1940s -- World War II was the first time the US military actively sought out and dishonorably discharged homosexuals. Many who were discharged were processed out in San Francisco.
1948 -- Alfred Kinsey's "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" challenged beliefs about male sexuality, specifically homosexuality. His research found that 37% of American men had at least one post adolescent homosexual experience leading to orgasm and 4% were exclusively homosexual through adulthood. The Kinsey Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale defined a continuum in which zero was exclusively heterosexual and six was exclusively homosexual.
1950 -- The U.S. Congress establishes the Uniform Code of Military Justice which sets down the basic policies, discharge procedures and appeal channels for the disposition of homosexual service members.
1950-1951 -- Harry Hay, Chuck Rowland and others founded the Mattachine Society in Los Angeles, the first gay political organization (termed "homophile organization" during the 1950s). The San Francisco branch was established in 1953 and the Mattachine Review began publication in 1954.
1952 -- Congress enacts a law banning lesbian and gay foreigners from entering the United States. The legislation is not repealed until 1990.
1953 -- Dr. Evelyn Hooker, a psychologist, applies for a National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) grant to scientifically determine whether or not homosexuality is pathological. She obtains the grant and begins her research.
1954 -- "I Left My Heart In San Francisco" was written by a gay couple, Douglass Cross and his partner George Cory. Tony Bennett's recording in 1962 made the song famous.
1955 -- Phyllis Lyon and Del Martin along with three other lesbian couples founded the Daughters of Bilitis (DOB), the first lesbian organization. "The Ladder," the monthly magazine of DOB was published in October 1956. The 1st National Lesbian Conference was held in San Francisco in May 1960.
1956 -- Dr. Evelyn Hooker presents her paper "The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual" to the American Psychological Association (APA). Her study concluded there are no differences between the psychological adjustment of homosexual men versus heterosexual men. Her landmark psychological study of homosexuals paved the way for future research.
1955-1956 -- Beat generation poet Alan Ginsberg wrote "Howl," which contained gay sexual imagery. Lawrence Ferlinghetti, owner of City Lights bookstore in San Francisco was prosecuted on obscenity charges for publishing "Howl". Ferlinghetti was acquitted -- the ruling determined that material that has redeeming social importance is protected by the First and Fourteenth Ammendments to the U.S. Constitution.
1958 -- The Supreme Court ruled that "ONE" magazine, the publication of ONE, Inc., a homophile educational organization, founded in 1952 by members of the Mattachine Society, could be distributed through the mail.
November 24, 1958 -- KPFA-FM in Berkeley broadcasts "The Homosexual in Our Society" featuring Blanche Baker, an advice columnist for a homophile newsletter and Karl Bowman, former head of Langley-Porter Clinic.
1961 -- "The Rejected" aired on KQED TV 9, breaking the "conspiracy of silence" by discussing homosexuality. The program featured Margaret Mead, Dr. Evelyn Hooker, Carl Bowman, religious representatives, lawyers, and members of the Mattachine Society.
1961 -- The League for Civil Education (LCE), organized by Guy Strait, distributed first gay tabloid in SF, "Citizen News."
1961 -- José Sarria, waiter and drag performer at Black Cat Café who was notorious for satirizing local anti-gay politics, received 5,600 votes in his bid for San Francisco Board of Supervisors.
1961 -- The first San Francisco leather bar was called "Why Not?" Another leather bar opened soon after called the "Tool Box."
1961 -- Largest vice raid in San Francisco history took place at the Tay-Bush Inn, an after-hours club that served a mixed crowd. 81 men and 14 women were arrested- mostly gay, working-class and people of color.
1962 -- Tavern Guild, the first gay business association is formed by bar owners to fight discrimination by the liquor board and defend the rights of gay clientele.
1964 -- "Life" magazine runs a full-photo feature naming San Francisco the nation's "Gay Capital."
1964 -- The Big Glass on Fillmore opens -- first black-owned and African-American-oriented gay bar in SF.
1964-1965 -- In SF, the DOB and Mattachine supported Ted McIlvenna, a social worker at Glide Memorial Methodist Church, to organize The Council on Religion and the Homosexual (CRH). At the benefit costume New Year's Ball police showed up to harass guests by photographing them as they entered the ball and arrested CRH lawyers attempting to prevent police entrance without a search warrant. The ACLU took the case, the charges were dismissed and this incident became a turning point for the SF LGBT community's ability to get legal support against police harassment.
