Short History of the FBI
Working for the FBI
Crimes Against Children
Law Enforcement Support
Mueller on a recent trip to Afghanistan.
from Director Mueller: Why a new FBI?
the tragic terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, it was clear the
FBI needed to change from an agency primarily focused on bringing criminals
to justice to one whose primary focus is the prevention of future attacks.
This new approach required new leadership, a new organizational structure,
new priorities, new technologies, and a new FBI mindset. Making these
changes in a short period of time has not been easy. But the extraordinary
men and women of the FBI have shown great strength, flexibility, and
FBI is not defined by boxes on an organizational chart, but by new
ways of doing businessgreater collaboration with our partners
in law enforcement, less bureaucratic red tape, and more accountability
at every level. At the same time, we have held onto the standards of
excellence that have made the FBI the preeminent law enforcement agency
Todays FBI is better positioned to prevent future attacks, to
protect Americas critical infrastructure, and to hunt down criminals
who prey on our citizens. We are still changing, and our new flexibility
will ensure that the FBI stays on top of current and future threats
well into the 21st century.
S. Mueller, III
TO THE FBI
July 26, 1908
No specific name assigned; referred to as Special Agent Force
Bureau of Investigation
July 1, 1932
August 10, 1933
Division of Investigation
(The Division also included the Bureau
July 1, 1935
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the investigative arm of
the US Department of Justice. The FBIs investigative authority
can be found in Title 28, Section 533 of the US Code. Additionally,
there are other statutes, such as the Congressional Assassination,
Kidnapping, and Assault Act (Title 18, US Code, Section 351), which
give the FBI responsibility to investigate specific crimes.
The FBI motto is Fidelity, Bravery,
in arrests in the 'Pizza Connection' case.
The mission of the FBI is to protect and defend the United States against
terrorist and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce
the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership
and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and
international agencies and partners.
The organization with these responsibilities has not always been called
The FBI will strive for excellence in all aspects of its missions.
In pursuing these missions and vision, the FBI and its employees will
be true to, and exemplify, the following core values:
Adherence to the rule of law and the rights conferred to all under the
United States Constitution;
Integrity through everyday ethical behavior;
Accountability by accepting responsibility for our actions and decisions
and the consequences of our actions and decisions;
Fairness in dealing with people; and
Leadership through example, both at work and in our communities.
Past and Present
Since its creation in 1908, the FBI has had ten Directors:
A. Bruce Bielaski
William J. Flynn
William J. Burns
J. Edgar Hoover
Clarence M. Kelley
William H. Webster
William S. Sessions
Louis J. Freeh
Robert S. Mueller, III
1. Protect the United States from terrorist attack.
2. Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations
3. Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks
and high-technology crimes.
4. Combat public corruption at all levels.
5. Protect civil rights.
6. Combat transnational and national criminal organizations and enterprises.
7. Combat major white-collar crime.
8. Combat significant violent crime.
9. Support federal, state, county, municipal, and international partners.
10. Upgrade technology to successfully perform the FBIs mission.
The FBI is headed by a Director who is appointed
by the President and confirmed by the Senate. On October 15, 1976,
in reaction to the extraordinary 48-year term of J. Edgar Hoover, Congress
passed Public Law 94-503, which limits the term of each FBI Director
to ten years.
current Director, Robert S. Mueller, III, was confirmed as Director
of the FBI by the Senate on August 2, 2001. He took the oath of office
on September 4, 2001. Director Mueller previously served as US Attorney
for the Districts of Northern California and Massachusetts and as Assistant
Attorney General in charge of the Department of Justices Criminal
Division. Director Mueller has experience in the private practice of
law and is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers. For three
years, he also served as an officer in the United States Marine Corps.
Director Mueller holds a bachelor of arts degree from Princeton University,
a masters degree in international relations from New York University,and
a law degree from the University of Virginia.
in Washington, D.C.
Headquarters is currently located in the J. Edgar Hoover Building
on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, DC The Special Agents and
support personnel who work at Headquarters organize and coordinate
FBI activities around the world. Headquarters personnel determine
investigative priorities, oversee major cases, and manage the
organizations resources, technology, and personnel. Headquarters
also has a role in gathering and distributing information. If
a Special Agent in Boise, Idaho, has some information that would
help an Agent in New York City solve a case, Headquarters is
responsible for making sure the information gets from Boise to
|In the late
1990s, the FBI put a professional scientist in charge of the
Laboratory and instituted reforms to improve evidence handling
and optimize research.
a key role in fighting terrorism. It is the focal point for intelligence,
not only from around the country, but from the CIA and various countries
overseas. Headquarters takes the intelligence information it collects,
analyzes it, and sends it to field offices, state and municipal police
departments, and other federal agencies such as the Department of
As the FBI has
grown, some Headquarters functions have been moved to other locations.
The Criminal Justice Information Services Division is located in
Clarksburg, West Virginia. The Laboratory and Investigative Technologies
Divisions are located in Quantico, Virginia. Other specialized facilities,
such as high-tech computer forensics centers, are at various locations
across the country.
In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the FBI received a total of $4.298 billion,
including $540.281 million in net program increases to enhance Counterterrorism,
Counterintelligence, Cybercrime, Information Technology, Security,
Forensics, Training, and Criminal Programs.
The nuts and bolts work of the FBI is done in its 56 field offices
and their 400 satellite offices, known as resident agencies. It is
the Special Agent in the field who looks for clues, tracks down leads,
and works with local law enforcement to catch and arrest criminals.
A Special Agent in Charge oversees each field office, except for the
largest field offices, in Washington, DC; Los Angeles; and New York
City, which are headed by an Assistant Director.
In addition to its field offices across the United States, the FBI
has 45 offices known as Legal Attachés or Legats located
around the world. Legats are our first line of defense beyond our borders.
Their goals are simpleto stop foreign crime as far from American
shores as possible and to help solve international crimes that do occur
as quickly as possible.
To accomplish these goals, each Legat works with law enforcement and
security agencies in their host country to coordinate investigations
of interest to both countries. Some Legats are responsible for coordination
with law enforcement personnel in several countries. The purpose of
these Legats is strictly coordination; they do not conduct foreign
intelligence gathering or counterintelligence investigations. The rules
for joint activities and information-sharing are generally spelled
out in formal agreements between the United States and the Legats
host country. The entire worldwide Legat program is overseen by a Special
Agent in Charge located at FBI Headquarters.
HISTORY OF THE FBI
Charles J. Bonaparte
Examiner Stanley Finch was first to head the new federal
July 26, 1908, Attorney General (AG) Charles J. Bonaparte ordered
a small force of permanent investigators (organized a month earlier)
to report to the Department of Justice’s Chief Examiner, Stanley
Finch. AG Bonaparte declared that these investigators would handle
all Department of Justice (DOJ) investigative matters, except certain
bank frauds. At first, little seemed to come of AG Bonaparte’s reorganization.
1909, this investigator force was named the Bureau of Investigation
(BOI). At this time, it investigated antitrust matters, land fraud,
copyright violations, peonage (involuntary slavery), and twenty other
matters. Over the next decade, federal criminal authority and Bureau
jurisdiction were extended by laws like the 1910 “White-Slave Traffic” Act
that put responsibility for interstate prostitution under the Bureau
for a time and the 1919 Dyer Act that did the same for interstate
auto-theft. US entry into World War II in April 1917 led to further
increases in the Bureau’s jurisdiction. Congress and President Wilson
assigned the BOI’s three hundred employees responsibility for espionage,
sabotage, sedition, and selective service matters.
1920’s brought Prohibition, the automobile, and an increase in criminal
activity. Bank robbers, bootleggers, and kidnappers took advantage
of jurisdictional boundaries by crossing state lines to elude capture.
A criminal culture marked by violent gangsters flourished, but no
federal law gave the BOI authority to tackle their crimes and other
law enforcement efforts were fragmented. The Bureau addressed these
matters as its jurisdiction permitted throughout the 1920’s.
In 1924, Attorney
General Harlan Stone appointed John Edgar Hoover as Director. Director
Hoover (1924-1972) implemented a number of reforms to clean up what
had become a politicized Bureau under the leadership of William J.
Burns (1921-1924). Hoover reinstated merit hiring, introduced professional
training of new Agents, demanded regular inspections of all Bureau
operations, and required strict professionalism in the Bureau’s work.
gangster "Baby Face Nelson"
John Dillinger and his gang terrorized the Midwest from
September 1933 until July 1934, killing 10 men, wounding
7 others, robbing banks and police arsenals, and staging
3 jail breaks. On July 22, 1934, Dillinger was shot and
killed by FBI Agents outside the Biograph Theater in Chicago.
Under Hoover, the
Bureau also began to emphasize service to other law enforcement agencies.
The Identification Division was created in 1924 to provide US police
a means to identify criminals across jurisdictional boundaries. The
Technical Crime Laboratory, created in 1932, provided forensic analysis
and research for law enforcement, and the FBI National Academy, opened
in 1935, provided standardized professional training for America’s
law enforcement communities.
In answer to the
violent crime of the 1930’s, Congress began to assign and expand
new authorities to the Bureau. The kidnapping and murder of Charles
Lindbergh’s baby son in 1932 led to the passage of the Federal Kidnapping
Act, which allowed the Bureau to investigate interstate kidnappings.
The 1933 Kansas City Massacre spurred the passage of the 1934 May/June
Crime Bills. These laws gave the Bureau authority to act in many
new areas, to make arrests, and to carry weapons. Renamed “Federal
Bureau of Investigation” in 1935, the FBI dealt with gangsters severely,
earning its anonymous agents the nickname “G-Men.”
As the gangster threat
subsided, a threat of a different nature emerged. In 1936, President
Roosevelt directed the FBI to investigate potential subversion by
Nazi and Communist organizations. In 1940, he tasked the Bureau with
responsibility for foreign intelligence in the western hemisphere
and domestic security in the United States. In response, the Bureau
created a Special Intelligence Service (SIS) Division in June 1940.
