the safeguards, Madarasa Board at the State level is said to be taking periodical meetings. At the district level, the Education Officer takes a meeting to assess the implementation. Once again Madarasa Board is concerned with Urdu  language, at best. There is no machinery to take care of Marathi, Sindhi etc. which should also be the urgent concern of the State Government.

22.20.                   There is no mention about the complaints received though it is said that the complaints can be made to the District Education Officer.

22.21.                   It is noted that in reply to Question 11 regarding non-educational institutes for linguistic minorities, the answer is "not related to education department". Since Education Department is the nodal department for all activities relating to the linguistic minorities, they should have got the information from the relevant department and sent it. There are other questions pertaining to the General Administration Department, Culture Department etc. They should also be treated likewise i.e. the information should be obtained from other departments and sent.


Chapter XXIII. Manipur


23.1.          Manipur has been quite late in sending its reply to the questionnaire sent for the forty-first Report. It is not known what was the reason for the delay. The reply to almost all the questions except Questions 4, 5 and 40  is either 'NIL' or 'Does not arise' or some such phrase. The reply to these questions except for Question 40 does not require much effort. In response to Question 4, which deals with the languages spoken by the linguistic minorities, 29 tribal languages spoken by as many tribal communities are listed.  A list of them may be seen in our 39th Report.

23.2.          The question number 5 deals with the areas where the linguistic minorities form more than 15 % of the total population. The reply is indirect. It says, "The following languages are fairly spoken in the districts of Manipur mentioned against them as first languages."






Thadou, Paite, Lushai


Anal, Mayon, Monsang, Maring


Rongmei, Leyangmei, Zemei


Maram, Mao, Paomei



23.3.          In the reply, the words 'first language' are used. This is in accordance with the stand of the Manipur Government that '100 % know Manipuri either as first or second language'. This is not correct and it is not believed that State Government is not aware of it not being correct. But this is one way to deny the linguistic minorities their rights to preserve their language, script and culture. Manipur is not giving education through the medium of the mother tongue and does not even teach them as subjects. There are obviously no statistics in the reply received and there is almost nothing to report.

23.4.          We have referred to another question whose answer is given and it will be worthwhile to examine it. The State Government does not have any academies to promote languages and does not assist any organizations which want to do that. Nevertheless, without Government support some organizations still exist. These have been listed in reply to Question 40.The list is as follows:-



Date set up

Activities for the year

Hmar Literature Society


1.Organization of language seminars

2.Publication of school textbooks

Mizo Literature Society


1.Organization of language seminars

2.Publication of Mizo textbooks

Paite Literature Society


1.Evolvement of common and systemized writing form

2.Organizing seminars, workshops, exhibitions

3.Giving annual cash awards

Zou Literature Society


1.Holding seminars, workshops, exhibitions

2.Preparation of textbooks

Thadou Kuki Literature Committee


1. Publication of books,

2. Organization of seminars

3. Awareness campaigns

4. Award of prizes to the subject topper

Ruangmei Literature Society


Not specified


23.5.           The activities of the last named are not mentioned but they can be guessed. Two questions arise from the reply. One is that textbooks are being prepared and awards to toppers are being given. This will show that the textbooks are being used somewhere either formally or informally. The State Government should take note of it and endeavour to formalise the arrangements as per the Constitutional directives. The second point is that despite the apathy of the State Government to these languages, the people have not forgotten them and are keen on maintaining them. This belies the claim that there is no demand for such languages.In the thirty ninth Report, three magazines were also mentioned, two of them in Paite and one in Tangkhul.

23.6.          It is stated that the linguistic minorities are informed about the safeguards and concessions through newspapers and pamphlets. No copies of the pamphlets have been attached nor the information about number, language or any other information about them is given. In any case there are no concessions and nothing to inform them about so it is not known what the newspapers really do.

23.7.          It has been stated that Manipur Human Rights Commission and Manipur State Minorities Commission are given the responsibility of the receipt of the representations about the problems of the linguistic minorities. It is not specified what is done about these representations.

23.8.          In brief the performance of Manipur Government is dismal. They are either not aware of the safeguards for the linguistic minorities or are totally unconcerned about them. It is known that in Ukhrul district, Tangkhul is spoken by almost 90 % of the people and yet there are no steps to use it even for publicity of Government policies. Similar is the case about Kabui for Tamenglong district. State Government are urged to change their attitude towards the linguistic minorities so as to give them their due.