April, 1966 -- The SIR Center (Society for Individual Rights) opens in San Francisco, the first gay community center in North America.
May, 1966 -- A "Rally to Protest Exclusion of Homosexuals from the Armed Forces" occurred at the Federal Building in San Francisco.
August, 1966 -- At Compton Cafeteria, an all-night haunt in San Francisco's Tenderloin district, transgender prostitutes fought back against police harassment. The Compton Cafeteria riot was the first instance of queer resistance in the United States and is documented in the film Screaming Queens: The Origins of Transgender Activism in the U.S. (directed by Victor Silverman & Susan Stryker)
August 22, 1966 -- First national convention of gay and lesbian groups gather in San Francisco (originally called The National Planning Conference of Homophile Organizations) subsequently forming the North American Conference of Homophile Organizations (NACHO).
1966 -- Maud's Study, a lesbian bar opened by Rikki Streicher in the Haight. "Last Call at Maud's" is a documentary by Paris Poirer about the bar's history that is filmed on the closing night in 1989.
1967 -- The "Los Angeles Advocate" is published by Dick Michaels and his partner Bill Rand, of the Los Angeles activist group PRIDE. In 1969 Michaels and Rand renamed the paper "The Advocate" and began national distribution.
1967 -- The Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop, the oldest gay bookstore in the U.S. opens in New York City on Mercer Street. In 1973 the store relocates to Christopher and and Gay Street.
1967 -- In San Francisco, The "Circle of Loving Companions" is created and begins publishing a monthly called Vanguard.
1968 -- Metropolitan Community Churches (MCC), a fellowship of Christian Churches, was founded in Los Angeles by Rev Troy D. Perry to address the spiritual needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered community around the world. [ufmcc.com]
June 27, 1969 -- The eve of Judy Garland's funeral, the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City's Greenwich Village, was raided by the Public Morals section of the New York Police department. The police began arresting people, and the crowd outside the bar along with numerous drag queens and other patrons started to rebel. Violent confrontations with police ensued throughout the week to protest police harassment against the gay community. The stage for the Gay Pride Movement was set and the last weekend in June commemorates this historic uprising. The Stonewall Riot and Its Aftermath [columbia.edu]
1969 -- The CA Sodomy Repeal Bill (Consenting Adults Bill) was influenced by Metropolitan Community Church founder Rev. Troy Perry and introduced to the California legislature starting in 1969 by Assemblyman Willie Brown, and every year afterwards until its passage in 1975.
The first San Francisco Gay Pride Parade was on June 28, 1970 and was called "Gay In." The name and date for the event combined two significant events: the Stonewall Rebellion and the Human Be-In.
The gay equivalent to the Human Be-in, a Gathering of Tribes which took place in 1967 in Golden Gate Park to bring together various factions of SF-based counter culture. 30,000 people showed up to collectively search for social change and hear Timothy Leary speak the '60s mantra "Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out."
1973 -- Gay Freedom Day -- Parade Theme: A Celebration of the Gay Experience -- crowd estimate: 42,000.
Parade name changed to Gay Freedom Day, which would continue until 1981.
A rival party, the Festival of Gay Liberation, prompted the formation of the non-profit Pride Foundation to coordinate events.
The American Psychiatric Association removes the term 'homosexuality' from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Second Edition" (DSM-II), the official manual that lists all mental and emotional disorders.
In Alan and Susan Raymond's observational documentary (precursor to reality tv) series "An American Family"
Lance Loud, the oldest son surprised his family as well as PBS viewers by "coming out" as gay on national television.
The Pacific Center for Human Growth is founded. It was organized to provide services to the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning communities in the Bay Area.
The first issue of Journal of Homosexuality was published, edited by John De Cecco.
Charles Garfield founds Shanti Project to provide free volunteer counseling to people with life-threatening illnesses.
August -- Society of Janus was founded by Cynthia Slater and her partner Larry Olsen in San Francisco. Janus is the second oldest BDSM (Bondage/Dominance/Sadism/Masochism) group in the US, TES in New York City (founded in 1971) being the oldest.