The SIS sent undercover FBI Agents throughout the Western Hemisphere.
These Agents successfully identified some 1,300 Axis intelligence
agents (about 10% of whom were prosecuted). When President Truman
ordered the program’s end in 1947, several former SIS offices became
the backbone of the FBI’s foreign liaison efforts, now serving as
Legal Attaché Offices. FBI efforts also thwarted many espionage,
sabotage, and propaganda attempts on the home front, including Frederick
Duquesne’s spy ring in 1941 and George Dasch’s band of saboteurs
When Germany and
Japan surrendered in 1945, concern about the threat of foreign intelligence
did not end. Revelations that year from former Soviet intelligence
agents like Igor Guzenko and Elizabeth Bentley, information gleaned
from FBI investigations during and after the war, and decrypted/decoded
Soviet cable traffic called “Venona” (available to the Bureau from
1947), convinced the FBI of the seriousness of the Soviet intelligence
threat long before Senator Joseph McCarthy made his 1950 speech about
communist “moles.” Under the Hatch Act (1940) and Executive Orders
issued in 1947 and 1951, the Bureau exercised responsibility for
ensuring the loyalty of those who sought to work in the government.
The FBI played a critical role in US handling of the Cold War.
In the 1950’s, civil
rights violations and organized crime became matters of increasing
concern. As in the past, lack of jurisdiction hindered the Bureau
from effectively responding to these problems when they first emerged
as national issues. It was under the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the
1965 Voting Rights Act that the Bureau received legislative authority
to investigate many of the wrongs done to African Americans in the
South and elsewhere. Under existing laws, the Bureau’s efforts against
organized crime also started slowly. Then, with the 1968 Omnibus
Crime Control and Safe Streets Act and the 1970 Organized Crime Control
Act, Congress gave the Bureau effective weapons with which to attack
organized criminal enterprises, Title III warrants for wiretaps and
the Racketeering and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO).
During the 1960’s,
subversion remained a central focus of Bureau efforts. The counter-cultural
revolution turned the Bureau’s attention towards violent student
movements, as criminal groups like the Weather Underground and the
Black Panthers engaged in both legitimate political action and illegal
crime. The Bureau responded to the threat of subversion with Counterintelligence
Programs (COINTELPRO) first against the Communist Party (1956), later
against other violent/subversive groups like the Black Panthers and
the Ku Klux Klan (1960’s). These programs resulted in the Bureau,
at times, effectively stepping out of its proper role as a law enforcement
During the 1970’s, Bureau actions, which were publicly revealed through
a strengthened Freedom of Information Act (1966, amended in 1974),
resulted in congressional investigations like the Church Committee
and the Pike Committee hearings in 1975. In response to criticisms
emerging from these revelations, the Bureau worked with Attorney General
Levi to develop guidelines for its domestic counterintelligence investigations.
Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director for almost 50 years.
In the wake of Director
Hoover’s death in May 1972, Director Clarence M. Kelley (1973-1977)
refocused FBI investigative priorities to place less emphasis on
having a high number of cases and to focus more on the quality of
cases handled. Working with the Bureau and Congress in 1976, Attorney
General Edward Levi issued a set of investigative guidelines to address
the concerns of Bureau critics and to give the FBI the confidence
of having public, legal authority behind its use of irreplaceable
investigative techniques like wiretaps, informants, and undercover
agents. These investigative techniques were used to great effect
in cases like ABSCAM (1980), GREYLORD (1984), and UNIRAC (1978).
In 1983, as concerns about terrorist acts grew, Attorney General
William French Smith revised the Levi Guidelines to adjust the Bureau’s
ability to prevent violent radical acts.
H. Webster (1977-1987) built upon Director Kelley’s emphasis on investigative “quality” cases
by focusing Bureau efforts on three Priority Programs: White Collar
Crime, Organized Crime, and Foreign Counterintelligence. Later, Illegal
Drugs (1982), Counterterrorism (1982), and Violent Crimes (1989)
were also identified as priority programs. This concentration of
resources brought great success against Soviet and East Bloc intelligence
as more than 40 spies were arrested between 1977 and 1985. The FBI
also made breakthroughs against white-collar crime in investigations
like ILLWIND (1988) and LOST TRUST (1990), and in organized crime
cases like BRILAB (1981) and the PIZZA CONNECTION (1985).
During the 1990’s,
criminal and security threats to the United States evolved as new
technology and the fall of communism in the Soviet bloc changed the
geopolitical world. The 1993 bombing of the World Trade Centers and
the 1995 bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building highlighted
the potentially catastrophic threat of both international and domestic
terrorism. The FBI responded to the emerging international face of
crime by aggressively building bridges between US and foreign law
enforcement. Under the leadership of Director Louis J. Freeh (1993-2001),
the Bureau dramatically expanded its Legat Program (39 offices by
fall 2000); provided professional law enforcement education to foreign
nationals through the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA)
in Budapest (opened in 1994) and other international education efforts;
and created working groups and other structured liaisons with foreign
The Bureau also strengthened
its domestic agenda. Responding to criticism of its actions in the
1993 standoffs at Waco, Texas, and Ruby Ridge, Idaho, the Bureau
revamped its crisis response efforts. The FBI’s commitment to law
enforcement service was strengthened by the computerization of its
massive fingerprint collection database, enhancements in the National
Crime Information Center, and by the revitalization of the FBI Laboratory.
In 1997, the Bureau hired its first professional scientist to head
the Lab. The Lab tightened its protocols for evidence control, instituted
organizational changes to optimize research specialization, and earned
On September 4, 2001,
former US Attorney Robert S. Mueller, III, (2001 to present) was
sworn in as Director with a mandate to address a number of tough
challenges: upgrading the Bureau’s information technology infrastructure;
addressing records management issues; and enhancing FBI foreign counterintelligence
analysis and security in the wake of the damage done by former Special
Agent andconvicted spy Robert S. Hanssen.
Then within days
of his entering on duty, the September 11 terrorist attacks were
launched against New York and Washington. Director Mueller led the
FBI’s massive investigative efforts in partnership with all US law
enforcement, the federal government, and our allies overseas. On
October 26, 2001, the President signed into law the US Patriot Act,
which granted new provisions to address the threat of terrorism,
and Director Mueller accordingly accepted on behalf of the Bureau
responsibility for protecting the American people against future
terrorist attacks. On May 29, 2002, the Attorney General issued revised
investigative guidelines to assist the Bureau’s counterterrorism
To support the Bureau’s
change in mission and to meet newly articulated strategic priorities,
Director Mueller called for a reengineering of FBI structure and
operations that will closely focus the Bureau on pevention of terrorist
attacks, on countering foreign intelligence operations against the
US, and on addressing cyber-based attacks and other high technology
crimes. In addition, the Bureau remains dedicated to protecting civil
rights, and to combating public corruption, organized crime, white-collar
crime, and major acts of violent crime. It is also strengthening
its support to federal, county, municipal, and international law
enforcement partners. And it is upgrading its technological infrastructure
to successfully meet each of its priorities.
At the start of the
new millennium, the FBI stands dedicated to its core values and ethical
standards. Commitment to these values and standards ensures that
the FBI effectively carries out its mission.
FBI SPECIAL AGENTS AND EMPLOYEES:
What it takes to work for the FBI
for the FBI
Agents receive specialized training to become part of the
elite Hostage Rescue Team.
of June 30, 2003, the FBI employed 11,633 Special Agents and 15,904
Professional Support people. The FBI hires its own employees through
recruitment efforts by the field offices and a centralized hiring
system at Headquarters. Due to the FBI’s responsibilities in criminal
law enforcement and in the Intelligence Community, all FBI employees,
whether they are Special Agents or Professional Support, must qualify
for a top-secret security clearance before they can begin their service.
This qualification includes an extensive background investigation.
The FBI does not make a final decision to hire an individual until
all the information gathered during the background investigation
is assessed. Once hired, all FBI employees must maintain their eligibility
for a top-secret security clearance, undergo a limited background
check every five years, and submit to random drug tests throughout
positions within the FBI also require a medical examination, and
some require employees to sign an agreement stating their willingness
to be assigned anywhere in the world.
FBI Employee Statistics (as of 6/30/2003)*
Number of Men
Percent of Total
Number of Women
Percent of Total
Percent of Total
Number of Men
Percent of Total
Number of Women
Percent of Total
Percent of Total
*Due to rounding, percentages may not total to 100 percent.
FBI Employees with Disabilities (as of 6/30/2003)
FBI EMPLOYEES WITH DISABILITIES
FBI Special Agents are specially trained personnel,
chosen from an extensive pool of applicants because they possess specific
areas of expertise. To be an FBI Special Agent, an individual must:
• be a United States citizen;
• be at least 23 and not yet have reached his or her 37th birthday on appointment;
• have at least a bachelor’s degree from an accredited, four-year resident program
at a college or university;
• pass a written examination;
• complete several in-person interviews; and
• pass a comprehensive medical examination, including vision
and hearing tests.
Applicants with these qualifications
will be chosen if they have specific experience or expertise needed
by the FBI. The criteria changes over time according to the FBI’s current
priorities. Traditionally, the FBI seeks applicants with backgrounds
in law enforcement, law, or accounting. Today, the FBI not only seeks
applicants with these backgrounds, but also with expertise in languages,
computers, and the sciences. For information on what specific skills
the FBI is looking for today, check http://www.fbi.gov.
