William A. Malek and Associates
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Ideas on Teams and Teamwork

(c) Copyright IBM Corp. 1993. All rights reserved.
In Canada, (c) IBM Canada Ltd. 1993.
Permission to copy for non-commercial use.

1992 Annual Leadership Development Handout
Length: 38 pages
Compiled by Bob Willard
IBM Canada Leadership Development

Table of Contents


·Leaders vs. Managers
·Share Information
·Encourage "Volunteerism" and Self-Control
·Empower Others
·Use Participative Management
TEAMWORK & TEAMS ·Teamwork ... Collaboration vs Competition
·Teams and Organizational Culture
·Characteristics of Effective Teams
·Team-Player Styles
·Signs of Trouble in Teams
·The Abilene Paradox ... Fear of Isolation --> Agreement
EMPOWERED TEAMS ·What Empowered Teams Are
·The Benefits of Empowered Teams
·Empowered Teams Require Training
·Stages of Empowered Team Evolution
·The Manager's Role in a Empowered Team
·Keys to Success with Empowered Teams
·How to Get Started With Empowered Teams


·Empowered Team Books
·Teamwork Material: Practical Tips & Team-Building Exercises

"Why doesn't someone pull all the good ideas out of the books on Teams, and help us by organizing them by topic?" This document is intended to help answer this plea. 

Although there are ideas from 40 books in this, it is just the beginning. There are more books and certainly more good ideas in each of the ones referenced here. Use this document as a "quick study" on teams, and use the annotated bibliography in the Appendix: Recommended Books on Teams as a guide to further reading. 


  1. These are selected ideas, not "Reader's Digest" summaries. 
  2. There are some ideas that conflict with each other or with the way we are doing things ... that's what makes them thought-provoking. 
  3. There is also some redundancy of ideas in each section, to reinforce that multiple authors support them. 
  4. Several ideas could easily be categorized in other subsections than the one in which they are shown here. That reinforces how intertwined all of these ideas are. 
  5. The highlighted quotes are ones that are used as charts during the 1992 ALD classes. 
If you have ideas on how to improve this document, please send them to Bob Willard at TOROVM1(WILLARD), if you have access to IBM's internal e-mail system, or rgwilla@ibm.net 


The books, articles, etc are footnoted as shown in the following list. The books are listed alphabetically, by footnote abbreviation. For more formal information about the books, see the Bibliography at the end of this document which lists them alphabetically by author. 

Footnotes Book and Author
(ET) EMPOWERED TEAMS (Wellins, Byham & Wilson)
(FLOW) FLOW (Csikszentmihalyi)
(LESS) THE LESSONS OF EXPERIENCE (McCall, Lombardo, Morrison)
(MB) MALCOLM BALDRIGE AWARD (1991 Application Guidelines)
(SA) SERVICE AMERICA (Albrecht & Zemke)
(SHIN) SHINANO! (Enright & Ryan)
(SDWT) SELF-DIRECTED WORK TEAMS (Orsburn, Moran, Musselwhite, and Zenger)
(ZAPP) ZAPP! (Byham & Cox)
(Other) Person or article indicated