May 14 -- U.S Representative Bella Abzug (D-N.Y.) introduced the first federal Gay civil rights bill after consultation with the National Gay Task Force. Abzug's bill called for amending the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 by adding the category of sexual orientation as a protected class. The House Judiciary Committee took no action on the bill in 1974 or in subsequent years when it was reintroduced.
1975 -- Gay Freedom Day -- Parade Theme: Join Us, The More Visible We Are, The Stronger We Become -- crowd estimate: 82,000.
The parade was the nation's largest gay pride parade to date. A significant number of women were in the parade for the first time.
CA sodomy law repealed.
Democratic state Senate Majority Leader, George Moscone -- running for Mayor of San Francisco -- was influential in repealing the state's sodomy law. The Senate deadlocked on a 20-20 vote, Moscone locked the chamber doors until Lieutenant Governor Mervyn Dymally could fly back from Denver and cast the tie-breaking vote. It was signed into law by Governor Jerry Brown.
The first county to prohibit job discrimination against gays and lesbians
was Santa Cruz County.
American Psychological Association (APA) passed a resolution supporting the 1973 decision by the American Psychiatric Association to remove the term 'homosexuality' from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Second Edition" (DSM-II), the official manual that lists all mental and emotional disorders.
Randy Burns and Barbara Cameron founded Gay American Indians in San Francisco.
1977 -- Gay Freedom Day -- Parade Theme: Gay Frontiers: Past Present, Future -- crowd estimate: 250,000.
Bryant's anti-gay campaign brought gay right into the public eye. The 1977 parade focused on the homophobia inherent in her "Save Our Children" campaign and the resultant anti-gay violence. A common chant was "We Are Your Children!"
Harvey Milk was the first openly gay politician to be elected to SF Board of Supervisors.
Joani Blank, sex therapist and educator, opens "Good Vibrations," to provide women with a "friendly, clean well-lighted alternative to conventional 'adult' book stores" where they could obtain accurate information about sex and good quality sex toys. [goodvibes.com]
1978 -- Gay Freedom Day -- Parade Theme: Come Out with Joy, Speak out for Justice -- crowd estimate: 240,000.
The 1978 SF Pride parade was significant -- it was the first year the parade was funded by the city and Harvey Milk rode in parade as the first openly gay elected official. A main political issue was protesting the Briggs Initiative which piggybacked on Anita Bryant's "Save Our Children" campaign by proposing that gay people should not be employed as teachers and teachers supporting gay rights would be at risk for losing their jobs.
The anti-gay initiative was defeated in the November election but on November 27, 1978 Supervisor Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone were murdered by Ex-Supervisor Dan White.
White had resigned his seat on the Board of Supervisors but had changed his mind after a meeting with the Police Officers' Association and Board of Realtors. He was attempting to get his position reinstated but Moscone denied his request after discussing the issue with Harvey Milk. White was the conservative swing vote that determined numerous board decisions and was also an active anti-gay spokesperson. Harvey emphasized Moscone's need for the gay vote since he was up for reelection the following year.
White was convicted of two counts of voluntary manslaughter rather than first-degree murder and was sent to prison for seven years and eight months. White's attorney argued the "Twinkie Defense," which claimed that White could not be held accountable for his actions due to the sugar high he was on from consuming cupcakes and drinking Coke all night before the murder. The night the verdict came out, May 21, 1979, became know as "White Night" as people outraged by the sentence rioted. Police cars were set on fire and City Hall was damaged. White was paroled after six years in prison and committed suicide.
Rabbi Allen Bennet allows himself to be outed in the San Francisco Examiner, making him the first openly gay rabbi.
This year included the first appearance of Rainbow Flag designed by Gilbert Baker.
The 8 colors represent:
HOT PINK = sex, RED = life, ORANGE = healing, YELLOW = sun, GREEN = serenity with nature, TURQUOISE = art, INDIGO = harmony, VIOLET = spirit
May 21 -- "White Night" riots erupted when the verdict came out, ruling that Dan White receive two counts of voluntary manslaughter rather than first-degree murder for killing Supervisor Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone.