Once chosen, applicants must complete an intensive, seventeen-week
training program at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. This training
program teaches new Special Agents the basic skills they will need
to conduct effective investigations in all the FBI’s investigative
programs, such as:
• Ethics, with practical law enforcement applications
intrusions and fraud
• Communications and interviewing
• Evidence collection and handling
• Equal opportunity employment and cultural sensitivity
• Computer search and seizure
• Human behavior
• Communications and interviewing
• Constitutional criminal procedure
• Physical fitness and defensive tactics
• Practical problems
|What does the FBI look
for during a background
a person’s general attitude, trustworthiness, reliability, and
Associates: types of people, groups,
and organizations the person has been associated with, focusing
in particular on whether those associates are disreputable or
known to be disloyal
Reputation: a person’s general standing in the community
Loyalty: the person’s attitude and allegiance to the United States
Ability: the person’s capacity or competence to perform well
in an occupation
an irrational attitude directed against any class of citizen
or any religious, racial, gender, or ethnic group
Financial Responsibility: whether lifestyle or spending habits
are consistent with the person’s means
excessive use of alcohol that impacts on a person’s behavior
Illegal Drug Use/
Prescription Drug Abuse: any use of illegal drugs or abuse of
Trainees who complete the program are sworn in as
Special Agents of the FBI. The new Agents then begin a two-year
probationary period in which they must demonstrate the basic skills
they learned at Quantico and learn advanced investigative techniques
on the job from more experienced Special Agents. After the probationary
period, Agents are required to keep their skills up to date through
ongoing training. Agents may also choose to obtain special certification
as a Special Agent Bomb Technician, a Technically Trained Agent,
or a member of the elite Hostage Rescue Team.
The FBI’s current staffing needs
and investigative priorities determine to which office a new Agent
will be assigned. During their careers, Special Agents are required
to relocate to other offices in order to meet the FBI’s needs.
Federal law requires that Special Agents retire by
age 57. In rare circumstances, the FBI Director may grant one-year
extensions, up to age 60, for a particular Special Agent.
Professional Support Employees
The majority of the FBI’s workforce is made up of
Professional Support employees, who work alongside and in support
of Special Agents. Some Professional Support positions require only
that an applicant be 16 years old and possess a high school diploma
or GED; many others require college degrees, or even advanced degrees,
and specific work experience. All Professional Support employees
must complete the same application and go through the same background
investigation process as Special Agents, but are not generally required
to pass a written entrance exam or have a medical examination. There
is no mandatory retirement age for most Professional Support employees.
The FBI offers some unique career opportunities for Professional
• The FBI Laboratory is staffed by experienced scientists and engineers from
all applied science disciplines and supported by field office evidence technicians
• FBI Headquarters divisions and field offices rely on the expertise of legal
advisors, intelligence analysts, foreign language translators, fingerprint examiners,
electronics technicians, surveillance experts, writers, and accountants to complete
• Computer specialists, policy and management analysts, and other subject-matter
experts handle the technical, administrative, and program-oversight responsibilities
critical to FBI operations.
• Intelligence and surveillance experts help track criminals and terrorists,
often using sophisticated equipment.
• Firearms experts work with guns and help train Special Agents.
• The FBI Security Division is staffed by experienced security specialists and
technical experts from all security disciplines, including personnel, physical,
and training, as well as information assurance and information systems security.
• The FBI has its own specially trained police force.
• The FBI also has a staff of well-qualified clerical workers and experienced
and maintenance personnel.
THE SCOPE OF FBI INVESTIGATIVE ACTIVITIES
Counterterrorism has always
been a top priority for the FBI, but today it is the Bureau’s overriding
mission to prevent acts of terrorism before they happen. This effort
is managed by the Counterterrorism Division at Headquarters and carried
out by every individual field office, resident agency, and Legat. Headquarters
provides a team of analysts who work to put together bits of information
gathered by the field offices. Headquarters also administers a national
threat warning system that allows the FBI to instantly distribute important
bulletins to law enforcement agencies and public safety departments. “Flying
Squads” provide specialized counterterrorism knowledge and experience,
language capabilities, and analytical support as needed to FBI field
offices and Legats.
The FBI’s Counterterrorism Division collects, analyzes, and shares
critical information and intelligence with the proper authorities to
combat terrorism on three fronts: 1) international terrorism operations
both within the United States and in support of extraterritorial investigations;
2) domestic terrorism operations; and 3) counterterrorism relating
to both international and domestic terrorism.
An essential weapon in the battle against terrorists is the Joint Terrorism
Task Force (JTTF). A National JTTF, located at Headquarters, includes
representatives from the Department of Defense, Department of Energy,
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, Customs
Service, Secret Service, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Additionally, there are 66 local Joint Terrorism Task Forces where
representatives from federal agencies, state and local law enforcement
personnel, and first responders work shoulder-to-shoulder to track
down terrorists and prevent acts of terrorism in the US
On the morning of September 11, 2001, at 8:45 a.m., hijacked American
Airlines Flight #11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade
Center in New York City. Twenty minutes later, another hijacked plane,
United Airlines Flight #175, crashed into the South Tower. One hundred
fifty-seven people were killed on the two planes, and thousands were
killed in the towers and on the ground when the two towers collapsed.
At 9:39 a.m., a third hijacked plane, American Airlines Flight #77,
crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, killing 64 people
on the plane and 125 on the ground. At 10:10 a.m., hijacked United
Airlines Flight #93 crashed in Stony Creek Township, Pennsylvania,
killing 44 passengers and crew.
|The September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World
Trade Center in New York City drove FBI personnel from the
New York Field Office. Agents and support personnel quickly
stood up a temporary command center and worked closely with
law enforcement and first responders in the hours following
Within minutes of
these attacks, the FBI’s Command Center, the Strategic Information
and Operations Center (SIOC) was operational. SIOC provided analytical,
logistical, and administrative support for the teams on the ground
in New York, Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon. A new command center
in New York City had to be established because the FBI field office
was too close to “ground zero.” Evidence response teams and the FBI’s
Disaster Squad were deployed to the crash sites.
Efforts began as a search-and-rescue mission. As days passed, the crash
sites became crime scenes, and the tedious process of evidence collection
began. Focus shifted from rescue efforts to a large-scale, global terrorism
investigation. The FBI quickly mobilized more than 7,000 employees
to support the investigation — the most complex and comprehensive in
its history. At the peak of the investigation, more than 6,000 Special
Agents were working on the case. Over 250 Laboratory and other personnel
and 20 Legats overseas were pursuing leads and coordinating investigative
activities with their foreign counterparts.
FBI personnel worked around the clock, chasing down thousands upon
thousands of leads and conducting hundreds of interviews. They searched
through mountains of debris at ground zero and at the Fresh Kills Landfill
on Staten Island looking for clues, identifying remains, and examining
vast amounts of evidence.
Several hundred Special Agents were sent around the world to pursue
leads, to interview detained terrorist suspects in Afghanistan, Guantanamo
Bay, and other locations, and to support the work of national and international
FBI investigators found letters handwritten in Arabic in three separate
locations. The first was in a suitcase of hijacker Mohamed Atta, which
did not make the connection to American Airlines Flight #11; the second
was in a vehicle parked at Dulles International Airport belonging to
hijacker Nawaf Alhazmi; and the third was at the crash site in Pennsylvania.
Translations of the letters indicate an alarming willingness to die
on the part of the hijackers.
Flight voice and data recorders from Flight #93 confirmed that the
passengers engaged in a fight for their lives with their four hijackers,
saving the lives of unknown individuals on the ground.
Within a matter of days, the FBI identified the 19 hijackers using
flight, credit card, banking, and other records. On October 10, the
FBI announced a new “Most Wanted Terrorists List.” On December 11,
the Attorney General and FBI Director announced the indictment of Zacarias
Moussaoui in connection with the attacks.
Case: AHMED RESSAM
On December 14, 1999, Ahmed Ressam, a 34-year-old Algerian, was arrested
at Port Angeles, Washington, attempting to enter the United States
with components used to manufacture improvised explosive devices. He
subsequently admitted that he planned to bomb Los Angeles International
Airport on the eve of the Millennium 2000 celebrations.
Forensic scientists from both the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
and the FBI examined the evidence in this case. An FBI Laboratory Explosives
Unit examiner compared evidence found in Ressam’s motel room with items
seized in Post Angeles. The RCMP Laboratory identified the presence
of explosives and developed a DNA profile from a pair of pants and
shoes recovered in Ressam’s apartment. They also observed several holes
in the pants that were consistent with an acid spill. With this information,
the FBI Seattle Field Office examined Ressam’s legs and discovered
a large burn. At the trial, a doctor specializing in burns testified
that the burn on Ressam’s leg was consistent with an acid burn.
In the FBI Laboratory, a piece of hair was observed on a piece of clear
tape inside one of the four time-delay fusing systems. The questioned
hair was examined by the Trace Evidence Unit and determined to have
the same microscopic characteristics as Ahmed Ressam’s hairs.
Khobar Towers bombing, Saudi Arabia, June 1996
Latent prints developed
on the four timing devices and a map of Los Angeles showing three
airports circled were associated with Ressam. A date book, on which
13 of Ressam’s fingerprints were developed, included the addresses
of two bin Laden collaborators. It also contained the addresses of
the firms that Ressam used to obtain the electronic components and
precursor chemicals for the manufacturing of the explosives.
Additionally, credit card purchases at several electronics shops in
Montreal, Canada, were discovered. An Explosives Unit examiner traveled
to Canada and purchased the same items, demonstrating to the jury that
Ressam could have purchased electronic components that were consistent
with the components used in the construction of the time delay fusing
systems recovered in the trunk of the rental vehicle.
After reviewing the items recovered in Montreal and Vancouver, the
Explosives Unit examiner obtained several rolls of tape and a small
piece of wire insulation for comparison. Subsequently, a forensic chemist
determined that the packaging tape and clear tape recovered in Ressam’s
Montreal apartment were consistent in physical characteristics and
chemical composition to those removed from the time-delay fusing systems.