Chapter XXIV. Maharashtra 

24.1     The population, as per census 1991, is 7,89,37,187. Marathi is the regional language spoken by  73.30 % of the people. The other languages spoken by more than one percent of population are as follows:

Hindi 7.81%

Urdu 7.26%

Gujarati 2.55%

Telegu 1.42%

Kannada 1.34%

Bhili / Bhilodi 1.23%

Khandeshi 1.06%

24.2   The information received from Maharashtra is in respect of only some of the questions included in the questionnaire.

24.3   A list of the areas where the population of linguistic minorities is more than 15 % is enclosed with the reply rceived from the State Governement. It is to be studied and will, in due course, be put on the website

24.4   Maharashtra is publishing the important laws, rules etc. in the minority languages. For this purpose there are translation bureaus in the divisional headquarters. The details of the publications in the year 2002-03 are given. In Konkan Division, 600 Acts and 600 miscellaneous documents are said to be published in Kannada. Likewise 12,330 Acts, rules etc. and 1,650 miscellaneous items are published in Hindi. On the face of it, the number is staggering and it will have to be ascertained as to what is the exact meaning of these numbers . In contrast, the figures from other areas are more understandable. In Pune division, 102 pages of Acts and 141 pages of Miscellaneous documents are said to be published in Kannada. In Aurangabad division the number of Acts in Urdu are said to be 800 and miscellaneous documents 850.

24.5   Information about the Academies set up is given. Urdu Academy was set up in 1975, Hindi in 1982, Sindhi in 1983 and Gujarati in 1996. The budget outlay is Rs. 22.08 lakh for Urdu; Rs. 14.27 Lakh for Hindi; Rs. 2.50 Lakh for Sindhi and Rs. 2.88 Lakh for Gujarati. There are no non governmental organizations supported by the Government.

24.6      The details for the Urdu Academy show that the Academy is engaged in

1.                  Urdu classes for non Urdu people.

2.                  Grant in aid for calligraphy centres; libraries; seminars; for publication of manuscripts; and assistance to writers in indigent circumstances.

3.                  Publication of quarterly magazines

4.                  Organization of plays ; workshop for Urdu reporters, book exhibition .

5.                  Awards to Urdu poets/ writers; students with highest marks in Urdu.

6.                  Establishment of libraries.


24.7      Similar assistance is also given by Hindi Academy to authors to publish books, research papers, and periodicals; to literary bodies for organizing programmes; for encouraging translation to and from Marathi literature; supply of books of public libraries; confer awards on littérateurs; holding of seminars. It also assists the State Government  for formulation of policy.

24.8      Sindhi Academy has same programmes and also awards the meritorious students and for organizing classes to teach Sindhi.

24.9      Gujarati Academy does all these things but places special emphasis on encouraging women writers.

24.10   Information on other points has not been received from Maharashtra which is a loss since Maharashtra is in the forefront of the states taking good care of its linguistic minorities.

Chapter XXV. Mizoram


25.1.        The population of Mizoram, as per 2001 census is 8,91,058 and as per 1991 census 6,89,756.The principal language is Mizo spoken by 75.11 % and the minority languages are –


Language Percentage

Bengali 8.57

Nepali 3.83

Lakher 3.32

Pawi 2.22

Hmar 1.38

Hindi 1.28

Nepali 1.20

Paite 1.12


25.2.        Speakers of Bengali form 18.80 % of the population in Lunglei and 25.57 %  in Chhimtuipui. The speakers of Lakher are 22.76 % of the population in Chhimtuipui.

25.3.        Mizo is the official language of Mizoram and there is no other additional official language. Important rules, regulations etc. are not published in minority languages but  an official language cell is being set up and the post of translator created in the Law and Judicial Department. However, this has been under consideration for quite some time and it is hoped that this will be expedited and action taken to start the translation work.

25.4.        It has been said that Official Language Act does not apply to the autonomous regions. What language is used for official work and for correspondance with the State Government has not been specified.