"The Mayor of Castro Street: The Life and Times of Harvey Milk" by Randy Shilts [amazon.com]
The Radical Faeries are established when Harry Hay, a founder of the Mattachine Society, organizes a gathering of about two hundred men in the Arizona desert.
1980 -- Gay Freedom Day -- Parade Theme: Liberty and Justice for All -- crowd estimate: 250,000.
Political aspects of parade discouraged -- carnival rides in Civic Center.
Ken Horne, the first person with AIDS (PWA) reported to Center for Disease Control (CDC) with Karposi's sarcoma (KS).
KQED TV 9 produces and airs a documentary on BDSM (Bondage/Dominance/Sadism/Masochism) by Phil Bronstein called "One Foot Out of the Closet."
The Human Rights Campaign, a LGBT political organization, was founded to lobby Congress and educate the public on a wide array of topics affecting the LGBT community, including workplace, family and discrimination issues.
1981 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: Front Line of Freedom -- crowd estimate: 250,000.
Largest gay and lesbian gathering recorded in the world -- named changed to International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade.
Association of Lesbian/Gay Asians formed.
April 9 -- The first diagnosis of Kaposi?s Sarcoma in San Francisco occurs.
June & July -- CDC reports in the "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" of a cluster of pneumocistis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in Los Angeles and KS and PCP clusters in San Francisco, Los Angeles and New York.
December -- Bobbi Campbell "AIDS Poster Boy" publicaly discloses his illness in the "San Francisco Sentinel" and puts flyers describing "Gay Cancer" in Castro pharmacy window.
Bobbi was also Sister Florence Nightmare,R.N. in the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence and he was the first Person With AIDS (PWA) to go public by appearing on the cover of Newsweek magazine with his partner.
1982 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: Out of Many...One -- crowd estimate: 200,000.
Gay Games 1 (originally named Gay Olympic Games) August 28-September 5 in Kezar Stadium. Dr. Tom Waddell conceptualized that a Gay Olympics would confront gay and lesbian stereotypes and bridge the divisions existing within the LGBT community. He said, "The most important thing about the Games is the destruction of 'isms' like ageism, sexism, and racism." San Francisco Arts and Athletics (SFAA) had been created to put on the event. Three weeks before the opening, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) obtained an injunction in federal court prohibiting the use of the word "Olympic." SFAA appealed the Federal Court's injunction and a legal battle ensued. It was finally settled by the United States Supreme Court in a 5-4 decision in favor of the USOC in March, 1987.
Dykes on Bikes name is changed to SF Women's Motorcycle Contingent to be inclusive to all women who ride motorcycles and want to participate in the LGBT parade.
Canyon Sam is the first Asian to emcee the Gay Pride Celebration.
Only death at parade -- Darryl Kevin Anderson was run over by a float.
April -- The Kaposi's Sarcoma Research & Education Foundation is founded to educate the public about the KS. Marcus Conant, M.D. and Cleve Jones are among the organizers.
Bobbi Campbell and Dan Turner organize People With AIDS San Francisco, the first organization of, for, and by people with AIDS (and ARC).
1983 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: Strengthen the Ties, Break the Chains -- crowd estimate: 200,000.
AIDS primary focus of parade -- AIDS contingent leads parade.
May -- the first Candlelight March on AIDS is organized in San Francisco by Bobby Reynolds, Gary Walsh and Bobbi Campbell. This march was the first time PWAs marched behind a banner proclaiming what was to become the motto of the PWA self-empowerment movement: "FIGHTING FOR OUR LIVES."
BiPOL, the first and oldest bisexual political organization, forms in San Francisco. Founded on progressive feminist principles, BiPOL "educates, advocates, and agitates for bisexual rights, visibility and inclusion."
July 1 - National March for Lesbian & Gay Rights took place the day before the Democratic Convention. A major focus was protesting the lack of federal action to deal with AIDS.
BiPOL sponsors the first Bisexual Rights Rally outside the 1984 Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.
Pacific Friends founded as a social organization advocating friendship and cross-cultural understanding amongst gay Asians/Pacific Islanders, their partners and their friends.
