For the convenience of the reader, the books
showing linked titles, below, can be purchased directly from Amazon.com.
Those books which I found personally indispensable are marked in
bold-faced type, although all are recommended.
Anthony A. Barrett, Agrippina:
Sex, Power and Politics in the Early Empire, Yale University
Florence Dupont, Daily
Life in Ancient Rome, Blackwell Publishers, Ltd., 1991,
Elaine Fantham, Women
in the Classical World: Image and Text, Oxford University
Jane F. Gardner and Thomas Wiedemann, The
Roman Household: A Sourcebook, Routledge, 1991.
Richard Hawley and Barbara Levick, Women
in Antiquity : New Assessments, Routledge, 1995.
I Claudia, ed. Diane E.E. Kleiner and
Susan B. Matheson, University of Texas Press, 1996. This outstanding
book is, amazingly, difficult to obtain and can be found online
at used book sources like ALibris and ABE.
I Claudia II: Women in
Roman Art, ed. Diane E.E. Kleiner and Susan B. Matheson,
University of Texas Press, 2000.
A humorous, but informative and interesting,
collection of biographical sketches of known women in the ancient
world is Vicki Leon's Uppity
Women of Ancient Times, MJF Books, 1995.
Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant, Women's
Life in Greece and Rome : A Sourcebook in Translation,
(2nd.ed., Baltimore 1992).
Marjorie Lightman and Benjamin Lightman, Biographical
Dictionary of Ancient Greek and Roman Women, Checkmark Books,
Sarah Pomeroy, Goddesses,
Whores, Wives, and Slaves :Women in Classical Antiquity,
Schocken Books, Inc., 1975, 1995.
Plutarch, History of Rome: Life of
Gaius Gracchus; Life of Tiberius Gracchus, issued under title
of Rome : Nine Lives by Plutarch (Penguin Edition),
trans. Ian Scott-Kilvert, 1965.
Valerius Maximus, Valerius
Maximus : Memorable Doings and Sayings (Books I-V),
trans. D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Loeb Classical Library 492, 2000.
Paule Veyne, Ed., History
of Private Life : From Pagan Rome to Byzantium, Belknap
Press of Harvard University Press, 1987.
Primary resources for this web site are shown here; special links
pertaining to a given subject of one of the subheadings is acknowledged
on that page.
A preeminent, comprehensive, scholarly site
on the Internet for classical women's studies is Diotima.
A marvelous online source for Roman literature
related to women (through Diotima) is the permitted use of copyrighted
material from the Lefkowitz/Fant sourcebook listed under this Bibliography,
Life in Greece and Rome.
Extremely useful links on multiple aspects
of Roman women may be found at The
Internet Women's History Sourcebook.
Original source materials on Rome (and Roman
women) are available at The
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook (Rome).
History Internet Resources has a wealth of useful material under
the subheading Women
in the Ancient World.
Many useful links on various related subjects
may be found at About's Ancient/Classical
History site on women.
Two of my favorite sites for innumerable details
concerning the intimate daily lives of Roman women, from clothing
to furniture to religious observance, are Villa
Julilla and Lady
Roman Marriage contains many interesting details on how Roman
women tied the knot, with the fascination realization that many
Roman wedding customs are still in western use today.
Excellent images and text concerning Roman art
and daily life may be found at Kathryn Andrus' site for the University
of Colorado, Roman Art and
An interesting look at Roman erotic art - and,
of necessity, the women in it - may be found at The
Erotic Art of Ancient Rome.
Fascinating images (including many from the
woman's world) from Pompeii are shown at John Hauser's
Images of History: Pompeii. Additional images (many of which
are used as lead-ins for this site) are found at the University
of Texas at Austin's Pompeii
The Fayum portraits*, so called because the
dry heat of that area in northern Africa has presumed funerary memorial
portraits for 2,000 years with eery personality, have several excellent
sites on the web. Among these: Images
from History/Roman Africa, an extraordinary Greek symposium
in 1998, "From
the Fayum Portraits to Early Byzantine Icon Painting," (which
is in Greek, but the images speak for themselves), and World
Art Treasures/Berger Foundation.
For those interested in Clodia and Catullus,
a marvelous selections of poems in Latin and English, as well as
biographical information about Catullus and his friends, may be
found at VROMA/Catullus.
General Roman History
A wonderful resource for the history of Roman
Emperors and many other aspects of Roman life may be found at De
Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors.
The excellent biography of Hypatia and many
other relevant aspects of Roman life may be found at James Grout's
Romana (see "Notae" and "Nexus").
Although not, of course, a woman of Rome, I've
been asked why Cleopatra was not included in this survey; partially
because there are already many excellent sites focused on this Egyptian
queen who so impacted Roman history, including the biography and
links at RoyaltyNu:
My favorite source for links on many aspects of the life of
Greek (as well as multicultural) women may be found at the Internet
Women's History Sourcebook.
A good general resource (including information on family and home
life) may be found at The
Ancient Greek World.
Greek source materials from the original historians are available
at the Internet
Ancient History Sourcebook (Greece).
A site detailing many aspects of Etruscan life
(including the perceived immorality of women) may be found at The
the Fayum Portraits: of all the extraordinary images of Roman
women I have used for this site, those in the encaustic technique
known as the "Fayum Portraits" are often the most hauntingly
realistic. I thought a note on the technique might interest the
reader. The portraits are painted on wood or cloth and were wrapped
atop the faces of mummies in the Roman Province of northern Africa
from roughly the 1st through 4th centuries AD. Encaustic painting
is a very old technique using molten hot wax added with pigments,
first used by ancient Egyptians and Greeks. To keep the colored
wax in a liquefied state it was presumably held above a charcoal
fire. The hot wax was, it is thought, applied to wooden panels
with the addition of various resins and gums added to help the
beeswax dry and to obtain a harder, more lasting surface. The
Romans adapted this technique from the Greeks when both Greece
and Africa were provinces of the Empire. Since the 19th century,
many of these marvelously preserved images have been found at
various sites near an oasis called Fayum, which is located about
100 kilometers south of Cairo. Worldwide exhibitions have been
sponsored by museums like the British Museum, the Louvre, the
Metropolitan Museum, and others. A wonderful (if expensive) new
book on these images is now available, The Mysterious Fayum Portraits:
Faces from Ancient Egypt (Euphrosyne Doxiadis; Foreword by Dorothy