25.5.        For the registration and recognition of linguistic minority institutes the same yard sticks are applied as for the general institutes. Presently the number of institutes in different languages is as follows:-



Primary Schools

Secondary Schools

Higher Secondary Schools





















25.6.        It is noted that the minority languages listed earlier i.e. Hmar, Lakher, Pawi, Paite, Tripuri and Hindi do not find any mention in this list. It is noted that there appears to be concentration of Lakher people in Chhimtuipui area. Paite is also spoken in a compact region. This aspect should be considered  by  the State Government and appropriate action taken

25.7.        It is also noted that the number of applications received, disposed off and pending are all shown as NIL. Probably this refers to only for the period under consideration.

25.8.        For imparting instruction through the minority languages, there are no fixed number of students. It is also said that regional language is not taught at the primary education level.

25.9.        The number of students in the primary level (class I to IV) for the year 2002 – 03 is as follows:-



























25.10.    Lakher, Paite, Hmar are not mentioned here also. Nor are the other languages.

25.11.    The number of students in the upper primary level (class V to VII) for the year 2002 – 03 is as follows:-



























25.12.    It is noted that in reply to question 18, it is said that Mizo, English and Hindi are the media while in reply to question 22, it is said that "In Mizoram, medium of instruction at secondary education stage is English irrespective of any linguistic group."

25.13.    The number of students in the secondary level (class VIII to X) for the year 2002 – 03 is as follows:-























25.14.    Advance Registers for registration of linguistic preference of the students are not being maintained.

25.15.    The three language formula mentions mother tongue as the first language, English as the second language and Hindi as the third. It is not clear at what stage Mizo is taught. It is all the more surprising because in reply to Question 42, it is stated that knowledge of Mizo is a pre requisite for recruitment. In such a case there s no chance for linguistic minorities to get Government jobs. One of these two ought to be changed. Mizo should not be essential for entry into services though it can be stipulated that it will have to be learnt in the prescribed period and before the end of probation period.

25.16.    In reply to the question “Are there enough teachers to teach through the medium of the minority languages at the secondary stage of education”, the reply is very interesting. It says “Yes, But English is adopted/ preferred to as medium of education at secondary stage of Education all over the State.” it is a surprising answer considering that in reply to question 22, the number of students learning through these languages is significant. Or is it that the number given is for the language as a subject. This ought to be clarified by the State Government.

25.17.    As for the training of the teachers, it is said that there are no separate training institutes for the minority language teachers. In fact, there need not be. The only thing required is that the normal institutes run some special courses for the minority language teachers so as to impart or refresh some special techniques for using the minority languages.

25.18.    There is reported to be no shortage of the textbooks. Administration of management of elementary education of Mara, Lai, and Chakma is with the autonomous districts concerned. Preparation, publication and procurement of textbooks are also under their management. Textbooks for the Nepali students are procured from Sikkim, Darjeeling and Meghalaya. Textbooks for Bengali are procured from Catcher district of Assam.

25.19.    No academies have been set up for the development of languages but Nepali Bhutia Samiti is carrying on the work for Nepali. It is, however, not aided by the Government nor is registered with them. There are no other schemes for assistance also.

25.20.    No independent body is set up for monitoring the safeguards for the linguistic minority. It is also not required. What is required is that the State Government should have a system by which they can periodically check the implementation of the decisions regarding the linguistic minorities. There can be a committee under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary which can meet every six months or so to monitor the implementation of the safeguards. The minorities can send their grievances to a designated officer who can get the comments from the concerned authorities to verify the facts and put up the case to the Committee.


Chapter XXVI. Meghalaya


26.1.                              The population of Meghalaya is 23,06,069 in census 2001. It was 17,74,778 in the 1991 census. There is no regional language as the number of speakers of any language does not exceed 50 %. Khasi comes close to it with 49.54 %. It is followed by Garo which has 30.86 % of the population as its speakers. Other languages are Bengali (8.13 %); Nepali (2.77); Hindi (2.19); Assamese (1.92); Rabha (1.15) and Koch (1.05 %)

26.2.      There is no mention of the areas where a language is spoken by more than 60 % of the population in a district but it was mentioned in the thirty ninth Report that Khasi is mainly spoken in East Khasi, West Khasi, Ri-Phoi and Jaintia Hills districts while Garo is mainly spoken in East Garo, West Garo and South Garo districts, It is expected that in these areas the speakers of the language will be more than sixty percent of the population so that in terms of the safeguards, these districts should have the respective languages as the additional official language. English is presently the only official language of the State.