First Folsom Street Fair -- A group of community organizers and housing activists organized the fair to make a political statement that there was a viable neighborhood South of Market and attempted to bring together all the diverse types of people living there. The dominance of the Leather community in the area turned the fair into an annual celebration of the SF S/M and fetish scene.
Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) was formed in New York to improve the public's attitude towards homosexuality by protesting the depiction of LGBT people in the media. GLAAD started by protesting "The New York Post's" sensationalized stories about AIDS and then created a chapter in LA (1988) to begin educating the entertainment industry on the importance of creating realistic portrayals of LGBT people in film and on TV.
The Times of Harvey Milk directed by Robert Epstein was the first gay-Parade Themed film to win an Academy Award. [tellingpictures.com]
1986 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: Forward Together, No Turning Back -- crowd estimate: 100,000.
First US Senator to speak at a gay celebration: Sen. Alan Cranston.
BiPOL's Autumn Courtney is elected co-chair of San Francisco's Lesbian Gay Freedom Day Pride Parade Committee.
Proposition 64 defeated- Lyndon LaRouche sponsored Prop 64 to quarantine people with AIDS.
Nation's Sodomy Law upheld.
In 1986 Bowers v. Hardwick was decided by the US Supreme Court. The 5-4 decision found that nothing in the Constitution "would extend a fundamental right to homosexuals to engage in acts of consensual sodomy."
Black Coalition on AIDS, Inc. (BCA) was founded in 1986 to "address the fact that there were no agencies available to provide culturally sensitive services to Blacks infected with, or affected by, HIV/AIDS."
1987 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: Proud, Strong, United -- crowd estimate: 275,000.
First International Signs in 17 different foreign languages.
Supreme Court Rules 5-4 against using name Gay Olympics.
In 1982 the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) obtained an injunction in federal court prohibiting the use of the word "Olympic." The motivation behind the injunction appeared suspiciously homophobic since the USOC had not sued the Police Olympics, the Special Olympics and other events utilizing the word "Olympics" in the title. SFAA appealed the Federal Court's injunction and a legal battle ensued. It was finally settled by the United States Supreme Court in a 5-4 decision in favor of the USOC in March 1987. Dr. Tom Waddell, the founder of the Gay Games died of AIDS in July 1987.
Approximately two thousand same sex couples are 'married' in a mass wedding on the steps of the Internal Revenue Service in Washington, DC, on October 10. The ceremony is part of the 1987 March on Washington activities dramatizing the tax benefits for married people that lesbian and gay couples are denied.
A contingent of 75 bisexuals marches in the 1987 March on Washington. This event proves to be the first nationwide bisexual gathering. From this gathering, the first national bisexual organization, The North American Bisexual Network (NABN -- becomes BiNet USA) is formed.
More than 6,000 walkers participate in the first AIDS Walk San Francisco, providing funds for eight benefiting organizations.
Names Project founded by Cleve Jones, Mike Smith and others. On October 11 the AIDS Quilt was displayed for the first time on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., during the second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. In 1987 there were 1,920 panels displayed.
National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR) created the legal mechanism of second-parent adoption and won the first second-parent adoption in the nation in 1987. [nclrights.org]
AIDS Action Coalition organized -- demonstrated a more militant form of activism.
1988 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: Rightfully Proud
The first time a mayor is in the parade -- Mayor Art Agnos.
The parade started in the Castro.
Southern California Representative William Dannemyer sponsored Proposition 102, which would have required mandatory reporting of HIV positive people to the state government.
ACT-UP SF (AIDS Coalition To Unleash Power) formed out of AIDS Action Coalition
Gay Asian Pacific Alliance (GAPA) began as a men?s support group at the Pacific Center. It was first Asian/Pacific Islander-only gay men?s group in the Bay Area and begins publishing its newsletter "Lavender Dragon." [gapa.org]
Asian Pacific Sisters (APS) forms and organizes the first Asian/Pacific Islander lesbian contingent in the Gay Pride Parade with a banner ?For the Love of Women? written in English, Chinese, Tagalog, Hawaiian and Vietnamese.
Tony Kushner's Pulitzer prize-winning two-part play "Angels in America" was commissioned by the Eureka Theatre.
July -- Boy/Girl With Arms Akimbo was organized as a collective of cultural activists staging non-violent protests using creative tactics that were founded upon intellectual subversion and visual intervention.
