Population And Housing Census 2000



6th NOVEMBER 2001

The Population and Housing Census 2000 is the fourth Census implemented since the formation of Malaysia, the previous Censuses being conducted in the years 1970, 1980 and 1991.
The Population and Housing Census 2000 was carried out from 5th July 2000 till 20th July 2000. Census 2000 was carried out successfully and I would like to thank all persons who had given their cooperation in supplying the information required.
The Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristics Report is the first report released based on the computer processing of all individual census forms. Prior to this report, two preliminary reports giving preliminary summary counts of total population, number of households and number of living quarters for the whole of Malaysia by state, administrative districts, local authority areas as well urban and rural areas were released.
Just as the in the previous censuses as well as experiences of other countries in the world, census taking is subject to under enumeration. For the Population and Housing Census 2000, the figures given in this report have been adjusted for under enumeration rates which were obtained from the Census Coverage Evaluation Survey conducted between 7 and 26 August 2000.
Total population and growth

The total population of Malaysia, according to the 2000 Census, was 23.27 million compared to 18.38 million in 1991 thus giving an average annual population growth rate of 2.6% over the 1991-2000 period. This rate was similar to that of the 1980-1991 intercensal period which also recorded an average annual growth rate of 2.6%. State-wise, Selangor had the highest growth rate of 6.1% for the period 1991-2000 followed by Sabah (4.0%), Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan (3.6%) and Johor (2.6%). Among the states which experienced very low growth rates were Perak (0.4%), Perlis (0.8%) and Kelantan (0.9%).
Population distribution

In terms of population distribution by state in Census 2000, Selangor was the most populous state (4.19 million) followed by Johor (2.74 million) and Sabah (2.60 million). Their share of the total population of Malaysia was 18.0%, 11.8% and 10.6% respectively. The least populated states were Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan (0.08 million or 0.3%) and Perlis (0.20 million or 0.9%).

With respect to urbanization, it was observed that the proportion of urban population had increased to 62.0% in Census 2000 from 50.7% in 1991. States with very high proportions of urban population in Census 2000 were Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (100%), Selangor (87.6%) and Pulau Pinang (80.1%). Conversely the states with low urbanization levels were Kelantan (34.2%), Perlis (34.3%) and Kedah (39.3%).
Ethnic composition

Of the total population of Malaysia in Census 2000, about 21,890 thousand or 94.1% were Malaysian citizens. Of the total Malaysian citizens, Bumiputera comprised 65.1%, Chinese 26.0% and Indians 7.7%, the ethnic composition being 60.6%, 28.1% and 7.9% respectively in 1991. Non-Malaysian citizens totalled 1,385 thousand (or 5.9%) in Census 2000 as against 805 thousand (or 4.4%) in 1991. In Sarawak, the predominant ethnic group in Census 2000 was the Ibans which accounted for 30.1% of the state's total Malaysian citizens followed by the Chinese (26.7%) and Malays (23.0%). Similar data for Sabah showed the predominant ethnic group being the Kadazan Dusun (18.4%) followed by Bajau (17.3%) and Malays (15.3%).

The proportion of population of Malaysia below 15 years of age in Census 2000 was 33.3% compared to 36.7% in 1991. State-wise, this proportion was very low in Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (25.6%), Pulau Pinang (26.9%) and Selangor (30.5%). At the other end of the spectrum,this proportion was high in the states of Kelantan (41.5%), Terengganu (40.3%) and Sabah (38.4%). Conversely, the proportion of population 65 years and over for Malaysia in Census 2000 was recorded at 3.9% compared to 3.7% in 1991. Consequently, the median age for Malaysia as a whole increased from 21.9 years in 1991 to 23.6 years in 2000. All these different age parameters point clearly towards a continuation of the trend of population ageing in Malaysia.
Sex ratio

Census 2000 revealed that for Malaysia as whole men outnumbered women, a pattern not unsimilar to that observed in 1991. In Census 2000 there were 104 males for every 100 females, a marginal increase over the sex ratio of 103 in 1991. In Census 2000, the ratio of males to females was relatively high for Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan (110), Pahang (110), Johor (107), Sabah (107), Negeri Sembilan (105), Selangor (105) and Terengganu (104). On the other hand, women outnumbered men in the states of Perlis, Pulau Pinang and Kedah. The phenomenon of women outnumbering men is particularly noticeable from the age group beginning 60-64 years and the gap widens with advancing age. This is not unexpected given that life expectancy among females is higher than that of males.
Marital status

Census 2000 also revealed that young adults tend to marry at a later age. Consequently, the proportion of never married (single) person aged 20-34 years continued to increase between 1991 and 2000 from43.2% to 48.1%. Among females 20-24 years of age, 68.5% were single in 2000 compared to only 60.2% in 1991. Similar patterns were also observed for females in the25-34 age group, as well as among males. The tendency of young male adults to marry at a later age is indicated by the data on mean age at first marriage which showed an increase from 28.2 years in 1991 to 28.6 years in 2000 while for females the increase was from 24.7 years to 25.1 years over the same period.

It was observed that religion is highly correlated with ethnicity. Islam was the most widely professed religion in Malaysia; its proportion increasing from 58.6% in 1991 to 60.4% in 2000. Malaysia, being a multi-religious nation, also had a fair share of those embracing other religions such as Buddhism (19.2%), Christianity (9.1%), Hinduism (6.3%) and Confucianism/Taoism/other traditional Chinese religion (2.6%) as revealed in Census 2000.
Detailed data on population such as educational level, occupation, migration as well as household and living quarter characteristics will be released in stages subsequently.
Thank you.

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