26.3.      As regards the areas where the population of linguistic minorities is more than 15 %, West Garo Hills district is mentioned where Bengali is spoken by 18.72 % of the population.

26.4.      No regulations etc. are published in minority languages at present. It was however noted from the reply to the last questionnaire that IRDP loan books and Instruction booklets for the aanganwadi workers were brought out in Khasi. The Chief Secretary had informed in a meeting that many more instructions and circulars were being issued in local languages since the policy is to approach the people in their language.

26.5.      As per the reply to the questionnaire, the representations are not received in the minority languages. The question of reply in that language  does not therefore, arise. However in a meeting the Officers of the State Government admitted that some representations were received in minority languages but were replied to in English. It was said that reply to them in the minority language would involve considerable expenditure and the financial situation being what it was, it is not practical to do so at present. since the script used for Khasi and Garo is Roman and the officers and the clerks posted in respective areas know the local language, extra expenditure involved will be insignificant. It is a different matter for Hindi, Bengali and Assamese for which typewriters and specialist typists may be required. But such expenditure has to be set off against the level of satisfaction it will give the linguistic minorities.

26.6.      There are 4,198 primary schools teaching through the mother tongue. This includes the schools for Khasi and Garo languages for which the break up is not given. It is stated in an enclosed orders that mother tongue shall be the medium of instruction in primary stage. English is mentioned as the language for further studies. An orders was issued in 1991 stating that at least one teacher should be provided for instruction in minority language in a school having not less than 40 pupils or ten such pupils in a class.

26.7.      The breakup for the other minority languages is as follows:-























26.8.      It is mentioned that this is the information as per the fifth All India Educational Survey. Actually the information required was for three years i.e. 2000 – 01 to year 2002 – 03 so that the trends can be determined. Out of date information does not help in the evaluation of the efforts being put in.

26.9.      The examination in the primary schools is internal only. Only if the student has to compete for merit scholarship, there is a public examination but the medium for that is English so that the students from other media are automatically left out. This is unfair to the students studying through mother tongue.

26.10.  It was noted in a visit to three schools that all the students come from the weaker sections of society. Those in the upper income bracket send their wards to more expensive schools which are generally with English medium right from class I. It was also noted that one aided school got only the grants for salary of teachers and that too not fully. There were no provisions for clerical assistance or for a peon or for contingencies like purchase of books for library. Free books are normally supplied by the State Government up to class VII but this supply could be noted in only one of the three schools. It is noted that there is a provision in the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan that annual grants for teachers is provided for the teaching aids. But this has not been done so far. Even the nursery class was being taught just from the books and had no charts or other playthings which should attract children towards studies.

26.11.  A novel experiment was seen in a visit to  Islamia school. It was supposed to be Urdu medium school but also has Hindi medium. The blackboard is divided into two parts. On one side Urdu words are written while on the other side Hindi words are written. Since the basic language rules and grammar are the same, two languages are taught simultaneously. It is for the student (or rather their parents) to decide which language to pick up. The books are in Urdu or Hindi, as the case may be, and are quite different.

26.12.  For the secondary stage of education, the information shown is NIL. The medium is English at this  level regardless of the mother tongue. The question of the use of minority language as the medium in the secondary level was taken up in a meeting with Chief Secretary and other officers and it was pointed out that. this was being done in primary level and as a natural corollary this should be extended to upper primary also. But it was felt that this would require considerable expenditure as books and teachers would be required. Perhaps the question should be taken up with the  Finance Commission who can make ad hoc grants for this purpose (use of minority languages for education to the students from linguistic minority communities) to the States.

26.13.  The three language formula is described as follows:-

1st language Mother tongue Class I to IV

2nd language English Class II to X

3rd language Hindi Class V to VIII

26.14.  In the enclosed orders the language framework is shown as follows.

a.      Mother tongue shall be the first language.

b.      English shall be the second language

c.       The third language will be

                                                                                 i.      Hindi for all students whose mother tongue is not Hindi

                                                                                ii.      Khasi, Garo, Assamese or Bengali for all students whose mother tongue is Hindi.