1990 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: The Future Is Ours
July 18 - Queer Nation founded and "dedicated to confronting society's bigotry, discrimination, violence and misinformation." The name "Queer" was reclaimed to be inclusive to all groups and represented a new form of activism. The organization used provocative demonstrations to support the fight against AIDS and homophobia.
November -- Domestic Partner registry established in SF.
The American Psychological Association stated that scientific evidence does not show that conversion therapy works to change one's sexual orientation (from homosexual to heterosexual) and that it can do more harm than good. [apa.org]
BiPOL sponsors the first National Bisexual Conference in San Francisco. More than 450 people attend from 20 states and 5 countries. The North American Bisexual Network (NABN) is formalized as the North American Multicultural Bisexual Network (NAMBN) at this first meeting of its members.
1991 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: Hand In Hand Together
February 14 -- Valentine's Day -- Over 275 gay and lesbian couples registered as domestic partners at SF City Hall when the domestic partner referendum went into effect.
July -- SF City and County offered domestic partner benefits to employees
September 29 -- Governor Pete Wilson vetoed gay rights bill AB101 -- a law banning employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
KQED was the first station in the country to air Marlon Riggs' Tongues Untied, a film that looks at the lives of black gay men to and examines the homophobia and racism affecting gay African-Americans. [current.org]
KQED airs Stop the Church, a controversial documentary produced by Robert Hilferty about the planning and demonstration in December 1989 at St. Patrick's Cathedral held by ACT-UP, the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power. [current.org]
The Bay Area Bisexual Network begins publishing the first and only national bisexual quarterly magazine, Anything That Moves: Beyond The Myths of Bisexuality.
David Spada, a New York designer designs Freedom Rings, a necklace of anodized aluminum rings in the colors of the rainbow flag strung on a chain.
Dr. Simon LeVay published a report in "Science" on differences in brain structure between heterosexual and homosexual men.
1992 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: A Simple Matter Of Justice
Two lesbians were elected to the Board of Supervisors in 1992, Roberta Achtenberg and Carole Migden.
Transgender Nation was organized in 1992 by Anne Ogborn. TN focused on transphobia inherent in the gay and lesbian community and demonstrated at the 1993 meeting of the American Psychological Association (APA) at the Moscone Center to protest the labeling of transexuality as pathological.
The Deaf & Gay Lesbian Center (DGLC) was established in March 1992, by Deaf Counseling, Advocacy, and Referral Agency (DCARA) and the United Way of San Francisco, to serve the needs of the Deaf and hard-of-hearing gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities.
Presidential candidate Bill Clinton promises, if elected, to repeal the military's ban on gay and lesbian service members.
Digital Queers was founded by Tom Rielly and Karen Wickre to bring the gay rights movement into the digital age by applying the powerful tools of high-technology to regional, state, and national grassroots organizations. PlanetOut, the online LGBT community, evolved out of Digital Queers in 1995.
1993 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: Year Of The Queer -- crowd estimate: 400,000 - 500,000.
Former SF Supervisor Roberta Achtenberg becomes the highest-ranking open lesbian to serve in the federal government by being appointed Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity by President Clinton.
The SF chapter of the Lesbian Avengers sponsors the first annual Dyke March -- slogan "We're not waiting for the Rapture, We are the Apocalypse." [dykemarch.org]
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Pursue" is the compromised policy that was instituted to deal with the ban on gays and lesbians in the military. Military personnel would not be asked about their sexual orientation and would not be discharged simply for being gay. Engaging in sexual conduct with a member of the same sex, however, would still constitute grounds for discharge.
BiPOL (San Francisco) mobilizes a successful nationwide lobbying campaign for visible bisexual inclusion in the March on Washington. As a result, for the first time bisexuals are included in the title of the March and are represented on the stage by bisexual activist and author Lani Ka'ahumanu.
1994 -- International Lesbian & Gay Freedom Day Parade -- Parade Theme: San Francisco to Stonewall: Pride & Protest
Stonewall 25 celebration in NYC to commemorate the 1969 Stonewall Rebellion -- Gay Games IV coincided with the 25th anniversary event.