Accordingly, the pieces of tape removed from the four time delay fusing
systems could have originated from the roll of packaging tape and clear
tape recovered from Ressam’s apartment. In addition, a small piece
of wire insulation was recovered from the Vancouver motel room. The
chemist determined that it was consistent in physical characteristics
and chemical composition to the wires used in the time delay fusing
Ahmed Ressam was tried and convicted in federal court of Conspiring
to Commit an Act of International Terrorism and eight related charges.
Ressam is scheduled to be sentenced in 2003.
Case: ABORTION CLINIC ANTHRAX THREAT
In October and November, 2001, two waves of threat letters signed by
the Army of God and claiming to contain anthrax were sent to abortion
clinics and women’s health centers. The first wave was sent through
the US Postal Service; the second wave was sent by Federal Express.
To date, the FBI Laboratory has received over 200 of these letters.
Chemistry Unit personnel examined the powders and determined them to
be flour and chalk dust. None tested positive for anthrax.
FBI experts made a positive link between fingerprints on threat letters
and fingerprints belonging to Clayton Lee Waagner, a 45-year-old fugitive
on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted List. Waagner was arrested on December
Counterterrorism Case: BOMBING OF THE USS COLE
On October 12, 2000, the US Navy destroyer USS Cole was attacked by
suicide terrorists who steered a small boat alongside the ship as it
was refueling in the Yemini port of Aden. The small boat then exploded,
tearing a hole 40 feet wide near the waterline of the Cole and killing
seventeen US sailors.
The FBI quickly deployed over 100 Agents from the Counterterrorism
Division, the Laboratory, and various field offices to Aden. Then-Director
Louis Freeh soon arrived to assess the situation and to meet with Yemen
President Ali Abdallah Saleh. On November 29, a guidance document was
signed between the US State Department and the Yemeni government setting
protocols for questioning witnesses and suspects. FBI and Yemini investigators
proceeded with interviews, and a large amount of physical evidence
was shipped back to the FBI Laboratory for examination.
FBI photographers took pictures of the crime scene that assisted in
identifying the victims and provided detailed photographic information
regarding the impact of the explosion. Later, FBI personnel from the
Explosives Unit, Investigative Support Section, and Special Photographic
Unit, as well as Bomb Technicians and Agents from the New York and
Jackson Field Offices, traveled to Ingalls Shipbuilding in Pascagoula,
Mississippi, where the Cole had been brought, to examine the ship for
The extensive FBI investigation ultimately determined that members
of the Al-Qaeda terrorist network planned and carried out the bombing.
Oklahoma City bombing aftermath, April 1995
As the lead counterintelligence
agency within the United States Intelligence Community, the FBI has
the principal authority to conduct and coordinate counterintelligence
investigations and operations within the United States. The FBI is
the only federal agency with a mandate to investigate foreign counterintelligence
cases within US borders. Specially trained FBI counterintelligence
experts monitor and neutralize foreign intelligence operations against
the United States and investigate violations of federal laws against
espionage, misuse of classified data, and other criminal matters relating
to national security issues. The counterintelligence program is also
involved in international terrorism threats, weapons of mass destruction
threats, and attacks on the nation’s critical infrastructures (i.e.,
communications, banking systems, and transportation systems). Supported
by other US agencies as needed, the FBI also conducts espionage investigations
anywhere in the world when the subject of the investigation is a US
citizen. The FBI’s counterintelligence program strives to be predictive
and proactive and to maintain a protective umbrella around the nation’s
critical technology, infrastructure, and information.
The theft of intellectual property and technology by foreign parties
or governments directly threatens the development and manufacturing
of US products, resulting in a weakened economic capability and diminished
political stature for this country. In response, the FBI has dramatically
increased the number of investigations aimed at stopping economic espionage.
CounterINTELLIGENCE Case: CUBAN SPY RING
On September 12, 1998, a major FBI foreign counterintelligence investigation
culminated in the arrests of ten members of a Cuban spy ring operating
in south Florida. The spy ring was targeting the region’s major US
military installations, including the US Southern Command and the local
Cuban émigré community. Three of those arrested were Cuban intelligence
officers who had infiltrated the United States and assumed the identities
of deceased American children.
Five spy ring members pled guilty and received sentences ranging from
42 months to seven years imprisonment. The remaining five, including
the Cuban intelligence officers, were convicted of all charges, including
Conspiracy to Commit Espionage, and received sentences ranging from
15 years to life imprisonment. One of the Cuban intelligence officers
was also convicted of Conspiracy to Commit Murder for his role in the
February 1996, destruction by the Cuban Air Force of two unarmed civilian
planes of the Miami-based Brothers to the Rescue organization. He received
two life sentences. In August 2001, the FBI arrested two additional
members of the spy ring. Both entered into plea agreements and on January
4, 2002, received sentences of seven years and 42 months. The Naval
Criminal Investigative Service provided significant support throughout
the FBI’s investigation of the network’s activities against the US
Counterintelligence Case: TAIWAN’S
FBI counterintelligence programs include efforts to stem the flow of
US corporate secrets to foreign countries under the Economic Espionage
Act of 1996. Taiwan companies and individuals have been convicted of
efforts to steal US companies’ proprietary or trade secret information
since 1997. Dr. Ten Hong Lee of Taiwan’s Four Pillars Company allegedly
received over $150,000 from Four Pillars for his involvement in the
transfer of Avery Dennison’s proprietary manufacturing information
and research data over the previous decade. In October 1997, Dr. Lee
pled guilty to wire fraud charges in connection with his illegal conveyance
of trade secrets from the Avery Dennison company to Four Pillars employees.
In January 2000, the US District Court fined Four Pillars $5 million.
Counterintelligence Case: ROBERT P. HANSSEN
Robert Hanssen was a FBI counterintelligence officer who volunteered
to spy for the Soviet Union in 1985. He gave classified FBI and US
Intelligence Community information to the Soviets through letters and “dead
drops” in the United States. The Soviets, who never knew his identity,
gave him several payments of tens of thousands of dollars.
Park, near Vienna, Virginia, was one of Hanssen's favorite "dead
Identifying and building
a case against Hanssen was challenging because the FBI had to investigate
a current employee who was trained and experienced in counterintelligence
techniques. In late 2000, the FBI Laboratory was given a suspect
bag containing several packages of documents, a tape recording, some
computer diskettes, and an envelope wrapped in plastic. The thumbprint
on the plastic wrapping matched Hanssen’s known thumbprint. The tape
recording was enhanced by experts at the Laboratory’s Forensic Audio,
Video and Image Analysis Unit and, after a foreign-speaking voice
was edited out, Hanssen’s voice was tentatively identified. Next,
the Laboratory’s Questioned Documents Unit examined the documents,
did a handwriting comparison and found clues that the writing was
Covert surveillance that included photography, court-authorized searches,
forensic computer analysis, and other sensitive techniques revealed
that Hanssen had routinely accessed FBI records and secretly provided
those records and other classified information to Soviet and Russian
On February 18, 2001, the FBI was able to catch Hanssen in the act
of filling a dead drop with classified materials for the Russians.
He was arrested on the spot. On July 6, 2001, Hanssen pleaded guilty
to 15 espionage-related charges.
The FBI plays two very important roles in cyberspace. First,
it is the lead law enforcement agency for investigating cyber attacks
by foreign adversaries and terrorists. The potential damage to the
United States’ national security from a cyber-based attack includes
devastating interruptions of critical communications, transportation,
and other services. Additionally, such attacks could be used to access
and steal protected information and plans. The FBI also works to
prevent criminals, sexual predators, and others intent on malicious
destruction from using the Internet and on-line services to steal
from, defraud, and otherwise victimize citizens, businesses, and
The Cyber Division at Headquarters manages investigations into Internet-facilitated
crimes and supports Counterterrorism, Counterintelligence, and Criminal
investigations that call for technical expertise. In addition, most
FBI field offices have specialized cyber squads. Cyber Action Teams
or “CATS” are available to assist with specialized expertise anywhere
in the world. FBI Regional Computer Forensic Laboratories throughout
the country help state and local law enforcement solve cases where
evidence is locked in a computer.
The FBI’s Internet Fraud Complaint Center (IFCC) operates as part of
a cyber-community watch. The self-policing efforts of honest and vigilant
Internet users result in potential fraudulent activity over the Internet
being brought to the attention of law enforcement through the IFCC.
The IFCC does much more than just collect complaint information. It
ensures that the information, along with additional investigative information
developed by IFCC personnel, is disseminated to the appropriate agencies
and that identified fraud schemes are either prevented or mitigated.
The IFCC processes and refers all complaints it receives, regardless
of the alleged dollar loss. In its first year of operation, the IFCC
received 36,410 complaints, resulting in 30,503 valid criminal complaints.
The IFCC turns complaints into reports and forwards them to, on average,
two or three law enforcement agencies. The referral process has spawned
hundreds of criminal investigations throughout the country. The FBI
uses the data to identify multiple victims, various crime trends, and
same-subject cases, thus initiating the investigative phase of the
CYBER ATTACKS: NET JAM
Cyber attacks can take many forms, including worms, web site defacing,
distributed denial of service (DDoS), and physical attacks. These attacks
have been increasing at an alarming rate since the rapid growth of
the Internet in the 1990’s. NET JAM is the code name for a series of
DDoS attacks which began on February 7, 2000. This case was investigated
by the FBI in Atlanta, Boston, Dallas, Los Angeles, San Antonio, San
Francisco, Seattle, Washington, DC, and several Legal Attache offices
DDoS attacks prevent victims from offering their web services on the
Internet to legitimate users. A DDoS attack uses compromised computer
networks to flood a victim’s computer network with massive amounts
of data, overwhelming the victim’s computer network and causing it
to stop operating.
During the investigation, the
FBI determined that the perpetrator resided in Canada, and called upon
the FBI’s Legal Attache in Ottawa to gain the assistance of the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).