Leaders vs. Managers

    • Akers: "Real leadership means 'letting go' and creating room for people to apply their energy, creativity, and intelligence" (IBM Management Report, 7/91) 
    • Train alter egos - people who act in the absence of credible role models (ELPH) 
    • A Leaders's skill is best rated "not by how smoothly things run while you're there, but how well they go after you have left" (FEM) 
    • "The ant army is in charge" (SW) 
    • Peter Drucker: "Most of what we call management consists of making it difficult for people to get their jobs done" (SW) 
    • GE's Jack Welch: "Managers will be people who are comfortable facilitating, greasing, finding ways to make it all seamless, not controllers and directors ... we've got to take out the boss element" (Fortune, 8/91) 
    • Deming's 7th Point (of his 14 Points): Institute leadership (Training, 3/91) 
    • The critical roles of leaders: designer, teacher, and steward (Peter Senge, Sloan Management Review, Fall 1990) 
    • "The new leader is a facilitator, not an order giver" (John Naisbitt) 
    • "Managers should persuade, not order" (CHNG) 
    • The "Carpenter's Lament": "'Oh, darn. I cut it off again and it's still too short!' Executives too much committed to top-down control in a company are like the carpenter. If their company performs poorly, they tighten up. If things get worse, they tighten up more. They never seem to notice that the problem may be that they were too tight in the first place" (ROC) 
    • "Leading by persuasion is critical" (LESS) 
    • Cylinder 6: Coaching Skills (FOAC) 
    • Deming's 14th Point (of his 14 Points): Everybody in the company must work to accomplish the transformation. (Training, 3/91) 
    • The leader as gardener, "watering the flowers, helping them flourish and grow" (FEM) 
    • The Post-Heroic Manager: "asks how every problem can be solved in a way that develops other people's capacity to handle it. It is not virtuous to do it this way, it is essential ... the post-heroic leader lives vicariously, getting kicks out of other people's successes - as old-fashioned teachers have always done" (AGE) 
    • "Working with and through other people lies at the very heart of management" (LESS) 
    • "Leadership has to be endemic in organizations, the fashion not the exception. Everyone with pretensions to be anyone must begin to think and act like a leader" (AGE) 
    • One of the 10 Fatal Flaws of Managers: "Insensitivity to others; an abrasive, intimidating, bullying style" (LESS) 
Share Information
    • Employees are winning access to knowledge once monopolized by management. As knowledge is redistributed, so, too, is the power based on it. Power is shifting not because of fuzzy-minded do-goodism, but because it is essential for survival. Employees aren't made to FEEL important, they ARE important (POW) 
    • "Access to pertinent information is essential to getting the job done. The right to know is basic. Moreover, it is better to err on the side of sharing too much information than risk leaving someone in the dark. Information is power, but it is pointless power if hoarded" (ART) 
    • "An individual without information cannot take responsibility; an individual who is given information cannot help but take responsibility" (MOT) 
    • Jack Welch: "Everyone in the same room, everyone with the same information, everyone buying into the targets; the problem is we don't get the same information; complications arise when people are cut off from the information they need" (HBR, 10/89) 
    • "Successful managers shared information across units and functions, even information that their subordinates seemingly didn't need to know to do their jobs" (LESS) 
    • The Myths that "People Should Not Be Given Too Much Information": (DSWT) 
      • It'll upset people and make them worry. 
      • People need to concentrate on their jobs and not about what is going on around them 
      • If I level with people they might start levelling with me. 
      • If anyone really wanted to know something, it's their job to find out. 
    • In the super-symbolic economy, it is knowledge ABOUT knowledge that counts most (POW) 
    • "The fundamental 'information problem' faced by managers is not too little information but too much information. What we most need are ways to know what is important and what is not important" (5D) 
Encourage "Volunteerism" and Self-Control
    • Encourage, nurture and reward "volunteerism" (FOAC) 
    • "The best people working for organizations are like volunteers ... volunteers don't need contracts, they need covenants" (ART) 
    • 3rd Ring (Enhanced) Service can only be delivered voluntarily by committed front-line employees (FOAC) 
    • "The best way to tear something down and build it back up was to get others committed to the changes" (LESS) 
    • "When everybody has a chance to learn, grow, and achieve, when mistakes become okay, when a lot of people get in on the action, there is a great deal of control in the system - self-control. It's the strongest kind, but it can't be bought, legislated, or behavior-scienced in" (PW) 
    • "The best control is self-control ... the most effective control systems were self-induced and knowledge-based. They were found where you'd least expect them - inside all people caught up in their own work and committed to a common task" (PW) 
    • "People have to decide to be superior - they cannot be controlled or coerced into being superior" (DSWT) 
    • "Most people indicate that they could give 15-20% more or less effort in their jobs and nobody would know the difference - especially their supervisors" (DSWT) 
    • Trist: "External control may correct errors, but only internal supervision can prevent their occurrence" (PW) 
    • Trist: "Work groups with the power to manage themselves and to make decisions are more productive and are better able to cope with change in the work place." (PRIM) 
Empower Others
    • "The degree to which the opportunity to use power effectively is granted to or withheld from individuals is one operative difference between those companies which stagnate and those which innovate" (CHNG) 
    • Empowering Conditions: "mutual respect, cooperation, open communication, and crosscutting ties" (CHNG) 
    • "To be empowered means to believe that you have responsibility, authority and power ... empower yourself!" (PROF) 
    • Myth #1: Authority = Responsibility ... "the reality is that most managers are charged with responsibility while lacking the authority needed to carry it out" (Business Horizons, 3/91) 
    • Myth #2: The Absoluteness of Responsibility ... "more often than not, managers refuse to take responsibility for actions of subordinates if such action is severely detrimental to the image of the organization or the career of the manager" (Business Horizons, 3/91) 
    • "Task specificity by the leader should be contingent on the followers' task-relevant maturity, defined as their willingness to do and knowledge about the task." (Business Horizons, 3/91) 
    • The Empowerment Spectrum: (PROF) 
      1. "Victim": things happen to them by 'those people out there'; low motivation; low self-esteem; go with the flow; "why bother, it's hopeless" 
      2. Passive Empowerment: feel their power will come from their next promotion; motivated by the promise of being given more power in next job; "if only ..."; "my day will come" 
      3. Active Empowerment: "I can make a positive difference"; working on how to take the initiative and influence others 
      4. High Active Empowerment: Committed to influencing organizations, people, and events and ACTS on this commitment; take balanced risks; use their position descriptions as guides, not constraints;"What can I do to make my company and me more successful?" 
    • Power is an "expandable pie" (TLC) 
    • Empowerment ... inverted pyramid ... unshackle people (TCS) 
    • Empowerment ... to do the right things (CTSC: rEach) 
    • "I protected my backside and went by the book. The result was I lost an incredible opportunity to sink a Japanese carrier" (SHIN) 
    • "You must give people authority far out on the line where the action is (MOT) 
    • "There was a constant awareness that they were 'the man on the spot, strengthened with information personally observed and in a far better position to take appropriate action than a desk-bound officer hundreds of miles away'. The authority for the final decision was in their hands, and they would exercise it to the fullest ... I came to realize that I was expected to think for myself ... I would make mistakes ... 'the book' can only guide you ... Admiral Lockwood would have backed me 100% if he believed that I acted on the best information available" (SHIN) 
    • "When it is the interests of the people involved, and they are given genuine opportunity and power, they can be committed to find the time to contribute to solving organizational problems" (CHNG) 
    • "No major organizational improvement effort - be it quality improvement, just-in-time inventory, or enhanced productivity - will ever be successful unless everyone in the organization is empowered to contribute their very best" (SDWT) 
    • "You can't imagine how hard managers will work when they know they are responsible for their own destiny" (JAP) 
    • If you don't plan to empower your employees to use your vision, give it up now! (ELPH) 
    • The art of leadership is liberating people to do what is required of them (ART) 
    • "The signs of outstanding leadership appear primarily among the followers" ... are they reaching their potential? learning? serving? changing with grace? managing conflict? (ART) 
    • "I start with the premise that the function of leadership is to produce more leaders, not more followers" (Ralph Nader) 
    • "Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity" (George Patton) 
    • "Executives had to learn to be comfortable with events running without them ... from doing things well to seeing that they were done well" (LESS) 
    • Jack Welch, GE CEO: "We have found what we believe to be the distilled essence of competitiveness. It is the reservoir of talent and creativity and energy that can be found in each of our people. That essence is liberated when we make people believe that what they think and do is important - and then get out of their way while they do it" (ELPH) 
    • What good managers do instinctively: "involve people in setting important goals, structure the chance to learn, offer feedback and support, provide tools and ideas, and stay out of the way" (PW) 
    • "The one key to managing knowledge workers is to let them alone to use their knowledge" (CHNG) 
    • "Giving someone the freedom to take responsibility releases resources that would otherwise remain concealed" (MOT) 
    • Dick Leider: "The major problem facing the American worker today is not 'burn-out' but 'rust-out'. This is the result of gross underutilization of an individual's potential. (EAGL) 
    • Leaders primary task is no longer to control or 'make things happen', but to facilitate; no longer to motivate, but to empower (STRN) 
    • "To empower people in an unaligned organization can be counterproductive" (5D) 
    • "The emotional hold of being in control will relax only if localness is what (senior management) truly want" (5D) 
    • Employee Involvement (40 pts): how all employees can contribute effectively, plus trends in involvement (MB 4.2) 
    • "Once a chieftain has delegated responsibilities, he should never interfere, lest his subordinates come to believe that the duties are not theirs. Such superficial delegation yields fury in the hearts of subordinates" (HUN) 
    • "Abdication is not delegation. Abdication is a sign of weakness. Delegation is sign of strength" (HUN) 
    • Offer help without taking responsibility (ZAPP) 
    • 5 clarifications needed for stewardship delegation: (7H) 
      1. Desired results ... what, not how 
      2. Guidelines ... parameters, experience 
      3. Resources available 
      4. Accountability ... standards and times 
      5. Consequences ... good and bad 
    • 4 Levels of delegation: (ZAPP) 
      1. Refer the task to the proper person 
      2. Delegate authority to carry out the task and make decisions 
      3. Delegate the task without giving decision-making authority 
      4. Keep the task 
    • 8 Levels of Employee Involvement: (SDWT) 
      1. Information Sharing: Managers decide, then inform employees; leads to employee Conformance 
      2. Dialogue: Managers get employee input, then decide; leads to employee Acceptance 
      3. Special Problem Solving: Managers assign a one-time problem to selected employees; leads to employee Contribution 
      4. Intra-Group Problem Solving: Intact group meets weekly to solve local problems; leads to employee Commitment 
      5. Inter-Group Problem Solving: Cross-functional group meets to solve mutual problems; leads to Cooperation 
      6. Focused Problem Solving: Intact group deepens daily involvement in a specific issue; leads to employee Concentration 
      7. Limited Self-Direction: Teams at selected sites function full time with minimal supervision; leads to employee Accountability 
      8. Total Self-Direction: Executives facilitate self-management in an all-team company; leads to employee Ownership 
    • "People only respond negatively to controls when they are inappropriate for the situation" (ZAPP) 
Use Participative Management
    • The most effective contemporary management process is participative management (ART) 
    • "Treating participation as a luxury is insulting to employees" (CHNG) 
    • "Participation is something the top orders the middle to do for the bottom" (CHNG) 
    • To get commitment, put the problem of service quality squarely in the hands of those performing the service (SA) 
    • "Ownership is developed through participation" (STRN) 
    • "The quickest way to increase dignity, meaning, and community in a workplace is to involve people in redesigning their own work. This is also the shortest route - in the long run - to lower costs, higher quality, and more satisfied customers" (PW) 
    • "The 'right answer' is best worked out by local teams from all levels, functions, degrees of expertise. This is called learning. Although a lot of folks tried and a lot of folks died, nobody has found economic or technical substitutes for people learning together what to do and how to do it." (PW) 
    • "Masters of change are also masters of use of participation" (CHNG) 
    • Marshall Shaskin: "Participative management is an ethical imperative" (PW) 
    • "The action needed to create (the change) is so simple that people often cannot, will not, believe it works. It requires that those with the biggest stake in the change sit down together and figure out, from all angles, the right thing to do. Their emotional stake in the outcome is not the reason for avoiding the issue. It is exactly the reason they should be included" (PW) 
    • "Given some minimal guidance, most work groups produce designs 85-90% congruent with what the best outside pros can do - with vastly more commitment to implement" (PW) 
    • Woody Allen: "90% of living is just showing up" ... getting the right people together is probably 90% of third-wave managing (PW) 