First constitutional challenge to the military's policy -- Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund and the American Civil Liberties Union bring a lawsuit in federal court on behalf of six lesbian and gay service members. U.S. District Court Judge Thomas S. Zilly orders the Army to reinstate Colonel Margarethe Cammermeyer to the National Guard.
Armistead Maupin's 6-hour "Tales of the City" was one of the most-watched series of the '90s on KQED TV 9.
The Harvey Milk Institute, a non-profit community-based institution is founded to provide education about the LGBTQ culture and community.
Tom Ammiano, "The Mother of Gay Comedy," is elected to SF Board of Supervisors -- 1990 elected to San Francisco Board of Education -- where he served terms as president and vice president, he was the main architect of San Francisco Domestic Partners Ordinance (1997) which provides equal benefits for employees of companies that contract with the City and County of San Francisco, he ran for mayor of SF against Willie Brown in 1999, came in second, and in 2002 is the President of the SF Board of Supervisors.
1997 -- San Francisco Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Trangender Pride Celebration -- Parade Theme: One Community Many Faces
June 1 -- San Francisco's domestic partnership law went into effect and required companies holding contracts with the city of San Francisco to offer the same benefits to unmarried domestic partners that are offered to the spouses of married employees.
April 30 -- Ellen DeGeneres' character Ellen Morgan "comes out of the closet" as a lesbian on her TV show "Ellen." Historically, she became the first gay leading character to be out in a TV program.
1998 -- San Francisco Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Trangender Pride Celebration -- Parade Theme: Shakin' It Up
Celebration at the Civic Center.
President Clinton signed an executive order outlawing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in the Executive branch.
California's Hate Crime Legislation: AB 1999 [pdf file] was passed, California law punishes as a misdemeanor a person who uses force against any person because of that person's actual or perceived race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, disability, gender, or sexual orientation. AB 1999 clarified that a violent crime committed against a transgender person because of their gender identity is a hate crime based on gender under California law.
June 12 -- "The Castro" documentary airs on KQED TV 9 during LGBT Pride Month.
October 6 -- Matthew Shepard is murdered in a gay hate crime. His death sparks nationwide vigils and support for hate crimes legislation to protect the LGBT community.
Governor Gray Davis signs three civil rights bills supporting the LGBT Community:
CA Domestic Partner law (AB 26) authored by Assemblywoman Carole Migden and signed into law by Governor Gray Davis. California became the second state in the union to legally recognize same sex relationships -- providing hospital visitation rights, health insurance coverage for public employees, and a registry in the Secretary of State's office.
AB 537, prohibits discrimination and harassment of public school students who are perceived to be gay or lesbian.
AB 1001, sexual orientation is added to the Fair Employment and Housing Act, prohibiting discrimination in housing and employment based on sexual orientation.
KQED airs "It's Elementary - Talking About Gay Issues in School," created by Academy Award-winning director Debra Chasnoff and producer Helen S. Cohen. The film discusses what really happens when educators address gay issues with their students in age-appropriate ways.
The "Limit On Marriage Initiative," known as the Knight Initiative, passed on March 7, and amended California law to require the state to discriminate against gay people's lawful marriages while nevertheless recognizing all other out-of-state marriages. [library.ucla.edu]
July 1 -- "Vermont became the first state in the country to legally recognize civil unions between gay or lesbian couples. Building on a state Supreme Court decision in Dec. 1999, which ruled that denying gay couples the benefits of marriage was unconstitutional discrimination, the ground-breaking law grants the same state benefits, civil rights, and protections to same-sex couples as to married couples."
2001 -- San Francisco Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Trangender Pride Celebration -- Parade Theme: Queerific -- crowd estimate: 1,000,000.
First-ever queer Moslem contingent (Al-Fathia Foundation) in any Pride Parade anywhere in the world.
The event was profitable, a record $110k granted back to more than 30 community organizations.
The B-52's, Dana International and Ultra Nate performed at the celebration. The first women's stage - Nectar -- highlighted this event.
Breaking with the precedent established by Bill Clinton, President George W. Bush did not issue a proclamation naming June "Gay Pride Month."
White House spokesman Scott McClellan explained, "The president believes every person should be treated with dignity and respect but he does not believe in politicizing people's sexual orientation. That's a personal matter."