On April 15, 2000, the RCMP arrested a Canadian juvenile known as Mafiaboy
for the February 8th DDoS attack on CNN in Atlanta, Georgia. On August
3, 2000, Mafiaboy was charged with 64 additional counts. On January
18, 2001, Mafiaboy appeared before the Montreal Youth Court in Canada
and pleaded guilty to 56 counts. These counts included mischief to
property in excess of $5,000 against Internet sites, including CNN.com,
in relation to the February 2000 attacks. The other counts related
to unauthorized access to several other Internet sites, including those
of several US universities. On September 12, 2001, Mafiaboy appeared
before the Montreal Youth Court in Canada and was sentenced to eight
months “open custody,” one year probation, and restricted use of the
ON-LINE CHILD PORNOGRAPHY: OPERATION CANDYMAN
The FBI’s Houston Field Office initiated Operation CANDYMAN after an
undercover agent identified three eGroups (Candyman, Shangri_la and
Girls12-16), now called Yahoo! Groups, involved in posting, exchanging,
and transmitting child pornography.
Through the issuance of a court order to Yahoo!, the FBI was provided
11,670 unique email addresses which participated in the three eGroups.
Subsequent subpoenas, court orders and search warrants uncovered enough
information to identify 1,822 domestic and 4,664 foreign subjects.
As of March 4, 2003, FBI field offices across the United States had
executed over 608 searches, indicted 131 individuals, arrested 125,
and obtained 69 convictions in connection with the Candyman investigation.
Sixteen of the subjects arrested have admitted to the molestation of
58 children. Arrests have included teachers, a school bus driver, a
fireman, a police and fire commissioner, a Big Brother/Big Sister caseworker
and a cheerleading instructor.
ON-LINE UNDERCOVER: INNOCENT IMAGES
In May 1995, the Baltimore FBI Office began an undercover operation—code
named “Innocent Images”—to target people who use computers to receive
and/or distribute child pornography and to recruit minors into illicit
sexual relationships. Since then, the case has grown to become a national
FBI initiative that addresses the sexual exploitation of children,
particularly through the use of on-line computers. More than 2,000
people have been convicted to date.
In early 2002, a 15-year-old girl disappeared from her home. Her parents
contacted the police and reported that their daughter was “on the Internet
all the time and could possibly be missing due to Internet enticement.” The
police requested FBI assistance. Two days later, the FBI received a
telephone call from an anonymous individual stating he was on his computer,
in a “sadomasochistic” chat room. The individual also stated the subject
was bragging and sending real-time photographs of a young female he
identified as his “sex slave,” who he was allegedly molesting and torturing.
The FBI determined the girl in the photographs was the victim. The
Internet Protocol (IP) address of the subject was captured, and the
Internet service provider was subpoenaed to obtain the identity and
address of the subject. The subject’s home was identified.
The local FBI field office, along with the police, responded to the
location, made forcible entry, and recovered the victim. No other individuals
were located in the residence. The victim was restrained to a bedpost
with a dog collar around her neck and a 22’ chain with two padlocks.
She was clothed only in thong underwear and had visible bruises. She
was taken to a local hospital.
The kidnapper was arrested at his place of employment without incident.
INTERNET FRAUD: JAY NELSON
In August 2000, the Internet
Fraud Complaint Center (IFCC) made a referral to the appropriate federal,
state, and local law enforcement agencies regarding Jay Nelson, also
known as (a.k.a.) Richard Nelson, doing business as Harddrives4sale.com.
Complainants alleged that Nelson was selling computer equipment via
Internet auction sites, but ultimately failing to deliver the purchased
merchandise. Investigation by the San Jose Police Department determined
that Rick Pascale, originally thought to be a subject in an unrelated
matter, was in fact one of several aliases used by Nelson. An investigation
of Jay Nelson was initiated by the United States Postal Inspection
Service (USPIS) in Boston, Massachusetts. In November 2000, a search
and seizure warrant was executed at Nelson’s residence, at which time
several computers were seized. Nelson was subsequently arrested on
January 30, 2001, but released on the conditions that he turn over
any computers and agree not to use the Internet. On February 14, 2001,
Nelson fled town one day prior to his arraignment. Nelson was then
placed on the USPIS’s Most Wanted List. An investigation determined
that Nelson was moving from town to town, staying at each location
only long enough to perpetrate a new scam. On July 17, 2001 Nelson
was arrested in Kissemmee, Florida. Nelson’s Internet fraud scheme
victimized over 300 individuals resulting in monetary losses in excess
of $1 million. The excellent communications between the IFCC and the
USPIS resulted in linking seven separate cases to Nelson.
The FBI’s highly sensitive public corruption investigations focus on
all levels of government (local, state, and federal) and include allegations
of judicial, legislative, regulatory, contract, and law enforcement
corruption. Law enforcement corruption accounts for more than one-third
of the current corruption investigations. These cases typically involve
law enforcement officers accepting money to protect (or facilitate)
drug-trafficking and organized criminal activity. Uncovering cases
of public corruption is a unique FBI responsibility.
PUBLIC CORRUPTION CASE: COLOR OF LAW
On April 8, 1999, Orange, New Jersey, Police Department (OPD) Officer
Joyce A. Carnegie was shot and killed after confronting a robbery suspect.
On April 11, 1999, Earl D. Faison was arrested as the suspect in Officer
Carnegie’s murder. While in police custody, Faison subsequently died
as a result of complications from asthma. Another suspect ultimately
confessed to the murder.
Faison’s family alleged police brutality during his arrest and incarceration,
and in April 1999, the FBI’s Newark Field Office initiated a Color
of Law investigation. They conducted numerous interviews, crime scene
analyses, and extensive use of the federal grand jury. On June 20,
2000, five OPD officers were indicted by a federal grand jury in the
District of New Jersey. All five were convicted of beating Faison.
PUBLIC CORRUPTION CASE: COLOR OF LAW
On October 19, 1999, Rafael A. Perez, a now former officer with the
Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), began confessing to local prosecutors
about a number of criminal acts performed by him and several other
LAPD officers assigned to the Rampart District. The FBI initiated an
investigation. In exchange for leniency on a state cocaine theft charge
and immunity from prosecution for other local crimes, Perez began cooperating
with local prosecutors. He revealed that on October 12, 1996, Javier
F. Ovando, an arrestee who was unarmed and handcuffed, was shot multiple
times by Perez and Nino Durden. After the shooting, the officers planted
a sawed-off .22 caliber rifle on the victim, filed false criminal charges
against him, and testified falsely at his criminal trial.
On February 9, 2001, Durden admitted his role in the shooting and subsequent
cover-up involving Ovando. He entered guilty pleas and is awaiting
On November 29, 2001, Perez was charged with firearms violations and
conspiracy. He entered into a plea agreement with the government, admitted
to his role, and is awaiting sentencing. Ovando served three years
of a 23-year sentence before he was released.
The FBI is the only federal entity with responsibility for investigating
allegations of federal civil rights violations and abuses. In pursuit
of this mission, the FBI investigates violence and hate crimes by individuals
and/or members of racist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan. The FBI
also investigates allegations of misconduct on the part of law enforcement
officers, including physical abuse, infliction of summary punishment,
and deprivation of rights through fabrication of evidence. The Bureau
works with state and municipal law enforcement agencies, prosecutors,
and special interest/minority groups to improve reporting of civil
rights violations and to design proactive strategies for identifying
and mitigating systemic police brutality.
Other areas of emphasis are as follows: 1) enforcing the Freedom of
Access to Clinic Entrances Act, which bars conduct that would obstruct
access to reproductive health facilities; 2) investigating discrimination
in housing; 3) enforcing the Equal Credit Opportunity Act; and 4) non-organized
crime-related exploitation (involuntary servitude) of women and children.
CIVIL RIGHTS CASE: JAMES CHARLES KOPP
On October 23, 1998, Dr. Barnett Slepian was fatally wounded by a single
gunshot fired into his residence by an unknown sniper. Dr. Slepian
ran a well-known medical clinic that provided abortions and other women’s
health services. The shooting was similar to shootings in Rochester,
New York, and three Canadian cities during the fall of 1997, in which
abortion doctors were shot in their homes. The FBI field office in
Buffalo, along with the Amherst Police Department and the New York
State Police, immediately started an investigation into the shooting.
James Kopp was charged in a federal complaint and subsequent indictment
with violating the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act, Unlawful
Flight to Avoid Prosecution, and firearms charges. On June 7, 1999,
he was added to the FBI’s “Ten Most Wanted Fugitives” list. In the
course of an extensive fugitive investigation, the FBI used Title IIIs,
substantial surveillance, and helpful witnesses, and worked closely
with a variety of other domestic and international law enforcement
agencies. These efforts led investigators to France, where Kopp was
On June 5, 2002, Kopp was taken into custody at Le Bourget Airport
in Paris, France, by FBI Agents from the Buffalo Office and transported
back to the United States. Kopp was convicted of second-degree murder
on March 18, 2003, and is awaiting trial on a federal charge of interfering
with the right to an abortion.
CIVIL RIGHTS: INVOLUNTARY SERVITIUDE AND SLAVERY
On February 28, 2001, the FBI Field Office in Honolulu began investigating
the Daewoosa Company, which operated a garment factory on American
Samoa and employed approximately 250 laborers from Vietnam. The investigation
revealed that upon arrival in American Samoa, victims’ passports were
confiscated by company employees, and they were forced to work to pay
off smuggling fees of approximately $7,000. Daewoosa employees used
threats, intimidation, and physical force to maintain control over
the victims. Some female employees were sexually assaulted and forced
to work as prostitutes, and those who became pregnant were either forced
to have abortions or forced to return to Vietnam.
On March 23, 2001, Kil Soo Lee was arrested in American Samoa by the
FBI Honolulu Field Office on charges of Involuntary Servitude and Forced
Labor. Three subjects have entered guilty pleas to date, and the trial
of Kil Soo Lee is expected in October 2002. FBI Honolulu is conducting
a parallel investigation involving the white-collar crime aspects of
the investigation with the assistance of the US Attorney’s Office.