Teamwork ... Collaboration vs Competition

    • Synergy is the highest activity of life; it creates new untapped alternatives; it values and exploits the mental, emotional, and psychological differences between people (7H) 
    • Reich, in HBR, 1987: "To the extent that we continue to celebrate the traditional myth of the entrepreneurial hero, we slow the progress of change and adaptation that is essential to our economic success. If we are to compete effectively in today's work, we must begin to celebrate collective entrepreneurship, endeavours in which the whole of the effort is greater than the sum of the individual contributions. We need to honor our teams more, our aggressive leaders and maverick geniuses less" (DSWT) 
    • "In superior teams, the synergistic effect is apparent. One plus one equals a lot more than three." (DSWT) 
    • "Teamwork has been shown to be the single consistent strategy for continuous improvement in quality and for increased competitiveness" (DSWT) 
    • Foster collaboration; Strengthen others (TLC) 
    • "In team-oriented cooperative environments, innovation flourishes" (CHNG) 
    • The key participation question: "Would you rather work as part of an outstanding group, or be a part of a group of outstanding individuals?" (ART) 
    • "Integrating both a move from competition and individualism toward cooperation and wholeness is what I mean by transforming teamwork. There is no more important task for third-wave managers." (PW) 
    • "The key elements in the art of working together are how to deal with change, how to deal with conflict, and how to reach our potential ... the needs of the team are best met when we meet the needs of individual persons" (ART) 
    • Cylinder 7: Team Skills (FOAC) 
    • "Girls' games teach them the importance of preserving and enhancing relationships - long-term focus - while boys' games teach them to preserve and enhance their own feelings of self-worth at the expense of the relationships - a competitive focus that is of necessity short-term" (FEM) 
    • "'Closed Loop Cells' are self-contained, multifunctional, self-scheduling sub-organizations empowered to perform the key activities required to meet explicit objectives" (CAT) 
    • Cylinder 10: Team Tactics ... even having customers on the teams (FOAC) 
    • Feelings of intragroup amity simply do not require intergroup enmity (BRI) 
    • Cooperative learning has been shown in literally hundreds of studies to enhance achievement regardless of subject matter or age level (BRI) 
    • Marrow: "We all need continuous help from each other. Interdependence is the greatest challenge" (PW) 
    • "When human beings work together, they can produce a piece of work that is superior to the work of individuals toiling alone (ABIL) 
    • Optimal productivity not only does not require competition, it appears to require its absence. The ideal amount of competition in your company is none at all. Competition makes no sense from the perspective of the bottom line. It holds people back from doing their best. It closes off the possibility of sharing ideas and resources with others in the company. (Kohn, INC, 11/87) 
    • "Excellence in our society is less a product of conflict and hostility than of collaboration" (TIGR) 
    • "The competitive energies of wolves are mostly directed toward outsiders. This makes wolves more effective team members than many other animals, where there is frequently as much competition within teams as between them" (TIGR) 
    • Law of Leadership: A successful team with 100 members has 100 leaders (TIGR) 
    • "The ratio of We's to I's is the best indicator of the development of a team" (Lewis Elgen, Exec VP, University Research Corp) 
    • "Great people don't equal great teams' (Tom Peters) 
    • "Rewards should go to teams as a whole" (Tom Peters) 
    • "Team learning is vital because teams, not individuals, are the fundamental learning unit ... they become the microcosm for learning throughout the organization" (5D) 
    • "The fundamental characteristic of the relatively unaligned team is wasted energy" (5D) 
Teams and Organizational Culture
    • "Sometimes being a team-player goes counter to the corporate culture. If the organizational norm is 'do your own thing', then working together may not be valued and certainly not recognized and rewarded" (TPT) 
    • "Superior work teams recognize that consistently high performance can be built not on rules but only on values" (DSWT) 
    • Current Methods of Developing a Team-Player Culture: (TPT) 
      • Public statements by Top Management 
      • Important assignments 
      • Training and Development 
      • Promotion 
    • Recommended Methods of Developing a Team-Player Culture: (TPT) 
      • Promotion ... let everyone know that it was because the person was a team player 
      • Upper Management as Team Player models 
      • Performance Appraisal ... 'team player' is in performance plan in more specific terms 
    • "Rating and ranking systems that pit employees against each other in the annual performance review process tend to work against the development of teamwork. A ranking system that includes a requirement for a bell-shaped-curve distribution further emphasizes competition over cooperation." (TPT) 
    • "In some competitive environments, team players withhold technical information from their colleagues because they fear loss of an 'edge' in annual performance appraisals" (TPT) 
Characteristics of Effective Teams
    • "A group of people is not a team. A team is group of people with a high degree of interdependence geared toward the achievement of a goal or completion of a task ... it is not just a group for administrative convenience" (TPT) 
    • "Every work group can become a work team and every work team can become a superior work team. That individuals perform separate and uncoordinated tasks does not prohibit them from working together to accomplish a whole host of integrated functions that are characteristic of team behavior. They can ... (DSWT) 
      • share their ideas, to improve all the jobs and all the work processes in the group - whether the job or process is theirs or not 
      • develop coordinated responses to organizational changes that affect the whole group 
      • build respect in their mutual relationships 
      • participate in setting common improvement goals 
      • initiate common actions to show appreciation to colleagues for their superior performance 
    • 3 kinds of teams: Rigid, Limp, Flexible (STRN) 
    • Key Elements of High Performing Teams: (20Q) 
      • Goals are understood and committed to 
      • A climate of trust 
      • Open and honest communication among members 
      • A sense of belonging and pride in accomplishments 
      • Diversity of opinions and ideas is encouraged 
      • Creativity and risk-taking is encouraged 
      • Team is constantly learning and improving itself 
      • Procdures are developed to diagnose, analyse, and solve problems 
      • Participative leadership is practiced 
      • Decisions are supported and made together
    • 4 elements of effective teams (STRN)
      • Productive participation (4 levels: Making the decision; Sharing the decision-making and reaching consensus; Contributing data; Making an imposed decision work) 
      • Openness (critiquing, trusting) 
      • Cohesiveness (committed to an understood mandate; team identity) 
      • Change compatibility (flexible, assimilate change)
    • "Loyalty becomes visible in at least two sets of behaviors. First, members go out of their way to ensure the success of their peers. Second, members give their colleagues the benefit of the doubt when they have apparently failed to meet an obligation or fulfill a commitment." (DSWT) 
    • 12 Characteristics of an Effective Team: (TPT) 
      • "Clear Purpose: The vision, mission, goal, or task of the team has been defined and accepted by everyone. There is an action plan. 
      • Informality: A comfortable, relaxed atmosphere; little tension or boredom 
      • Participation: Lots of discussion and participation in it 
      • Listening: Members use effective listening techniques, such as questioning, paraphrasing and summarizing 
      • Civilized Disagreement: No signs of avoiding, smoothing over, or suppressing conflict 
      • Consensus Decisions: For important decisions, the goal is substantial but not necessarily unanimous agreement through open discussion of everyone's ideas, avoidance of formal voting, or easy compromises 
      • Open Communications: Team members feel free to express their feelings on the tasks as well as on the group's operation. There are few hidden agendas. Communication takes place outside of meetings. 
      • Clear Roles and Work Assignments: There are clear expectations about the roles played by each team member; work is fairly distributed. 
      • Shared Leadership: While the team has a formal leader, leadership functions shift from time to time depending upon the circumstances, the needs of the group, and the skills of the members. The formal leader models the appropriate behaviour. 
      • External Relations: The team build credibility with other parts of the organization 
      • Style Diversity: The team has a broad spectrum of team-player types including members who emphasize attention to task ("Contributor"), goal setting ("Collaborator"), focus on process ("Communicator"), and questions about how the team is functioning ("Challenger"). 
      • Self-Assessment: Periodically, the team stops to examine how well it is functioning and what may be interfering with its effectiveness." 
    • "Humour seems to be an integral part of successful teams" (TPT) 
    • "Consensus means support derived when each person feels heard and understood. All should be satisfied that hey had a chance to influence the decision and declare their willingness to support it" (PW) 
    • Productive meetings need a purpose, facilitation skills, preparation, meeting management (STRN) 
    • "Team meetings are integral to the development of work units into superior work teams" (DWST) 
    • The Rational Problem-Solving Sequence: (DSWT) 
      • Define the problem 
      • Develop a strategy for analysing the problem 
      • Collect and analyse information 
      • Generate alternative solutions 
      • Evaluate and select a solution 
      • Plan action steps and accountability and measurement systems 
    • "Process issues will always block progress on tasks" (PW) 
    • "So that a team does not have to constantly repeat itself, revise early decisions, or find its work suddenly changed, continuity of people is clearly required" (CHNG) 