City of SF grants insurance coverage to city and county employees who are transgendered for sex reassignment procedures.
PlanetOut, the online LGBT community, evolved out of Digital Queers.
PlanetOut Corp. merged with Online Partners, the parent company of Gay.com, in 2001 to become PlanetOut Partners, the largest online company providing services to the LGBT community.
October -- Governor Gray Davis signed the Domestic Partner Benefits Expansion Act (AB 25) drafted by Assemblywoman Carole Migden into law. This act extended protections for domestic partners in California. Some additions to the original 1999 bill include the right to recover wrongful death/emotional distress damages (Sharon Smith/Diane Whipple case) and adopt a partner?s child using the step parent adoption process.
KQED Honors Local LGBT Heroes 2001:
Betty and Tom McCall -- Parents, Families & Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG)
Barbara McCullough-Jones -- Billy DeFrank Lesbian and Gay Community Center
Sal Rosselli, President -- Health Care Workers Union, SEIU Local 250
Kevin Schaub -- Harvey Milk Institute
Hal Seip -- New Leaf Outreach to Elders
Susan Stryker -- Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society
May 19 -- SF AIDS Candlelight Vigil -- continuing the tradition of the first AIDS Candlelight March which took place on May 2, 1983. The orignal banner motto "Fighting For Our Lives" with the word "Still" tacked on was carried from the Castro to the Civic Center.
June 3 -- KQED Public Broadcasting became the first public broadcasting organization to receive GLAAD's Pioneer Award. This award is granted to an individual or organization that has contributed significantly to raising the visibility of the LGBT communities.
June 17 -- Canada's Cabinet approved gay marriages--House of Commons expected to pass it into law before the end of the year. Canada will be the third country to legalize same-sex unions along with the Netherlands and Belgium. Canada does not have residency requirements for marriage and will provide the opportunity for people from other countries to get legally married.
Lifetime achievement grand marshal: Troy Perry
Individual grand marshal: Calvin Gipson
Organization grand marshal: Immigration Equality
Pink Brick: General John Ashcroft
February 12 -- First Same-Sex Couple married in United States
History was made at 11:06am February 12, 2004 at San Francisco City Hall when Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon took their wedding vows, becoming the first same-sex couple to be officially married in the United States.
May 17 -- Same-Sex Couples Marry in Massachusetts
Massachusetts becomes the first state in the United States to grant same-sexed couples the legal right to marry. Tanya McCloskey, 52, and Marcia Kadish, 56, of Malden were the first to marry at 9:15am in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
August 12 -- TOP STATE COURT VOIDS S.F.'S GAY MARRIAGES
A MAYOR OVERRULED: Newsom found to violate California law by issuing same-sex licenses
The California Supreme Court ruled that Mayor Gavin Newsom defied state law defining marriage as between a man and a woman. The ruling also declared that the 3,955 couples who got married were never legally married and are not entitled to rights of spouses. The next step for advocates of same-sex marriage is to challenge the constitutionality of the state's marriage law.
December 9 -- Top court in Canada OKs gay marriage
In a landmark decision, Canada's Supreme Court ruled that the government can legally extend marriage rights to same-sex couples. The court did not say the Constitution required the legalization of same-sex marriage.
Celebrity Grand Marshals:
Alec Mapa Community Grand Marshals:
Donna Sachet Organizational Grand Marshal:
PAWS (Pets are Wonderful Support) Lifetime Achievement Grand Marshal:
José Saria Pink Brick:
Sen. Diane Feinstein
June 16 -- KQED's Celebration of LGBT Pride Month -- Honoring Local LGBT Heroes
Dr. Jack Collins -- City College of San Francisco
Madeleine Lim -- Queer Women of Color Media Arts Project
Camille Maran -- San Francisco LGBT Community Center
Pat Norman -- The Institute for Community Health Outreach
Celebrity Grand Marshal:
Jennifer Beals Lifetime Achievement Grand Marshal:
Sgt. Elliot Blackstone Community Grand Marshals:
Dr. Kathleen McGuire
Lancy Woo and Cristy Chung
Organizational Grand Marshal:
The Billy deFrank LGBT Center of San Jose Lifetime Achievement Grand Marshal:
José Saria Pink Brick:
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger