User:Iopq/Slovjanskaj/Grammar

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Contents

Word Structure

Words in Slovjanskaj have four components:

  • Prefix - a possible derivational affix in the beginning of the word
  • Root - the basic form of a word
  • Derivational suffixes - zero or more affixes that attach to the root and other derivational suffixes
  • Inflectional suffix - the inflectional affix at the end of the word

Example:
pri-sposob-it-n-aj

  • pri- is the prefix
  • sposob is the root (method)
  • -it- is the derivational suffix to make a noun into a verb (to do __)
  • -n- is the derivational suffix to make a verb into an adjective (of __'s quality)
  • -aj is the inflectional suffix to signify that this is an adjective

sposob means method.
prisposobit would be of adapt; note that Slavic languages use prefixes to change the meaning of the word substantially.
prisposobitnaj would then mean adaptable.


Sentence structure

Slovjanskaj has an almost free word order using prepositions. The prepositional system replaces the cases in other Slavic languages, by using prepositions instead of the other cases. There is no grammatical gender in Slovjanskaj, only natural gender for people and animals.

Natural Gender

The base form of the noun is unspecified gender. This form should be used when the speaker doesn't care about the gender or doesn't know.

  • Kot - cat (unspecified gender)
  • Pes - dog (unspecified gender)

Male Form

The male form adds the derivational suffix -ik. The diminuative form is formed with -ičik. Some nouns only have the male form because they are by definition male.

  • Kotik - male cat
  • Kotičik - male cat (dim.)
  • Pesik - male dog
  • Pesičik - male dog (dim.)
  • Mužik - man
  • Mužičik - man (dim.)

Female Form

The female form adds the derivational suffix -k and the inflectional suffix -a. The diminuative form is formed with -ic-a. Some nouns only have the female form because they by definition female.

  • Kotka - female cat
  • Kotica - female cat (dim.)
  • Peska - female dog
  • Pesica - female dog (dim.)
  • Ženka - woman
  • Ženica - woman (dim.)

Nouns

The singular nouns have either no inflectional suffix or -o, -e, or -a.
Examples:

  • Nos - nose
  • Milo - soap
  • More - sea
  • Kniga - book

Plural

The plural is formed by changing the inflectional suffix of a noun to -i/-a. -i instead of null or -a inflectonal suffix, -a instead of -o or -e.
Examples:

  • Mužik/mužiki - man/men
  • Ženka/ženki - woman/women
  • Oblako/oblaka - cloud/clouds
  • More/Mora - sea/seas

Prepositions

Prepositions always precede the noun clause they modify.
Accusative preposition is tu:

  • Tu mjaso ja jedat/Ja jedat tu mjaso. - I ate the meat.

Before a plural it is te:

  • Te smelaj povesti - those brave tales

Genitive preposition is ot:

  • Noga ot pes - leg of dog

Dative preposition is da:

  • Ja dat da moj sestra kniga. - I gave my sister the book.

Instrumental preposition is tem:

  • Ja mlotit tem mlotok tu gvozd. - I hammered the nail with the hammer.

Before a plural it is teme:

  • Teme staraj slovi - using old words