      Team-Player Styles

    • 4 Team-player Styles: (TPT) 
      1. "Contributor: The Contributor is task-oriented team member who enjoys providing the team with good technical information and data, does his homework, and pushes the team to set high performance standards and to use their resources wisely. Most people see him as dependable, although he sometimes becomes too bogged down in the details, misses the big picture, or does not see the need for a positive team climate. He is responsible, authoritative, reliable, proficient, and organized. 
      2. Collaborator: The Collaborator is a goal-directed member who see the vision, mission of goal of the team as paramount but is flexible and open to new ideas, willing to pitch in and work outside his or her defined role, and to share the limelight with other team members. Most people see him as a big picture person, but he sometimes fails periodically to revisit the mission, to give enough attention to the basic team tasks, or to consider the individual needs of the other team members. He is forward-looking, goal-directed, accommodating, flexible, and imaginative. 
      3. Communicator: The communicator is a process-oriented member who is an effective listener and facilitator of involvement, conflict resolution, consensus building, feedback, and the building of an informal relaxed climate. Most people see him as a positive "people person", but sometimes he may see a process as an end in itself, may not confront other team members, or may not give enough emphasis to completing task assignments and making progress toward team goals. He is supportive, considerate, relaxed, enthusiastic, and tactful. 
      4. Challenger: The Challenger is a member who questions the goals, methods, and even the ethics of the team, is willing to disagree with the leader or higher authority, and encourages the team to take well-conceived risks. Most people appreciate the value of his candor and openness, but sometimes he may not know when to back off on an issue or he becomes self-righteous and tries to push the team too far. He is honest, outspoken, principled, ethical, and adventurous." 

    Signs of Trouble in Teams
    • Signs of Trouble: (TPT) 
      • Members cannot easily describe the team's mission 
      • The meetings are formal, stuffy, or tense 
      • There is great deal of participation but little accomplishment 
      • There is talk but not much communication 
      • Disagreements are aired in private conversations after the meeting 
      • Decisions tend to be made by the formal leader with little meaningful involvement of other team members 
      • Members are not open with each other because trust is low 
      • There is confusion or disagreement about roles or work assignments 
      • People in other parts of the organization who are critical to the success of the team are not cooperating 
      • The team is overloaded with people who have the same team-player style 
      • The team has been in existence for at least 3 months and has never assessed its functioning 

    The Abilene Paradox ... Fear of Isolation --> Agreement
    • "The inability to cope with (manage) agreement, rather than the inability to cope with (manage) conflict, is the single most pressing issue of modern organizations; the fear of taking risks that may result in our separation from others is at the core of the paradox" (ABIL) 
    • "Pluralistic Ignorance: every one knows individually, but assumes no one else does ... the members who feel out of the group cannot bring up their concerns because of the myth that everyone is in" (CHNG) 
    • "Group tyranny seldom occurs ... it is a culturally sanctioned negative fantasy that provides us with an excuse for blaming someone else when we lose our sense of integrity and act irresponsibly in group situations; it temporarily frees us from experiencing the terrifying existential risk of separation" (ABIL) 
    • "We reject exclusivity. We covet inclusiveness ... being needed, being involved, being cared about" (ART) 
    • "Of the things that frighten us, the fear of being left out of the flow of human interaction is certainly one of the worst ... the ultimate test for the ability to control the quality of experience is what a person does in solitude" (FLOW) 

    What Empowered Teams Are

    Other Team Terminology: "High Performance Teams", "Superior Work Teams", Self-Directed Teams", "Self-Managed Teams", "Self-Managing Teams", "Self-Led Teams", and "Clusters" are other labels used for the same basic stucture and organizational concept. 