26.15.  The third language is to be taught only at the upper primary stage i.e. from class V to VII but it is added that the teaching of third language in Secondary and Senior Secondary schools will be notified later. The reply talks of third language only for class V to VII. It appears that no further orders were issued. regarding the secondary and senior secondary stage.

26.16.  Orders for the maintenance of the registers for advance registration were issued in 1980 and 1981 and are still in force. But no statistics are given regarding the maintenance of the registers by the schools.

26.17.  No shortage of teachers has been reported.

26.18.  All textbooks prescribed for minority language are said to be available in the open market. Meghalaya Board of School Education brings out textbooks for Khasi and Garo from class I to IV; English from class III to X. Minority language books are made available by private publishers or are obtained from other states.

26.19.  But in the visit to these schools, it was found that the textbooks were in short supply. Hindi and Urdu books are purchased from the market and the choice is of the school authorities. There is not even a SCERT approved list from which the school authorities can pick up the books. The absence of public examination at this stage makes it an irrelevant factor as to how much language or subject content has been picked up. After the primary level, English is the only thing which counts. Nevertheless it is felt that there should be a system of inspection of these schools so that the minimum standards are maintained. It was informed that presently there is no system of inspections.

26.20.  The books found in the visit to the schools were in the respective language but the subjects' books were all in English. The subject matter was explained in the respective languages. How the students can be given home work in this situation and how they can do it is not understood. It is known that most of them are first generation learners and get little or no help from the parents.

26.21.  There are no Academies for the development of languages.

26.22.  English is the medium for examination for the State Services. There is no reply about the domiciliary restrictions.

26.23.  As regards the machinery, it is said that State Government is in charge at the State level and the Deputy Commissioners at the district level. However, it is stated that there are no prescribed reports called from the district level officers regarding implementation. It is requested that in order to coordinate the efforts of various departments and to have a periodical review, an appropriate structure should be set up. The chief Secretary, who is in charge of the affairs relating to the linguistic minorities, may take a six monthly meeting to assess the situation.

26.24.  No pamphlets have been issued.

26.25.  There are stated to be no major grievances but with almost no machinery, people would not know where to complaint. Perhaps this is one grievance which requires looking into.



Chapter XXVII. Rajasthan


27.1.        The population of Rajasthan as per 1991 census was 4,40,05,990. The principal language is Hindi. Other languages with substantial number of speakers are Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi and  Bhili/ Bhilodi. The breakup is as below.







Bhili/ Bhilodi












27.2.       Sindhi is mentioned because there are some areas in which its speakers form substantial propotion of the population.

27.3.       There are no areas where the minority language is spoken by more than 60 % of the population. It is also said that there are no areas where they are more than 15 % but this information is at variance with the earlier information. Also, an annexure is enclosed with the reply which gives the population percentage of various areas where population of linguistic minorities is more than 15 %. Urdu is in this position in Tonk Tahsil and some towns in districts of Tonk, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Sawai Madhopur, Ajmer, Nagor, Bhilwara, Dungarpur and Kota. Punjabi is in similar position in Ganganagar district. Thus correct information has not been given in the reply.

27.4.       Official language of the State is Hindi. It is reported that If the representations are received in any other language, they are replied to in Hindi.

27.5.       There are no relaxation for the recognition of minority institutes or in the matter of giving grants in aid. There is no information about minority institutions which are recognized.

27.6.       Urdu, Punjabi, Gujarati and Sindhi are stated as the languages in which education is imparted. Primary (or Elementary) education is from class I to VIII. The number of the schools, students and teachers in the year 2002 – 03 is as follows:-

















27.7.        The information in the question relating to the secondary education is as follows:-








Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

























27.8.       In Urdu and Punjabi the number of students in year 2001 – 02 is more than that in the year 2000-01 but has again fallen in the next year even below the level of year 2000-01.

27.9.       At the secondary level, Hindi and English are the only media. But it is also stated that at the secondary examination of the Board of Secondary Education, the students can write their answers in Urdu and Sindhi also. But this is not so for the senior secondary level. Question papers are, however,  prepared in Hindi and English only.  At another place it is mentioned that Hindi and English are the only media. It was confirmed by the administration when this question was specifically asked. It is said that these languages are taught as subjects in class VI to X and as optional subjects in class XI and XII and that these languages were not used as media. Yet having the question papers of Urdu or Sindhi in Hindi or English does not make sense. Thus the situation is unclear. The exact position shall have to be ascertained.