CIVIL RIGHTS: RACIAL DISCRIMINATION/ARSON
In January 2001, the Mantiwoc Police Department in Wisconsin asked
the FBI’s Milwaukee Field Office to assist in investigating a hate-related
arson case. Their joint investigation uncovered a helpful witness who
identified several individuals responsible for the arson. The investigation
also determined that gasoline was used as an accelerant and that the
fire was set at the only usable door of the home. Eight family members
narrowly escaped through a window, but the residence was completely
destroyed. According to the source, Andrew Franz had said that he started
the fire to “get rid of the Asians living there.”
The investigation resulted in the identification and successful prosecution
of seven individuals. All were either convicted or pled guilty to federal
civil rights and arson charges and were all sentenced to lengthy prison
terms. Andrew Franz received 20 years in prison.
The FBI’s fight against organized crime is unlike other criminal programs.
Instead of focusing on individual crimes, the FBI’s Organized Crime
Program targets the entire organization responsible for a variety of
criminal activities. The FBI has found that even if key individuals
in an organization are removed, the depth and financial strength of
the organization often allows the enterprise to continue.
The FBI focuses its efforts on structured criminal groups that pose
the greatest threat to American society. These criminal enterprises
include traditional, well-entrenched organizations such as La Cosa
Nostra and Italian Organized Crime, Russian/Eurasian Organized Crime,
Nigerian Criminal Enterprises, and Asian Criminal Enterprises. Additionally,
because many organized crime groups are drawn to the lucrative profits
associated with drug trafficking, the FBI also focuses investigations
on the Cali, Medellin, and North Coast Colombian drug cartels, Mexican
Drug-Trafficking Organizations, and organizations based in the United
The dismantling or disruption of major international and national organized
criminal enterprises is an area of FBI expertise. The FBI is uniquely
qualified to dismantle organizations because of the experience, training
and expertise of its Agents, the FBI’s presence throughout the country,
and its history as a methodical and thorough investigative agency.
The FBI’s mission is accomplished through sustained, coordinated investigations
and the use of the criminal and civil provisions of the RICO statute.
ORGANIZED CRIME CASE: LA COSA NOSTRA (LCN)
In the early 1990s, Vincent “Chin” Gigante, the Boss of New York’s
Genovese LCN, was indicted and arrested as a result of the FBI’s investigation
of LCN infiltration of New York City’s construction industry. Gigante
was charged with ordering six murders — including that of Gambino LCN
Boss John Gotti — and conspiring in three others; he was also charged
with labor racketeering and extortion. Feigning mental illness, Gigante
had his trial postponed twice, but in June 1997, after being ruled
mentally competent, his trial began. Gigante was convicted and sentenced
to 12 years in prison. As a result of this investigation, 20 other
LCN members were convicted and $4 million in illegally obtained LCN
assets were forfeited.
DRUG TRAFFICKING CASE: OPERATION RESURRECTION
FBI Laboratory creates crime scene models, like this one
of a gang-related shooting, for use in court.
The FBI conducted
an undercover operation targeting the drug-trafficking and money-laundering
activities of the Colombia-based Diego Montoya-Sanchez organization.
This investigation revealed that the Montoya-Sanchez drug-trafficking
organization shipped cocaine via Ecuador to Mexico, where it was
off-loaded onto trucks for land shipment to Florida, New York, and
Montreal, Canada. The FBI used sources at the highest levels within
Colombia and successfully engaged high-ranking members of the Montoya-Sanchez
drug trafficking organization in a conspiracy to ship 2,000 kilograms
of cocaine to the United States from olombia. The FBI worked with
Colombian law enforcement in efforts to locate and arrest Montoya-Sanchez.
This investigation served as a case study in international and interagency
cooperation. The FBI and Colombian law enforcement worked seamlessly
to conduct a highly complex and broad-ranging international investigation
which, with the indictment of Montoya-Sanchez, significantly impaired
and disrupted the ability of a highly effective transnational criminal
enterprise to operate within the United States and Colombia. The
increased coordination with foreign law enforcement agencies and
entities ensured the operation’s ultimate success.
White-collar crimes are categorized by deceit, concealment, or violation
of trust and are not dependent on the application or threat of physical
force or violence. Such acts are committed by individuals and organizations
to obtain money, property, or services, to avoid the payment or loss
of money or services, or to secure a personal or business advantage.
The FBI investigates white-collar criminal activities, such as money
laundering, securities and commodities fraud, bank fraud and embezzlement,
environmental crimes, fraud against the government, health care fraud,
election law violations, copyright violations, and telemarketing fraud.
In general, the FBI focuses on organized crime activities that are
international, national, or regional in scope and where the FBI can
bring to bear unique expertise or capabilities that increase the likelihood
of a successful investigation and prosecution. In the health care fraud
arena, the FBI targets systemic abuses, such as large-scale billing
fraud that is national or regional in scope and fraudulent activities
that threaten the safety of patients. The FBI pursues financial institution
fraud involving $100,000 or more. In cases of telemarketing and insurance
fraud, the FBI will generally become involved where there is evidence
of nationwide or international activities.
COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT CASE: OPERATION CYBERSTORM
In March 2000, the FBI started undercover operation CYBERSTORM to find
and prosecute individuals and groups involved in making and selling
counterfeit software and illegally re-marking computer central processing
Several cooperative witnesses told investigators that some individuals
and companies in San Jose, California, were engaged in the illegal
remarking and brokering of CPUs and the manufacture and sale of counterfeit
computer software. Based on this information, as well as findings from
a preliminary FBI investigation, numerous individuals and companies
were identified as being involved in the production and distribution
of re-marked CPUs and counterfeit software.
An undercover Agent started and ran a phony business engaged in the
buying and selling of gray market CPUs and computer software. In order
to be accepted by the computer industry, the Agent routinely purchased
counterfeit products and sold legitimate computer components to targeted
CYBERSTORM uncovered a large network of software pirates and manufacturers
in California. On April 18, 2002, 27 individuals were arrested, and
the counterfeit products recovered during the conduct of these searches
were estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars.
HEALTH CARE FRAUD
CASE: ROBERT R. COURTNEY
In July 2001, the FBI’s Kansas City Division discovered that Robert
Courtney, a pharmacist, was diluting doses of Gemzar and Taxol, two
chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer patients. Agents set up a sting
operation to purchase drugs from Courtney’s pharmacy and sent approximately
six prescriptions to the Food and Drug Administration for testing.
The tests showed that prescriptions prepared by Courtney, which should
have had 100 percent of the prescribed drugs, actually had anywhere
from 39 percent to less than 1 percent of the cancer drug.
On August 23, 2001, a federal grand jury returned an indictment against
Courtney and his pharmacy, charging eight counts of tampering involving
serious bodily injury and twelve counts of adulteration/misbranding.
On April 19, 2002, Courtney pleaded guilty to all 20 counts and agreed
to accept a sentence of between 17 1/2 years and 30 years in prison,
to forfeit all of his property, and to provide the government with
a full accounting of all his criminal activities and the criminal activity
of any other individual involved.
GOVERNMENTAL FRAUD CASE: APRIL 8 REALTY, LA PUENTE, CALIFORNIA
April 8 Realty fabricated and sold hundreds of false real estate loan
file documents to over 100 real estate agents and investors in the
Los Angeles area between 1997 and 1999. The FBI’s investigation included
an undercover sting operation in which real estate agents and investors
were videotaped purchasing fraudulent loan documentation as part of
a joint Office of Inspector General, Department of Housing and Urban
Development, and FBI housing fraud initiative. The supporting documentation
used to qualify otherwise unqualified home buyers consisted of fraudulent
W-2 forms, manufactured employee pay verification forms, altered bank
statements, and fictitious letters of credit. In total, these fraudulent
documents were used to secure over 1,000 US Government-insured loans.
The investigation led to the guilty pleas of 18 real estate professionals
involved in the fraud in 2001.
HEALTH CARE FRAUD CASE: TAP PHARMACEUTICALS
In 1996, TAP Pharmaceuticals earned $500 million on Medicare reimbursement
for Lupron, a drug to treat prostate cancer. TAP is not directly reimbursed
by Medicare for purchases of Lupron. Rather, Lupron is purchased by
urologists from TAP’s sales representatives. The urologist then submits
a claim to Medicare or any other insurance plan for reimbursement.
Once the urologist is paid, the urologist then pays TAP for his purchases
of Lupron. An FBI investigation revealed that TAP paid kickbacks to
urologists. The kickbacks were paid in several ways, including unrestricted
grants and free samples, free kits of Lupron, office equipment, software,
and tickets to sporting and cultural events.
On October 3, 2001,
TAP entered into the second largest health care fraud settlement
agreement in the United States. TAP was sentenced to a $290 million
criminal fine and accepted a $585 million civil settlement. In addition,
TAP was required to pay interest of approximately $10 million as
agreed to in the settlement. Four urologists were convicted in connection
with this case for the selling of Lupron samples.
Combating significant violent crime is a traditional area of FBI expertise.
The Bureau concentrates on crime problems that pose major threats to
the integrity of American society, such as criminal street gangs, bank
robberies, carjackings, kidnappings, interstate transportation of stolen
property and motor ehicles, assaults and threats of assault on federal
officials, assaulting the President, theft or destruction of government
property, and fugitive matters.
Under the Fugitive Program, the FBI locates and apprehends individuals
wanted in connection with substantive FBI investigations. The FBI also
assists local and state law enforcement agencies in apprehending highly
sought fugitives who may have fled across state lines or left the country.
The primary emphasis is on fugitives sought for serious or violent
criminal acts, including those engaged in large-scale drug trafficking.