    • Definition of Team: "A group of individuals working together to achieve a common business objective through collaborative decision making" (IBM paper "Teams: 1992 Framework") 
    • Definition of a Self-Directed Work Team: "A group of employees (anywhere from 5-15 on the average) who are responsible for a whole product or process. The team plans the work and performs it, managing many of the things supervision or management used to do." (20Q) 
    • Definition of Self-Directed Work Team: "A highly trained group of employees, from 6 to 18, on average, fully responsible for turning out a well-defined segment of finished work" ... Work teams plan, set priorities, organize, coordinate with others, measure and take corrective action, solve problems, schedule and assign work, and in many cases handle personnel issues" (SDWT) 
    • Definition of Self-Directed Work Team: "A functional group of employees (usually between 8-15 members) who share the responsibility for a particular unit of production. The work team consists of trained individuals who possess the technical skills and ability necessary to complete all assigned tasks. Management has delegated to the team the authority to plan, implement, control, and improve all work processes" (PRIM) 
    • Definition of Self-Directed Work Teams: "Small groups of people empowered to manage themselves and the work they do on a day-to-day basis ... an intact group of employees who are responsible for a 'whole' work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an internal or external customer." (ET) 
    • Definition of a Cluster: "A group of people drawn from different disciplines who work together on a semipermanent basis ... 30-50 members, with smaller work teams of 5-7 members within the cluster ... a cluster organization is made up of many such clusters and a small residual hierarchy, which administers the business as a whole." (ROC) 
    • Definition of Work Teams: "Members of work teams not only cooperate in all aspects of their task performance, they share in what are traditionally thought of as management functions and responsibilities, such as joint planning, organizing the team, setting performance goals, assessing the team's performance, developing their own strategies to manage change, and securing their own resources." (DSWT) 
    • The Model for Superior Work Teams: (DSWT) 
      • Results 
        1. Maximum use of team's human resources 
        2. Superior outputs against all odds 
        3. Continuous improvement 
      • Leadership 
        1. Focused on team and teamwork 
        2. Focused on both development and performance 
        3. Initiator: makes teamwork the norm for all actions 
        4. Model: model teamwork in the way they conduct their own business and the way they interact with their colleagues 
        5. Coach: counseling, mentoring, tutoring, improving performance 
      • Informal processes 
        1. Communicating and contacting: respect and mutuality 
        2. Responding and adapting: overcoming old bad habits and coping with change 
        3. Imfluencing and improving 
        4. Appreciating and celebrating 
      • Feelings 
        1. Inclusion 
        2. Commitment 
        3. Loyalty 
        4. Pride 
        5. Trust 
      • Key Strategies & Methodologies: at the center of the above 4, and drive all of them 
    • "In a cluster, every person accepts individual accountability for the success or failure of the group effort" (ROC) 
    • Characteristics of Self-Managing Teams: (ASMT) 
      • Size: from 3-30; usually 5-15 members 
      • Responsibilities: the planning and production of a whole product or process, or subassembly; from start to finish 
      • Leadership: varies from no designated leader, to one elected by the team, to a formal leader/manager appointed by management 
      • Skills: multi-skilled in technical areas; interpersonal skills; administrative skills 
      • Time requirements: regular and informal meetings 
    • "Highly effective teams are composed of groups of committed individuals who trust each other; have a clear sense or purpose about their work; are effective communicators within and outside the team; make sure everyone in the team is involved in decisions affecting the group; and follow a process that helps them plan, make decisions, and ensure the quality of their work" (ET) 
    • The Web of Inclusion ... "affirms relationships, seeks ways to strengthen human bonds, simplifies communications, and gives means an equal value with ends" (FEM) 
    • The Key Differences from traditional organizations: (SDWT) 
      • Job Categories: One or two broad categories (vs. many narrow categories) 
      • Authority: The team controls their own daily activities through group decisions (vs. a Supervisor) 
      • Reward System: Tied to team performance and individual breadth of skills (vs. tied to the job, individual performance, and seniority) 
    • The Key Differences from traditional organizations: (ET) 
      • Organizational Structures: Flat/team (vs. layered/individual) 
      • Job Design: Whole process/multiple task (vs. narrow/single task) 
      • Management Role: Coach/facilitate (vs. direct/control) 
      • Leadership: Shared with the team (vs. top-down) 
      • Information Flow: Open/shared (vs. controlled/limited) 
      • Rewards: Team-based/skills-based (vs. individual/seniority) 
      • Job Process: Teams plan, control, improve (vs. managers plan, control, improve) 
    • 3 Principles of Self-Directed Teams (PRIM) 
      • It must be semiautonomous: It is responsible not only for the tasks themselves but for planning, implementing, controlling and improving those tasks; still accountable to management for work schedules, costs, work quality, and achievement of production goals. 
      • It must contain multiple skills: Although individuals within a team may specialize in different areas, all team members are trained to perform all steps required to complete their group task; more highly skilled members must assume responsibility for training junior workers. 
      • Its leadership must be shared: The leadership is rotated and shared; leadership is functional rather than authoritarian; leaders are selected because of their knowledge and experience, not because of their job titles. 
    • Sports Analogies for Types of Self-Directed Teams: (PRIM) 
      • Baseball: highly individualistic; occasional teamwork; minimal interaction; coordination is achieved by the design of the game; is like 'pooled independence'; e.g. insurance and other service or production oriented organizations 
      • Football: organized, systematic teamwork; specialized roles; careful planning ensures player cooperation and collaboration; 'sequential interdependence'; e.g. hospitals, orchestras, and engineering companies 
      • Basketball: spontaneous teamwork; fast-moving; needs great flexibility and harmony among its players; coordinated by adjusting to the circumstances; e.g. creative advertising, ad hoc task force, think tank 
      • Volleyball: needs spontaneous action as a team; semi-fixed positions; coordination through mutual adjustments within a fixed zone of play; take turns in each position; e.g. fast-food operation 
      • Tennis: highly individualistic; play alone for a cumulative score; e.g. sales force 
    • Potential Areas of Team Responsibility: (ASMT) 
      • Production ... of a product or service 
      • Scheduling 
      • Quality Control 
      • Maintenance 
      • Materials ... obtaining them 
      • Safety 
      • Problem Solving 
      • Training 
      • Performance Tracking ... of equipment and processes 
      • Budgeting 
      • Personnel Issues ... scheduling 
      • Employee Performance ... selection, appraisals, termination 
      • Compensation ... pay levels, raises, rewards, recognitions 
      • Outside Relationships ... vendors, customers 
    • "Clusters will fail where managers and employees are unable or unwilling to let go of the old paradigm" (ROC) 
    • "High-volume/low-variance activities are poorly suited to clusters" (ROC) 
    • "The greatest resistance to clusters never comes from employees but from managers who fear loss of control" (ROC) 
    The Benefits of Empowered Teams
    • Rank Order of How Companies Benefit From Teams: (TPT, from 1988 survey of 51 companies in Fortune Top 100) 
      • 1: Greater productivity 
      • 1: Effective use of resources 
      • 1: Better problem solving 
      • 2: Better quality products and services 
      • 3: Creativity and innovation 
      • 3: Higher-quality decisions 
    • Primary reasons cited in 1990 survey for moving toward self-directed teams, by companies that are: (ET) 
      • Quality (38%) 
      • Productivity (22%) 
      • Reduced Operating Costs (17%) 
      • Job Satisfaction (12%) 
      • Restructuring (5%) 
      • Other (6%) 
    • Benefits or Self-Directed Work Teams: (PRIM) 
      • Improved Service and Quality 
      • Reduced Overhead 
      • Increased Productivity 
      • Increased Morale 
    • Benefits to the Organization: (20Q) 
      • More Efficiency and Productivity 
      • Higher Quality 
      • World-class Products 
      • Better Customer Service ... faster, more responsive 
      • Constant Improvement ... of processes 
      • Working Smarter 
      • Better able to make Decisions ... able to compete in time 
      • Utilization of everyone's Brains, Commitment, Creativity 
      • Better Communication ... up, down, sideways 
      • A more Satisfying and Effective Workplace 
      • A Sense of Belonging and Commitment 
      • Constant Growth ... of the organization and its people 
    • Benefits to the Team Members: (20Q) 
      • Empowerment to do what is right and needed 
      • More Information, Knowledge, and Decision-Making capability 
      • More Involvement in Decisions 
      • Ability to Solve Problems 
      • Ability to Innovate Change 
      • More Personal Pride in the quality of the product or service 
      • A feeling of Ownership in the company 
      • The Camaraderie and Support or a Team effort 
      • Rewards ... tied to productivity 
      • Individual Growth and Development ... constant training 
      • Tapping into one's Leadership abilities 
      • Variety and Challenge 
    • "Teams are not ends in themselves; they are a means by which to achieve other organizational goals" (ET) 
    • Alan Brinder: "Self-directed work teams improve productivity, because deep employee involvement builds intense commitment to corporate success" ... "most companies report 20-40% gains in productivity after 18 months" (SDWT) 
    • BusinessWeek, 1989: "GE expects to realize a 40-50% improvement in productivity by organizing its work force into teams" (DSWT) 
    • "The first reality is that many organizations are under serious pressure to improve their performance in order to gain a competitive position and to survive. The second reality is that the most consistently successful strategy to improve performance has proven to be the use of teams and teamwork" (DSWT) 
    • "Some teams experience an initial decrease in productivity or quality before improvements occur ... the majority of organizations expect too much too soon." (ET) 
    • "With the widening of the marketplace, the increasing importance of technology, the imperative of innovation, and the new focus on the customer, teams, especially cross-functional groups, are becoming the only way to develop viable business solutions" (TPT) 
    • Jamie Houghton, Corning CEO: "If you really believe in quality, when you cut through everything, it's empowering your people, and it's empowering your people that leads to teams" (ET) 
    • "To put it bluntly: Organizations are realizing that their survival depends on the commitment and skills of their workers. The SDWT is a new way of viewing the relationship of the worker-management-organization." (20Q) 
    • "Perhaps the biggest reason for the movement toward empowered teams is the fact that teams work" (ET) 
    Empowered Teams Require Training
    • "We need a balanced blend of technical and social skills on each team" (ASMT) 
    • "When you stop training self-directed teams, they starve to death" (SDWT) 
    • The Difference between Team Building and Team Development: (DSWT) 
      • Team building focuses on team deficits. Team development focuses on positive opportunities for continuous improvement. 
      • Team building is short term. Team development is long term. 
      • Team building is intense. Team development is diffused. 
      • Team building primarily targets improving relationships on the team. Team development targets improvements in all organizational and team systems. 
    • "Team development and performance is largely a function of a work unit's decision to be a team - regardless of task and environment" (DSWT) 
    • "Teams can only improve through teamwork" (DSWT) 
    • Team competencies that need to be developed: (DSWT) 
      • rational problem-solving skills 
      • interpersonal problem-solving skills with respect and mutuality 
      • team meeting effectiveness skills 
    • "The skills a Resource Team member needs are those that make a good family work" (ASMT) 
      • F = Facilitation Skills 
      • A = Ability and Aptitude 
      • M = Management Skills 
      • I = Involvement 
      • L = Learning Continually 
      • Y = Yearning to Be the Best 
    • Skills that Team Members need to be trained in: (20Q) 
      • Teamwork skills 
      • Leadership training, especially if the team leader role is rotated 
      • Problem-solving skills 
      • Decision-making skills 
      • Interpersonal skills 
      • Administrative skills, that used to be done by the manager 
      • Customer Service training 
      • Team Meeting skills 
    • 3 categories of training for teams: (ET) 
      • Job Skills ... technical knowledge 
      • Team/Interactive Skills ... interpersonal and communication skills 
      • Quality/Action Skills ... identifying problems and making improvements 
    • "Be careful about mandating universal multi-skill systems in situations where some jobs require complex job skills." (ET) 
    Stages of Empowered Team Evolution
    • "It takes a group of employees from 2 to 5 years to become a mature self-directed work team." (SDWT) 
    • "Most organizations talk about a time span of 2 to 5 years to develop fully empowered teams ... it's a journey" (ET) 
    • 4 Stages: (ET) 
      • Getting Started: defines its mission, boundaries, roles 
      • Going in Circles: stress on roles, internal conflict 
      • Getting on Course: accepting diversity, strong allegiance to the team 
      • Full Steam Ahead: bigger perspective, help other teams 
    • 5 Predictable Stages: (SDWT) 
      • Start-Up: Optimism; honeymoon; lots of training 
      • State of Confusion: Role upheaval; difficulty reaching cooperative decisions; opposition to the team idea surfaces 
      • Leader-Centered Teams: Reliance on team leader from within the team; may rotate 
      • Tightly Formed Teams: Fierce loyalty to the team; competitive with the rest of the organization; defensive 
      • Self-Directed Teams: Cooperative self-management; commit to corporate and team goals; ongoing training; improve systems 
    • 5 Stages of Team Development: (ASMT) 
      • Start-up ("Forming"): orientation, goal setting, clarifying expectations, acceptance of each other 
      • Conflict ("Storming"): frustration and disagreement on issues of leadership, power, control, and influence; roles clarified 
      • Teamwork ("Norming"): conflicts and issues are resolved; norms of behavior are established; disagreements are negotiated; diversity is accepted; strong bonds form within the group 
      • Achievement ("Performing"): members work together in constructive ways to achieve common goals; productivity and continued team development are the primary issues 
      • Change ("Transforming"): may add or lose members; may have a new mission; may break up entirely; usually regress to an earlier stage 
    • Stages of Team Development (2-3 years): (20Q) 
      • STAGE I: Confusion, frustration, uncertainty, some excitement, changing roles, learning new skills; need to focus on learning, tolerating mistakes, dealing with frustration, visiting successful sites, having faith 
      • STAGE II: United, sense of belonging, leader-dependent, building trust, more training, making better decisions 
      • STAGE III: Start to see ways of impacting the bigger system; explore new ways of rewarding productivity; keep learning 
    • "Everything we have learned about group development these last forty years supports the view that floundering around is an essential precondition to learning and high output" (PW) 
    The Manager's Role in a Empowered Team
    • The New Role of Managers: (20Q) 
      • Empower the team 