27.10.   In the Three Language Formula also the first language is described as Hindi only. The second language in the formula is English and the third can be Urdu, Sindhi, Gujarati, Punjabi or Sanskrit.

27.11.   One of the safeguards provided is the maintenance of the registers for advance registration of the linguistic preference of the students so that the information is available in advance and readjustments of teachers can take place. Such registers need to be maintained in areas with significant population of the linguistic minorities. However, as per the return they are being maintained in all the schools at primary and secondary level. This is said to be as per orders. But the significance of maintaining of these registers is not clear except as a formality.

27.12.   No shortage of teachers is reported. But if we take a look at annexure ‘kha’, it tells a different story. This is a list of Urdu schools and gives the names of teachers also. It shows 17 vacancies.

27.13.   As regards the training of teachers, 15 seats have been reserved annually for Urdu teachers in Ajmer institute. There is no such reservation for Punjabi or Sindhi teachers. This is unfair to these languages.

27.14.   Sindhi Academy and Urdu Academy have been set up in 1979. The budget for year 2002-03 was Rs. 11 Lakh for Sindhi and Rs. 7.31 Lakh for Urdu.

27.15.   The activities of Sindhi Academy during the period under review included the following.

1.                Celebration of Chetti Chand festival.

2.                 Launching of quarterly newspaper ‘Sindhu            Doot’.

3.                Workshop to teach Sindhi in Jodhpur

4.                Inauguration of website

5.                14 days training in Sindhi in Jaipur

6.                Organization of Sindhi Sammelan

7.                Organization of monthly literary meets in Divisional headquarters.

8.                Financial assistance to six writers

9.                Setting up of Sindhi primary school in Barawada


27.16.   In the case of Urdu Academy, the information given is for the year 2003-04 which will be included in the report for that period.

27.17.   Urdu Academy also assists non official organizations. In the year 2002-03 a grant of Rs. 42,000 was given to an organization. Likewise Sindhi Academy has assisted 10 organizations to the tune of Rs. 55,456.

27.18.   Madarasa Board has also been set up for promotion of Urdu. The budget for the year 2002-03 was Rs. 63 Lakh. 619 students have benefited by this scheme. The details of the scheme have to be ascertained. As it is, expenditure of Rs. 63 lakh to benefit 619 students appears, to say the least, excessive. May be other items are also included.

27.19.   There is no concession for the linguistic minorities in the matter of the recruitment to services. The knowledge of Hindi is compulsory for the entrants. This is in accordance with the trends in educational activities but still cannot be said to be fair.

27.20.   Deputy Secretary, Education has been appointed as the Nodal Officer for the linguistic minorities. In the districts, linguistic minority cells have been set up. It is intimated that they are meeting periodically to assess the situation.

27.21.   Pamphlets in Sindhi, Urdu, Gujarati and Punjabi have been prepared. It is said that these will be made available to District Education Officers.

27.22.   The work done by Rajasthan during the current year is encouraging. It is hoped that it will be further extended to its logical conclusion in that the minority languages will be used as media at the elementary stage of education and later at the secondary stage.


Chapter XXVIII. Sikkim

28.1.        The population of Sikkim is 5,40,493 as per the 2001 census. It was 4,03,612 in 1991 census. It is stated that the lingua franca of the State is Nepali. Other languages are Bhutia, Lepcha, Limboo, Newari, Gurung, Mangar, Mukhia, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang. it is said that community wise break up is not given by the Census Department. This is true for 2001 census and it was envisaged that the break up can be given with reference to 1991 census. In the 39th Report the break up (percentage wise) was given as

Bhutia 8.02

Lepcha 7.34

Limboo 6.64

Hindi 4.89

Sherpa 3.41

28.2.        The other languages mentioned by the State are not found in the census handbook. Presumably the number of their speakers on all India level is below 10,000 an arbitrary figure fixed by the Census Commissioner for listing the language in the census handouts.

28.3.        English is the official language of the State. Other languages are considered only from the point of view of preservation of culture and tradition. No rules etc. are translated into these languages nor are representations received or replied to in these languages.