The FBI is the primary federal law enforcement agency with statutory
authority to investigate fugitive matters where the fugitive is wanted
on state charges and has crossed state lines. The FBI’s policy and
bjective in investigating fugitive matters is to effect the swift location
and capture of fugitives, particularly those wanted in connection with
violent crimes and substantial property loss or destruction. The FBI
is increasingly tasked to assist with coordinating apprehension efforts
of US fugitives abroad. These fugitives, who fled foreign jurisdiction
and are believed to be in the United States, are wanted for crimes
of violence, including murder, kidnapping, and robbery.
Ten” is a publicity program founded by the FBI in March 1950, along
with the national news media. It is designed to publicize particularly
dangerous fugitives who might not otherwise merit nationwide attention.
The program concentrates on nationwide crime and terrorism, serial
murders, and drug-related crimes. Since its creation, the Top Ten
program has resulted in the location or apprehension of 446 fugitives.
CASE STUDY: ERIC
Eric Franklin Rosser was wanted by authorities for his alleged involvement
in numerous offenses, including the production of a videotape in Thailand
which depicted sexually explicit conduct between him and an eleven-year-old
girl. Rosser later distributed the videotape to a resident of Bloomington,
Indiana. He also allegedly conspired to transport, distribute, and
receive videotapes, photographs, and magazines containing child pornography
involving female children between the ages of nine and eleven years
old. Some of these photographs and visual depictions were placed on
the Internet as a direct result of being smuggled, allegedly by Rosser,
from the United States to Thailand. Rosser was indicted on March 21,
2000, in the Southern District of Indiana and charged with the production,
distribution, receipt, and ransportation of child pornography. As an
admitted pedophile, Rosser was considered dangerous, especially to
The FBI placed Rosser on its list of “Ten Most Wanted Fugitives” on
December 27, 2000. Rosser was also featured on the television program
America’s Most Wanted: America Fights Back. After the program aired,
a viewer’s tip led authorities to believe that Rosser was in the area
and, after surveillance was initiated, Rosser was seen walking on a
city street and then entering a building. Law enforcement authorities
followed Rosser into the building and proceeded to place him in custody.
Rosser was taken into custody on August 21, 2001, at a business in
Bangkok, Thailand. Members of the Crime Suppression Bureau of the Thai
National Police, in cooperation with the FBI’s Legal Attaché Office
in Bangkok, Thailand participated in the arrest.
Illegal drug abuse and its consequences are devastating to our society
and have been recognized as a national security threat by the President,
the Attorney General, and the Director of Central Intelligence. While
other law enforcement organizations seek to disrupt drug-trafficking
organizations, the dismantlement of major international and national
drug-trafficking organizations is an area of FBI expertise and core
competency. Dismantlement means the targeted organization is permanently
rendered incapable of being involved in the distribution of drugs.
At a minimum, this requires three objectives be met: 1) the organization’s
leaders must be completely incapacitated; 2) the organization’s financial
base must be thoroughly destroyed; and 3) the organization’s drug-supply
connection/network must be irreparably disrupted. The FBI’s approach
gives the Special Agents in Charge of each field office the flexibility
to address significant local drug problems, but they must do so in
a manner that is consistent with and contributes to the dismantlement
of national drug-trafficking organizations. The FBI is uniquely qualified
to dismantle organizations because of the experience, training, and
expertise of its Agents, the statutory jurisdictions at its disposal,
the FBI’s presence throughout the country, and its history as a methodical
and thorough investigative agency.
DRUG-TRAFFICKING CASE: OPERATION GREENBACK
The FBI worked with the Drug Enforcement Administration and
the Internal Revenue Service to target a Dominican drug-trafficking
organization operating in western New York. Through the use of a highly
placed cooperating witness, a moneylaundering and drug related police
corruption aspect to this case developed. Multiple wiretaps were put
in place and an undercover operation was initiated. A wiretap, in conjunction
with closed-circuit television, documented four Buffalo Police Department
detectives breaking into an undercover residence for the purpose of
stealing drug proceeds. They were ultimately arrested in March 2000.
The four detectives were charged with stealing $36,000 from an undercover
FBI Agent, possession of a weapon during the commission of a felony,
and civil rights violations. After an eight-week trial, one police
detective was found guilty of drug trafficking, money laundering, and
conspiracy to commit drug trafficking, civil rights violations, and
obstruction of commerce. Two other detectives were convicted of theft
of government property, while a fourth detective was acquitted on all
charges. Three of the detectives were terminated by the Buffalo Police
Department immediately following the verdict, while the acquitted officer
was suspended awaiting termination.
DRUG TRAFFICKING CASE: OPERATION X
This FBI-led investigation targeted the Jose Diogo Theriaga organization,
a transnational methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also known as “ecstasy,” distribution
and money laundering organization operating in Miami, Florida, and
overseas. The Jose Diogo Theriaga organization sought to purchase nightclubs
in Miami as a means to distribute MDMA and launder the proceeds. OPERATION
X also focused on the illicit activities of the Julian Garcia-Herman
Roif organization, a Colombian moneylaundering organization responsible
for the laundering of millions of dollars of proceeds for drugtrafficking
organizations operating in the Miami area. The FBI employed sophisticated
investigative techniques against both organizations, including wiretap
coverage of telephone and computer communications, controlled purchases
of drug evidence, and the use of an undercover operation. OPERATION
X was conducted in concert with the Drug Enforcement Administration,
the United States Customs Service, and the Dutch National Police. The
FBI executed 14 search warrants, indicted and arrested 11 individuals,
and seized $605,000, as well as executing search warrants on electronic
and web-based mail accounts to gather evidence against the members
of the criminal enterprise. This investigation exposed and dismantled
a previously undiscovered major transnational criminal enterprise.
Crimes Against Children
The FBI provides a rapid and effective investigative response
to reported federal crimes involving child victims, such as kidnappings,
sexual assaults, sexual exploitation of children, international parental
kidnappings, and Child Support Recovery Act matters.
On-line child pornography and child sexual exploitation are the largest
crimes against children problems confronting the FBI. To respond, the
FBI started the Innocent Images National Initiative. Innocent Images
is a proactive on-line undercover operation designed to prevent child
pornography and child sexual exploitation committed via the Internet
and on-line services, to identify and rescue witting and unwitting
child victims, to identify and prosecute child sexual offenders, and
to create an on-line environment where would-be offenders are deterred
because of the possibility of communicating with undercover law enforcement
INTERNATIONAL PARENTAL KIDNAPPING: MOHAMAD SALAH HAMOUDA
On April 25, 2000, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
(NCMEC) was notified of a potential International Parental Kidnapping
case by Mary Hamouda, the mother of three children, ages ten, six,
and four. Mary and her husband Mohamad Salah Hamouda were going through
a divorce. Mary had physical custody and a final custody order had
not been issued. The couple had a written agreement, arranged by their
lawyers, that Mohamad would have the children from the evening of April
21, 2000, through the evening of April 22. On April 23, the children
did not report for school. On April 27, Mary filed a complaint with
her local police department regarding the kidnapping of her children.
Mohamad had been born in Lebanon, and she feared that he most likely
fled to that country. The next day a police sergeant brought the case
to the attention of an FBI Agent detailed to the National Center for
Missing and Exploited Children, and asked the FBI for assistance. It
was determined that Mohamad and the children had taken a flight to
The FBI contacted relatives of Mohamad, including his brother Samir.
On June 12, Mohamad contacted his brother in the United States. Samir
notified the FBI that Mohamad had called and was planning to call him
again in approximately one hour. FBI Agents arrived at Samir’s home
and spoke with Mohamad when he called to speak with his brother. Mohamad
said he planned to return to the United States, arriving at Dulles
Airport in Virginia on June 18. Upon his arrival, Mohamad was arrested
and the children were re-united with their mother.
CASE STUDY: MULTIPLE CHILD ABDUCTIONS
In the spring of 2001, a young girl playing outside her apartment in
Louisiana was abducted by an unidentified man in a van. The local FBI
field office quickly set up a 24-hour command center at the local police
department. Neighborhood searches were conducted via the ground and
air. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children and the
America’s Most Wanted television show gave the case media publicity.
A few days later an employee at a bus station recognized the girl and
called the police. The girl was recovered alive—thanks to well-orchestrated,
cooperative action between law enforcement, the media, and the public.
The investigation revealed that the kidnapper drove the girl to a remote
hunting cabin where he repeatedly raped her. He then drove to a bus
station with the intention of putting her on a bus back to her hometown.
The FBI believed this kidnapping might be related to another kidnapping
which had occurred a month earlier. In that case, another young girl
was taken from outside her Texas residence by an unknown white male.
She was held at a remote cabin for six days, sexually assaulted, then
driven back to her neighborhood and released.
Interviews of both girls revealed similarities in the description of
A month later another Texas girl was reported
missing to the FBI. She was last seen getting off a school bus and
talking to a white male who was driving a white car. A witness observed
the girl enter the car and drive away with the subject. Based on the
similarities in the subject’s description, the FBI believed this incident
was related to the two earlier cases. The FBI established a local command
Two days later a vehicle used during the abduction was described as
being light colored with a Texas license plate. FBI Houston disseminated
a composite of the kidnapper, and students from a Houston elementary
school reported they had been approached by an individual fitting the
suspect’s description. The students thought this man’s actions were
strange and wrote down his license plate number. The FBI traced the
car to its registered owner and interviewed him. They learned that
the car was recently sold to a white male, possibly a transient, who
paid cash for the car. No identifying information on the subject was
obtained, which is apparently common practice in Texas. The seller
of the car was shown a composite of the wanted subject and verified
the composite resembled the person who purchased the car.
A search located a traffic citation for the suspect’s car issued a
few months earlier in Texas to Gregory Cox.
A report of a suspicious vehicle near a remote cabin in Texas was received
by the sheriff’s office. Law enforcement officers responded to the
call and observed a compact car occupied by a young female and a male
subject parked next to a small cabin. The female ran from the car toward
the law enforcement officers. The male simultaneously got out of the
car and ran away from the law enforcement officers. The male ran a
short distance and then fatally shot himself in the head.