      • Teachers and Counselors 
      • See their job as almost totally people-oriented 
      • Facilitators of front-line people, rather than decision-makers and rule-enforcers 
      • Eliminators of cross-functional barriers and excessive procedures 
      • Listeners vs. tellers 
      • Askers of what can be done differently or better 
      • Able to solve problems on the spot, instead of passing them up or down 
      • Good Role-Models 
      • Visible Leaders 
      • Open, honest, and worthy of trust 
      • Doers of the right things 
      • See mistakes as learning; don't kill messengers 
      • Encourage risk-taking 
      • See change as an opportunity 
      • Are customer and employee-driven 
      • Motivators 
      • Promote Teamwork 
      • Believe that there are no limits for properly selected, trained, supported, committed, and involved people 
      • Have faith in SDWT's as the right way to go, even though they don't have all the answers 
      • Constantly learn 
      • Respect people 
      • Trust people 
      • Reinforce and reward the new behaviors 
      • Celebrate progress 
    • Skills needed by Managers of Empowered Teams: (PRIM) 
      • Leadership Skills: vision, mission, values 
      • Communication and Facilitation Skills: inside & outside 
      • Training Skills: technical and human-relations 
      • Consulting Skills 
      • Problem-solving Skills 
      • Feedback Skills 
    • "The manager's job is to lead, empower people, and remove roadblocks that get in the way of the team being able to do its job. The new primary responsibility of the manager is to act as a coach and help teams mature in their development toward self-management" (ASMT) 
    • "Leadership in superior work teams does not mean creating followers. It means being a team player and creating team players." (DSWT) 
    • Self-directed teams will only ever assume 80% of the total job responsibilities in any organization ... there will still be some people in leadership roles" (ET) 
    • "As teams mature, it is not uncommon for 6 or more teams to report to single group leader" (ET) 
    • Management Functions (hierarchy vs. cluster): (ROC) 
    • +===================+=====================+====================+
    • ] Order of Function ] HIERARCHY "control" ] CLUSTER "support" ]
    • +===================+=====================+====================+
    • ] Most Significant ] Supervise ] Facilitate ]
    • +-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
    • ] ] Monitor ] Communicate ]
    • +-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
    • ] ] Organize ] Coordinate ]
    • +-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
    • ] ] Report ] Report ]
    • +-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
    • ] ] Coordinate ] Organize ]
    • +-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
    • ] ] Communicate ] Monitor ]
    • +-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
    • ] Least Significant ] Facilitate ] Supervise ]
    • +-------------------+---------------------+--------------------+
    • "In the performance appraisal system of a cluster organization, the resource manager serves as a clearinghouse for appraisals offered by an employee's peers, clients, and suppliers ... he or she is placed in the position not of an evaluator but of a data processor and communicator" (ROC) 
    • "Work teams are permitted to conduct appraisals of their peers' performances, to reward good performances, and, if necessary, to determine the causes of poor performance so that corrective action can be taken." (PRIM) 
    • "People resist peer salary reviews. It takes a mature, experienced work team to make peer review work without any input from management or the human resource department" (PW) 
    • "The new role of middle management involves consulting, persuading, and helping develop the competencies of employees whose responsibilities have been radically upgraded" (ROC) 
    • "A common mistake is to assume teams can take on many of their supervisors' responsibilities while maintaining the same work load as before" (ET) 
    Keys to Success with Empowered Teams
    • Keys to Success: (20Q) 
      • Management Support 
      • Participative Leadership 
      • Eliminate traditional supervision ... boss --> facilitator 
      • Patience ... it takes 2-4 years for the team to develop; start with a Steering Committee, then a Design Team, then a pilot 
      • Training in new attitudes, new roles and new skills 
      • Union-Management participation 
      • Empowerement ... of the team 
      • Rewards ... such as pay-for-learning, profit-sharing, employee stock ownership, pay-for-productivity 
      • Assurances ... that boosts to productivity will not cost members their jobs 
      • Motivation ... inspire people to use teams vs. fear and threats 
    • Success Ingredients: (ASMT) 
      • Clearly defined goals and expectations; 
      • Clearly established roles and responsibilities; 
      • Well-documented guidelines of behavior and ground rules; 
      • Open communication in an atmosphere of trust and mutual respect; 
      • Continuous learning and training in appropriate skills, 
      • Patience and support by management; 
      • Rewards tied to results; 
      • A desire to continuously improve and innovate 
    • Requirements for Success: (ET) 
      • Design careful, thoughtful, well-planned implementations ... have a clearly communicated vision and implementation plan 
      • Set realistic goals ... manage expectations 
      • Provide appropriate training ... don't take short-cuts 
      • Teams should be part of the overall strategy ... be sure they are "right" for your organization 
      • Always look back ... take time to evaluate and modify your progress 
    • Requirements for Success: (SDWT) 
      • Top-Level Commitment ... a champion 
      • Management-Employee Trust 
      • Willingness to Take Risks 
      • Willingness to Share Information 
      • Enough Time and Resources 
      • Commitment to Training 
      • Operations Conducive to Work Teams ... a range of employee tasks that could be improved with more skill and employee commitment 
      • Union Participation 
      • Access To Help ... an expert on teams 
    • Keys to Success: (AMA Video "Building Successful Teams", about GE) 
      • Share the Vision and Strategic Plan 
      • Determine the best team Configuration 
      • Clarify Expectations and Responsibilities and Roles 
      • Transfer Responsibility ... empower the team 
      • Help set mutual Goals ... measurable, customer-focused 
      • Provide Training ... include how to handle conflict 
      • Provide Recognition and Reward 
      • Set Team Ground Rules 
      • Use Consensus Decision Making 
      • Encourage Trust and Open Communication 
    • 25 Stepping Stones for Self-Directed Work Teams: (Training, 12/91) 
      • Call them "work teams", so that people don't get unrealistic about how soon they will be "self-directed" 
      • Do awareness training early with stakeholders (workers, supervisors, managers), so that they share a common vision/expectations 
      • Adapt others' experiences with teams, don't try to duplicate them 
      • Be aware that not everybody will buy-in (25-30%) 
      • Make sure all stakeholders understand it could take 3-5 years 
      • Reassure all employees (and make sure it is true!) that members will not suffer/be laid off if productivity improves significantly 
      • Be aware that progress will not be a straight path. It will have ups and downs 
      • Teams must go through some sort of team-building or developmental training, including self-awareness, how to reach consensus, mission or vision formulation 
      • For each step toward self-direction, managers must take one step back 
      • Don't make a big announcement with fanfare. The changes will be incremental. 
      • Managers must model the way 
      • Beware of managers who only pay lip service to the Great Team Scheme 
      • Managers will need feedback on their own behaviour. "It's sometimes easier to change people than it is to change people" 
      • Managers need to be careful that they don't overcompensate and fail to be directive when direction is needed, in an effort to be 'participative' 
      • Involve first-line supervisors in the steering committee, design teams, and other important activities 
      • 'Geeenfield' locations are not necessarily easier to start with than established locations 
      • The Steering Committee and design teams should represent diagonal slices of the organization ... different functions, different levels 
      • Steering Committee and design teams should operate under 1 assumption: "Don't assume anything" 
      • Provisions should be made for work teams to remove ineffective leaders 
      • Let young teams learn to make easy decisions before they make tough ones 
      • Visits to other organizations that use work teams are crucial for members of steering committees and design teams. They need to ask, "What worked and what didn't?" 
      • As teams develop, systems, policies, and procedures will need to be changed, or they may form a "glass ceiling" 
      • When designing pay-for-skill of pay-for-knowledge compensation programs, be sure to include objective criteria for advancement 
      • At the risk of sounding trite, communication is paramount. Open communication builds trust, which is often lacking at the outset of a work-team transformation 
      • Managers need to understand that leading this change, and later managing in this environment, will be as difficult as anything they've ever undertaken 
    • "The work-team concept must be implemented with the active participation of all key people in the organization. Failure to attend to this important dynamic can greatly decrease the program's chances for success" (PRIM) 
    • "Managers and employees describing their superior work teams are much more likely to describe clarity about goals and values than they are to describe clarity about specific job responsibilities ... the full impact of goals and values is realized when team members influence what these goals and values are" (DSWT) 
    • 3 Strategies for Success: (PRIM) 
      • Empower the Work Force: Empowerment is the key to self-managed change and a basic tenet for successful work teams 
      • Develop a Common Language: Shared vision and mission 
      • Maintain a Supportive Culture: Top Management and key Stakeholders must be actively supportive 
    • "When asked which factor most influences the success of teams, experienced practitioners invariably point to training ... the training load is enormous ... a lack of effective training is the number-one barrier to successful team implementation" (ET) 
    • "The belief that employees have valuable ideas, and that you unleash tremendous energy when you help them put their ideas into action, is the one absolutely essential ingredient for self-directed teams." (SDWT) 
    • "Self-direction endures only when all participants clearly perceive direct benefits to themselves" (SDWT) 
    • "It is probably best to implement self-direction when there is some reasonable assurance of employment stability. We know of one organization that started teams and one year later experienced a significant layoff - with devastating consequences. Occurrences like this not only hurt the team concept; they set the entire workplace culture back to the Dark Ages" (ET) 
    • "The company that implements teams to justify reducing its work force will find itself sooner or later with disillusioned teams and declining productivity." (SDWT) 
    • "The reason the whole thing works, though, is that everyone who works there really does have a say in the decisions that matter - the ones that affect us directly, as well as general plant policy." (ASWT) 
    How to Get Started With Empowered Teams
    • 3 Groups make the strategic decision to move toward teams: (ET) 
      • Senior Management: "articulate the vision for the organization; decide whether teams should be the subject of further study; and provide the Steering Committee and Design Team with overall guidance for future investigation, design, and implementation of teams" 
      • Steering Committee: "oversees the design effort" 
      • Design Team: "plans the implementation strategy and acts as the ongoing champion of the team process" 
    • How to Get Started: (20Q) 
      • Appoint a Steering Committee of top management and other key people to set the philosophy and values of the new system; visit other sites; appoint one or more Design Teams 
      • Design Teams have some members of the Steering Committee, and key people from the organizations affected. They do the following: 
        1. Consider the needs of customers, vendors, suppliers 
        2. Look at the current processes 
        3. Look at the current social and cultural systems 
        4. Look at the current personnel systems 
        5. Learn: read, take courses, visits to companies doing it 
        6. Constantly communicate with those that will be affected 
        7. Prepare a design an implementation proposal; usually takes 3 months; will be unique to that organization; everyone's job will change 
        8. Choses a pilot group 
    • "The more all stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation process, the more likely it is that your teams will be successful" (ET) 
    • "In almost all cases, in-place organizational systems will work counter to team implementation. These systems must be identified and modified, as well." (ET) 
    • "There is no single right way to go about the design process" (ET) 
    • "Visioning in an empowered organization is a special challenge that is an essential first step to a successful transition to teams ... visions must be tied to solid business activities; they must be customer driven, people focused, and value based" (ET) 
    • "The first and most critical rule in exploring a cluster format is not to think about organization. Instead, think about customers, relationships, and information" (ROC) 
    • 3 Action Steps for Establishing Work-team Systems: (PRIM) 
      • Education and Commitment: top management and key stakeholders must understand the concepts, benefits, and challenges 
      • Planning: Set up a Task Force to develop methods for implementing it, and how the work systems may need to be redesigned; assess the organization's readiness; set up support systems 
      • Implementation: Do it, and evaluate it 
    • "The greatest challenge that implementers of work-team systems face is finding a champion within the organization willing to pursue the vision and deal with the political ramifications." (PRIM) 
    • Start with a Steering Committee, which must answer 6 Feasibility Questions: (SDWT) 
      • Are work processes compatible with self-directed work teams? 
      • Are employees willing and able to make self-direction work? 
      • Can managers master and apply the hands-off leadership style required for self-directed teams? 
      • Is the market healthy or promising enough to support improved productivity without reducing the work force? 
      • Will the organization's policies and culture in both corporate and field locations support the transition to teams? 
      • Will the community support the transition to teams? 
      • + Do we really WANT self-directed teams?" 
    • Implementation Steps for Teams: (ASMT) 
      • Form a Steering Committee: top management; establish the overall guidelines, manage the process, approve recommendations 
      • Establish a Design Team: representatives from all affected areas; analyse existing state of the organization and develop recommended changes, including steps 3-6 
      • Envision the Future: study other organizations, create a vision of the future state of the organization, develop a project game plan 
      • Analyse the Present State: analyse existing systems and issues 
      • Develop Design Recommendations: for all the systems in question 
      • Develop Transition Plans: and get Steering Committee approval 
      • Implement Recommendations: and provide training; monitor the results; may start with a pilot 
      • Evaluate Results: continuous improvement 
    • Implementation Suggestions: (ASMT) 
      • Allow Enough Time: usually 6 months to 2 years to implement; do your homework well! 
      • Create Your Own Solution: every organization is different 
      • Get Some Good Help: experts who have done it 
      • Be Flexible and Innovative: the more, the better 
      • Communicate: solicit input & feedback; involve those affected 
      • Anticipate an Adjustment Period: expect resistance to change 
      • Be Patient: don't take short cuts; it will take several years 
      • Do It: take the plunge ... it's worth it! 