28.4.        There are, obviously, no guidelines for registration of minority institutes. Primary education is imparted in Bhutia, Lepcha, Limboo, Newari, Gurung, Mangar, Mukhia, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang. Ten students are the minimum required for a class. Nepali is taught from class I. Number of schools for the different languages is not mentioned. Question of maintenance of registers for advance registration does not arise.

28.5.        In the three language formula, English is the first language and Hindi the third. In the second all the languages listed above are mentioned. The position of Nepali is not clear.

28.6.        It is said that there is no shortage of teachers for teaching the minority languages. DIET is initiating language training programmes for the language teachers.

28.7.        There is reported to be no shortage of textbooks. The Government are supplying free textbooks up to primary level.

28.8.        Sikkim Academy has been established to develop and promote the languages in the State. It was set up in 2002. The budget for year 2000 – 03 (or is it for two years 2002 – 04) was Rs. 40 lakh. It has set up eleven advisory committees for the development of the eleven languages. It is organizing book fairs, kavi sammelans, seminars etc. A good beginning has been made and it is hoped that the languages will have a bright future.

28.9.        English is the medium for examinations for recruitment. Only for the teachers, the knowledge of the relevant language is necessary.

28.10.    There is no machinery for the linguistic minority as such. However, Additional Secretary, Home Department is in charge of work relating to the linguistic minority .



Chapter XXIX. Haryana


29.1  Haryana has a population of 1,64,63,648 as per 1991 census. 91 % persons speak Hindi, 7.11 % Punjabi and  1.59 % Urdu. It is said that there is no area where the linguistic minorities form more than 60 % of the population. In Sirsa district 34.54 % speak Punjabi and their percentage in Kurukshetra is 18.63. In Gurgaon, 16.52 % of population is Urdu speaking. It is likely that if one goes down to the tahsil level, there are areas with more concentration of linguistic minorities.

29.2  Hindi is the official language and there is none other. There is no provision for translation of rules, regulations etc. in the minority languages. There are no translation facilities. These should be taken up in the three districts mentioned above and other sub district formations having more than 15 % of linguistic minorities so that reply is representations can be given and important orders and notices can be translated into these languages.

29.3  There is no separate provision to give recognition to linguistic minority institutions but grant in aid is given to them as per rules.

29.4  In Haryana education is imparted only through Hindi. No minority language is used. There are, therefore, no data about the students etc. English is allowed as an alternate medium.

29.5  It is, in the circumstances, surprising, rather ridiculous, that orders are issued to maintain registers for registering the linguistic preference of the students.

29.6  Three Language formula is followed but it means Hindi as first language, Punjabi/ Sanskrit/ Telegu as the second language and English as the third language. Second language is taught from class VI. It may be interesting to know the preference of the students amongst the three languages.

29.7  There are three institutes to train the teachers in Punjabi. 250 teachers were trained in year 2001-02 but none in year 2002-03 or year 2000 – 01.

29.8  There are two organizations for the development of languages. They are Haryana Punjabi Sahitya Academy and Urdu Sahitya Academy. Urdu Academy was set up in 1986 and Punjabi Academy in 1997.The budgetary outlay of each in the year 2002-03 is Rs. 20 Lakh. No details of their activities are given.

29.9  Domiciliary restrictions are applied if benefit of reservations is to be taken otherwise there are no restrictions. It is stated that the knowledge of Hindi is a pre requisite for recruitment to state services.

29.10      Assistant Director in the Directorate of Higher Education has been appointed as the Nodal Officer at the State level. There are no arrangements at the district level.

29.11      Pamphlets for information of linguistic minorities are issued in Hindi but it is a mystery what they would contain since there is nothing to inform the linguistic minorities about.

29.12      It will be worthwhile to quote the answer to the question about grievances. It says, “All the residents of Haryana State live as brothers. No linguistic minority has any kind of complaint. There is no problem regarding the safeguards for the linguistic minorities.” Indeed when there are no safeguards, and no machinery to take care of it , where will the linguistic minorities complain and to what purpose.

29.13      It is a sad commentary that there is complete apathy towards the linguistic minorities. Mere setting up of two academies does not solve any problems or give the linguistic minorities the feeling that they are also proud citizens of the state of Haryana. There are orders dated 29th April 1969 regarding the policy towards the linguistic minorities. It is hoped that the officers concerned will at least read this.

