ONT Re: Quine -- Two Dogmas Of Empiricism
TDOE. Note 13
| 3. Interchangeability (cont.)
| What we need is an account of cognitive synonymy
| not presupposing analyticity -- if we are to explain
| analyticity conversely with help of cognitive synonymy
| as undertaken in Section 1. And indeed such an independent
| account of cognitive synonymy is at present up for consideration,
| namely, interchangeability 'salva veritate' everywhere except within
| words. The question before us, to resume the thread at last, is whether
| such interchangeability is a sufficient condition for cognitive synonymy.
| We can quickly assure ourselves that it is, by examples of the following
| sort. The statement:
| (4) Necessarily all and only bachelors are bachelors
| is evidently true, even supposing "necessarily" so narrowly construed as
| to be truly applicable only to analytic statements. Then, if "bachelor"
| and "unmarried man" are interchangeable 'salva veritate', the result:
| (5) Necessarily all and only bachelors are unmarried men
| of putting "unmarried man" for an occurrence of "bachelor" in (4) must,
| like (4), be true. But to say that (5) is true is to say that (3) is
| analytic, and hence that "bachelor" and "unmarried man" are cognitively
| Let us see what there is about the above argument that gives it its air
| of hocus-pocus. The condition of interchangeability 'salva veritate'
| varies in its force with variations in the richness of the language
| at hand. The above argument supposes we are working with a language
| rich enough to contain the adverb "necessarily", this adverb being so
| construed as to yield truth when and only when applied to an analytic
| statement. But can we condone a language which contains such an adverb?
| Does the adverb really make sense? To suppose that it does is to suppose
| that we have already made satisfactory sense of "analytic". Then what are
| we so hard at work on right now?
| Our argument is not flatly circular, but something like it.
| It has the form, figuratively speaking, of a closed curve
| in space.
| Quine, "Two Dogmas", pp. 29-30.
| W.V. Quine,
|"Two Dogmas of Empiricism", 'Philosophical Review', January 1951.
| Reprinted as pages 20-46 in 'From a Logical Point of View',
| 2nd edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.