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    13. De Pree, Max. Leadership Is an Art. ISBN_ 0-440-50324-8 
    14. Enright, Joseph & Ryan, James. SHINANO! The Sinking of Japan's Secret Supership. Martin's Press, 1987. ISBN_0-312-00186-X 
    15. Handy, Charles. The Age of Unreason. ISBN_0-09-174088-6 
    16. Harper, Bob & Harper, Ann. Succeeding as a Self-Directed Work Team: 20 Important Questions Answered. Order from MW Corporation, 1 Croton Point Ave, Croton-on-Hudson, NY 10520 (914) 271-6658 
    17. Harvey, Jerry. The Abilene Paradox and Other Meditations on Management. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1988. ISBN_0-669-19179-5 
    18. Helgesen, Sally. The Female Advantage. ISBN_0-385-24878-4 
    19. Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. The Change Masters. ISBN_0-671-52800-9 
    20. Kelly, Mark. The Adventures of a Self-Managing Team. ISBN_0-88390-058-0 
    21. Kinlaw, Dennis. Developing Superior Work Teams: Building Quality and the Competitive Edge. ISBN_0-669-24983-1 
    22. Kohn, Alfie. The Brighter Side of Human Nature: Altruism and Empathy in Everyday Life. ISBN_0-465-00665-5 
    23. Kouzes, Jim & Posner, Barry. The Leadership Challenge: How to Get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations. ISBN_1-55542-061-3 
    24. McCall, Morgan; Lombardo, Michael; Morrison, Ann. The Lessons of Experience: How Successful Executives Develop on the Job. ISBN_0-669-18095-5 
    25. McNally, David. Even Eagles Need a Push. ISBN_0-9626921-0-7 
    26. Mills, D. Quinn. Rebirth of the Corporation. ISBN_0-471-52220-1 
    27. Orsburn, Jack; Moran, Linda; Musselwhite, Ed; Zenger, John. Self-Directed Work Teams: The New American Challenge. ISBN_1-55623-341-8 
    28. Parker, Glenn. Team Players and Teamwork: The New Competitive Business Strategy. 
    29. Pascale, Richard & Athos, Anthony. The Art of Japanese Management. ISBN_0-446-32322-5 
    30. Rancourt, Karen. The Empowered Professional: How to Succeed in the 90's. Order from "The Empowered Professional", P.O. Box 358, Harvard, MA 01451 
    31. Ries, Al & Trout, Jack. Positioning: The Battle For Your Mind. ISBN_0-446-34794-9 
    32. Roberts, Wess. Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun. ISBN_446-39106-9 
    33. Secretan, Lance. The Way of the Tiger: Gentle Wisdom For Turbulent Times. R. #2, Alton, Ontario, L0N 1A0, 1989. ISBN_0-9694561-0-7 
    34. Senge, Peter. The Fifth Discipline. ISBN_0-385-26094-6 
    35. Stalk, George & Hout, Thomas. Competing Against Time; How Time-Based Competition Is Reshaping Global Markets. ISBN_0-02-915291-7 
    36. Toffler, Alvin. Powershift: Knowledge, Wealth, and Violence at The Edge of The 21st Century. ISBN_0-553-05776-6 
    37. Torres, Cresencio & Spiegal, Jerry. Self-Directed Work Teams: A Primer. ISBN_0-88390-057-2 
    38. Weisbord, Marvin. Productive Workplaces. ISBN_1-55542-054-0 
    39. Wellins, Richard; Byham, William; Wilson, Jeanne. Empowered Teams: Creating Self-Directed Work Teams That Improve Quality, Productivity, and Participation. ISBN_1-55542-353-1 
    40. Whiteley, Richard. The Customer Driven Company: Moving From Talk To Action. ISBN_0-201-57090-4 