Chapter XXX. Himachal Pradesh


30.1.        Himachal has a population of 60,70,877 as per census 2001. As per the 1991 census it was 51,11,079. No information is given about the languages spoken in the State. so we will have to refer to our earlier report which gives the figures for 1991 census as follows:-















30.2.        Though Lahauli is spoken by 21,891 persons only but it is mentioned because it is known to be limited to one area where their number is significant.

30.3.        It may be mentioned that Dogri has been included in the Eighth Schedule. As has been remarked elsewhere, this does not mean much but in the general consciousness, it is supposed to mean something. The State Government will probably work out the number of speakers of Dogri. It may be mentioned that in the Griersons report, Kangri was considered to be a dialect of Dogri. Later the Census Commissioner has been treating it as the dialect of Hindi. It was not important at that point of time but now that Dogri has been pronounced as a separate language, the status of Kangri should be reconsidered and the earlier classification revived.

30.4.        It  is reported that in districts Una and Nalagarh/ Bedi, the Punjabi speakers are more than 15 % of the total population being 20 % and 30 % respectively.

30.5.        Official language of the State is Hindi. No notifications etc. are published in any language other than Hindi. Nor are the representations replied to in language of their submission.

30.6.        Primary education is from class I to V. There are said to be 10,617 primary schools in the State where education is imparted in Hindi. Bhoti is being taught in 43 schools in Spiti Education Block. Two  more schools for the language will be added in Pangi block of Chamba district from year 2003-04. Number of students in Spiti are 920 at present.

30.7.        There are no separate guidelines for the recognition of the minority institutes. However, it is reported that there are 51 Urdu and 45 Punjabi Secondary schools in the State. It is also said that none of them is receiving any assistance. However, this appears to be ambiguous statement since this is also the number of the total schools for Urdu and Punjabi. In fact the number of students and teachers for the year 2002 – 03  is given as follows.















30.8.        Since at the primary education level, no schools with Urdu or Punjabi are mentioned, it is apparent that the above statistics are for teaching of Urdu and Punjabi as a subject. For this reason, this can not be called the Urdu or Punjabi schools much less linguistic minority institutes. What was meant here was that the institutes should have been established and managed by  the linguistic minority community.

30.9.        One vacancy of teachers which was reported last year appears to have been filled up.

30.10.    The curriculum and textbooks of Bhoti have been got developed and approved by the Government in the year under review. They are now being printed by the H.P. Board of School Education.

30.11.    As has been pointed out above, no minority language is the medium at the secondary level.

30.12.    It is stated that orders have been issued on January 10, 2002 for keeping the registers for advance information about language opted by the students. Feed back report is awaited. But this maintenance should have followed the Government decision to implement the directive of the Constitution to teach at the primary level through mother tongue i.e. Punjabi.

30.13.    The number of teachers trained in the past three years is mentioned as 11, 18 and 5.

30.14.    In the three language formula, it is stated that the State follows the national education policy. Urdu, Tamil, Telegu and Punjabi are mentioned as the third language. Sanskrit has not been mentioned but it must be the popular third language as the number of students of Urdu and Punjabi is too low.

30.15.    There are no academies  set up for development of languages.

30.16.    Recruitment rules provide for English and Hindi as the media of examination. The knowledge of Hindi is said to be necessary for recruitment. This is in accordance with other policy decision to ignore the minority languages. There are said to be no domiciliary restrictions on recruitment.

30.17.    The machinery for the implementation is said to be the State Government. The statement does not mean anything. The Department responsible for the implementation should have been mentioned. It is noted that the reply is sent by Additional Secretary, Department of Social Justice and Empowerment which should be the nodal department for the safeguards. It is suggested that a high level committee under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary be set up so that there is proper appreciation of the safeguards and periodical review.

30.18.    Overall there is much to be done to reach even the minimum level of the implementation of the safeguards.


Chapter XXXI. Andaman and Nicobar Islands


31.1.        Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a mirror of India and may be called Little India. Its population consists of representatives of many of the major and minor linguistic groups but it also has its own languages like Nicobari.

31.2.        The population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 2,80,961 according to the 1991 census. . Bengali (64,706) followed by Tamil (53,536) and Hindi (48,469) are the major languages. The breakup is as follows:-