    The books in this 3-section annotated bibliography are suggested as
    good reading on teams and teamwork, as a subset of the 40 books from
    which the quotes have been extracted.
    If you wanted further guidance on narrowing your choice to just 3
    to read or use, the first one in each of the 3 sections is recommended.


    Empowered Team Books

    • EMPOWERED TEAMS: CREATING SELF-DIRECTED WORK GROUPS THAT IMPROVE QUALITY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND PARTICIPATION, Richard Wellins, William Byham, and Jeanne Wilson, (Jossey-Bass, 1991) ISBN 1-55542-353-1. 
    Using the results of a 1990 survey of what companies in a variety of industries are doing on self-directed teams, this book labels 4 stages in team development as: Getting Started --> Going in Circles --> Getting on Course --> Full Speed Ahead. It is a comprehensive guide to self-directed teams, with a good blend of empowerment, leadership, and teamwork themes. It covers such issues as: how teams function in a redesigned organization, the role of senior management, selecting team players, supporting skill development, and keeping teams on track. 
    • SELF-DIRECTED WORK TEAMS: THE NEW AMERICAN CHALLENGE, Jack Orsburn, Linda Morgan, Ed Musselwhite and Jack Zenger, (Business One Irwin, 1990) ISBN 1-55623-341-8. 
    It describes 5 stages in team evolution: Start-up --> State of Confusion --> Leader-Centered Team --> Tightly Formed Team --> Self-Directed Teams. It uses lots of examples from real companies, and covers the need for upfront feasibility studies on teams, guiding managers through the transition, reward techniques, etc. It is excellent, and has been used by several teams starting up in IBM. 
    • ZAPP!, William Byham, (DDI Press, 1989) ISBN 0-9623483-0-9. 
    This is a very readable modern-day fable that conveys the concept of empowered teams in easily recognizable and memorable terms. It's a fast read (about 2 hours), has big print, and includes good summary pages. For a small book, it is packed with good tips on how to give employees responsibility, control over what and how things are done, recognition for their ideas, and a feeling of ownership. It has been given out to some IBM Canada departments, and has received rave reviews. There is also a Random House Sound Editions audio tape of the book highlights, ISBN_0-679-40042-7. 
    • SELF-DIRECTED WORK TEAMS: A PRIMER, Cresencio Torres and Jerry Spiegal, (Pfeiffer & Company, 1990) ISBN 0-88390-057-2. 
    The distinguishing characteristic of this little book is the analogies that it uses to compare business teams to sports teams: baseball, football, basketball, volleyball, and tennis teams. It covers the principles, benefits, and strategies of successful team efforts, and is a very readable little book. 
    • SUCCEEDING AS A SELF-DIRECTED WORK TEAM: 20 IMPORTANT QUESTIONS ANSWERED, Bob and Ann Harper, (MW Corporation, 1 Croton Point Ave., Croton-on-Hudson, NY 10520; 1991). 
    If you like net books, you'll love this one. It asks 20 questions about Self-Directed Teams and provides short list-based answers to them. It's easy to read, hits the highlights, and is amazingly complete for such a small book. 
    • THE ADVENTURES OF A SELF-MANAGING TEAM, Mark Kelly, (Pfeiffer and Company, 1991) ISBN 0-88390-058-0. 
    Using a story (a la "Zapp!"), this is a narrative that follows a team through 5 stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Transforming. Throughout, it has some really practical scenarios about people's maturing process in a team. It's the shortest and most readable of all the books, but it also has some good content. 

    Teamwork Material: Practical Tips And Team-Building Exercises

    • BFR (Belgard.Fisher.Rayner Inc.) Modules 
    These are described in a separate handout, and are recommended as "just-in-time" modules for both Team Leaders and Team Members. There are 7 modules on the Leader Role, 7 modules on the Team Member Role, and 12 modules on Team Skills. Contact Leadership Development, the Quality Institute, or your local "Team Consultant" for more information. 
    • STRENGTH IN NUMBERS, Leslie Bendaly, (McGraw-Hill, 1990) ISBN 0-07-551023-5. 
    This is an excellent, practical handbook on how to develop "fit teams". It has good checklists, team assessment questionnaires, and helpful job aids. The author also team-teaches the "Developing Effective Teamwork" course for MICA and IBM. This book was distributed to attendees of the 1991 ALD courses. 
    • THE TEAM BUILDING SOURCE BOOK, Steven Phillips & Robin Elledge, (University Associates, 1989) ISBN 0-88390-232-X. 
    This is a binder of teaching modules to assist teams in their development. It starts with a diagnostic test to determine what is needed, gives guidance on how to interpret the test results to determine what training is needed and gives great step-by-step scripts for facilitating various sessions. It's a useful off-the-shelf source of team development resource material. It might be a good supplement or compliment to the Belgard, Fisher, Rayner (BFR) modules. 
    • THE TEAM HANDBOOK, Peter Scholtes, (Joiner Associates, 1988) ISBN 0-9622264-0-8. 
    This is a very hints-and-tips kind of book, with practical ideas on how to run team meetings, handle conflict, improve group dynamics, etc. It also ties its approach closely to Deming's 14 Points for quality improvement, and uses the "Forming --> Storming etc" blueprint. 



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