The suspect was later confirmed to be a known sex offender. Because
his DNA was on file, the FBI Laboratory was able to link known DNA
belonging to the suspect with unknown DNA samples obtained from the
Materials Response Unit
threaten the public health and natural resources of our nation. As
environmental laws become more restrictive, authorized disposal sites
close, the costs of legitimate disposal increase, and the financial
incentive to illegally dispose of hazardous waste grows. At any given
time, the FBI has approximately 450 pending environmental crimes
cases—roughly half of which are Clean Water Act cases. Most investigations
are conducted jointly with other federal agencies, such as the US
Environmental Protection Agency and the US Coast Guard, as well as
with state regulatory agencies.
Environmental crimes involve, among other things, air pollution, water
pollution, and the illegal transportation, storage, and disposal of
hazardous waste. Because of the increasing number of environmental
allegations received, the FBI must focus its resources on matters presenting
the most serious threat to public health and natural resources. Accordingly,
the FBI’s environmental crimes priorities include situations involving:
1) handling hazardous waste and pollutants in such a way as to place
workers in physical danger;
2) environmental catastrophes that devastate the environment, place
entire communities at risk, or cause deaths; 3) violations at federal
government facilities; 4) businesses identified by regulatory agencies
as having a long-standing history of violations or flagrant disregard
for environmental laws; and
5) organized crime activities, generally in the solid waste industry.
The FBI has criminal jurisdiction in Indian Country for major crimes
under the Indian Country Crimes Act (Title 18, United States Code,
Section 1152), the Indian Country Major Crimes Act (Title 18, United
States Code, Section 1153), and the Assimilative Crimes Act (Title
18, United States Code, Section 13). The 1994 Crime Act expanded federal
criminal jurisdiction in Indian Country in such areas as guns, violent
juveniles, drugs, and domestic violence. Under the Indian Gaming Regulatory
Act, the FBI has jurisdiction over any criminal act directly related
to casino gaming. The FBI also investigates civil rights violations,
environmental crimes, public corruption, and government fraud occurring
in Indian Country.
The FBI’s Applicant Program manages background investigations on all
persons who apply for positions with the Department of Energy, the
Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Justice, and the FBI.
The program also oversees background checks for presidential appointees,
White House staff candidates, and US Court candidates. Background investigations
involve interviewing neighbors and coworkers of applicants and checking
criminal and credit records.
LAW ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT
The FBI works to
enhance the criminal justice system’s effectiveness and efficiency
at all levels: national, state, county, and municipal. One of the
key ways the FBI does this is by serving as a national focal point
for criminal justice information, providing accurate and timely services
to local, state, federal, and international law enforcement organizations,
the private sector, academia, and other government agencies.
lab building in Quantico, Virginia
FBI Laboratory was created in 1932 and today is one of the largest
and most comprehensive crime laboratories in the world. The Lab supports
the federal and nonfederal criminal justice systems by conducting
scientific analyses of physical evidence; providing specialized scientific
and technical support to ongoing investigations; developing an automated
database of DNA patterns from evidence and/or individuals for examination
and comparison; providing expert testimony in court; developing a
database and network software to match and exchange images of firearms
evidence from violent crimes; and providing specialized forensic
science training, analysis, and technical assistance to crime laboratory
personnel and crime scene training to law enforcement personnel.
FBI has transitioned from a paper-based system for fingerprint
matching to a completely automated system.
Technologies: The Investigative Technologies Division provides
technical and tactical services in support of investigators and
the Intelligence Community, including electronic surveillance,
cybertechnology, and wireless and radio communications, as well
as the development of new investigative technologies and techniques
and the training of technical Agents and personnel.
Fingerprint Identification: The FBI maintains the Integrated Automated
Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), a state-of-the-art automated
system which accepts and processes fingerprint submissions and related
transactions electronically, and serves as a repository for criminal
history records, which are accessed by users when searching for arrest
record information, and maintains the FBI’s national database of fingerprint
features. IAFIS has the database of fingerprint features. IAFIS has
the capability to process up to 62,500 ten-print fingerprint searches
and 635 latent fingerprint searches daily. IAFIS is administered by
the Criminal Justice Information Services Division, based in Clarksburg,
National Crime Information Center: NCIC is a nationwide computerized
information system accessed by more than 80,000 law enforcement and
criminal justice agencies at all levels of government. It provides
a computerized index of documented criminal justice information on
crimes and criminals, and it includes locator-type files on missing
and unidentified persons. NCIC averages 3.5 million transactions per
day. This system includes the following files:
Gun File—records stolen and recovered weapons that are designed
to expel a projectile by air, carbon dioxide, or explosive action
License Plate File—records stolen license plates, acts as an early
warning to police officers during traffic stops
Missing Persons File—provides centralized computerized system
to help law enforcement locate individuals, including children, who
are not wanted on any criminal charges
ATF Violent Felon File—lists individuals prohibited from possessing
a firearm due to three or more felony convictions or serious drug offenses
Unidentified Persons File—cross-references unidentified bodies
against records in the Missing Persons File
US Secret Service Protective File—maintains names and other
information on individuals who are believed to pose a threat to the
President and/or others afforded protection by the US Secret Service
Vehicle File—assists in the recovery of a stolen vehicle, a
vehicle involved in the commission of a crime, or a stolen part
Violent Gang and Terrorist Organizations File—became operational
in 1995 to identify violent gangs and their members; also contains
records about terrorist organizations and their members
Wanted Persons File—records individuals (including juveniles who
will be tried as adults) for whom a federal warrant, a felony, or serious
misdemeanor warrant is outstanding
Fingerprint Searches—stores and searches on the right index
fingerprint; search inquiries compare the print to all fingerprint
data on file (wanted persons and missing persons)
Convicted Sex Offender—records the names of individuals who
are convicted sexual offenders or violent sexual predators
CASE STUDY: COMBINED
DNA INDEX SYSTEM AND NATIONAL DNA INDEX SYSTEM (CODIS)
On October 21, 2000, David Starkey allegedly tried to abduct a woman
at a shopping mall in Strongsville, Ohio. As the woman was getting
into her car to drive home, Starkey pushed her in and got on top of
her. Another shopper saw what was happening, grabbed the assailant,
and pulled him out of the car. Although he fled, the suspect left behind
a cigarette filter. The Cuyahoga County Coroner’s Office extracted
DNA from the filter and developed a DNA profile that was then searched
in the Ohio State DNA database. The database search found a match with
a DNA profile belonging to Starkey. The match led to Starkey’s arrest
in May 2001 and a conviction in July 2001.
Case Study: DNA
In February 2001, Alvin Avon Braziel, Jr., while serving time for the
1997 sexual assault of a child, was charged with capital murder and
aggravated assault in a 1993 case. The Texas Department of Public Safety’s
DNA database had linked Braziel’s DNA from the 1997 case to the DNA
profile from the previously unsolved 1993 shooting death of 27-year-old
Douglas White and the rape of his 24-year-old wife, Lori. According
to detectives, the armed assailant approached the victims on the campus
of Eastfield Community College, forced the couple to lie on the ground,
shot Douglas in the back of the head and then raped his wife. Over
the past seven years, police had investigated more than 200 leads and
had 40 potential suspects submit to blood testing. Even the show America’s
Most Wanted aired the case ithout results. Finally, the Texas CODIS
database solved these brutal crimes.
CASE STUDY: FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION
On September 12, 1976, a 77-year-old white female was raped and beaten
to death in her home. At the time of the initial investigation, fingerprint
examiners from the New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) developed one
latent fingerprint on a piece of glass and lifted seven other prints.
They manually compared the latents against the New Orleans criminal
fingerprint file without success. In 1979, the fingerprints were sent
to the FBI for entry into an automated search system, but no dentifications
In February 2001, NOPD’s Cold Case Unit retrieved the fingerprints
from their archive and conducted state and local IAFIS searches. Again,
no identifications were made. The NOPD submitted the fingerprints to
the FBI Latent Print Unit requesting IAFIS searches. A latent print
examiner then conducted IAFIS searches of two latent fingerprints.
One of the searches identified a suspect. Seven more identifications
were done manually. NOPD requested a copy of the report to obtain an
arrest warrant. On November 2, 2001, the suspect was arrested and confessed.
He had been released from jail on October 2, 2001. NOPD is now investigating
three additional rapes/homicides that fit his modus operandi.
CASE STUDY: BALLISTICS
On June 2, 2000, a male security guard was murdered. Then during
a robbery, two male store clerks were murdered. Firearms evidence was
recovered from both scenes and submitted for examination. The .40 caliber
bullets and cartridge cases were entered into the National Integrated
Ballistic Information Network. The ballistics examination indicated
that the same gun was used at both scenes. These cases were also linked
with an aggravated robbery that occurred on May 20, 2000. Further investigation
linked an aggravated robbery that occurred on February 11, 2000, when
a wallet was stolen and a credit card used.
Uniform Crime Reporting Program: A nationwide cooperative effort
of city, county, and state law enforcement to report crimes. The Crime
Index consists of eight crimes: violent crimes of murder and non-negligent
manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and property
crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
The program issues an annual report called Crime in the United States
that is intended to measure changes in the overall volume and rate
of crime. You can purchase this report from the US Government Printing
Office in either hard copy or CD-ROM.
National Instant Criminal Background Check System: The Brady Act
requires a background check on all persons who attempted to purchase
a firearm. The FBI established the NICS Operation Center to enforce
the provisions of the Brady Act and to manage, operate, and support
NICS. The NICS mission is to enforce the Brady Act through a system
that ensures the timely transfer of firearms to individuals who are
not specifically prohibited under federal law, and that denies transfer
to those who are prohibited from possessing or receiving a firearm.
The FBI conducts NICS background checks for all firearms purchases
for 27 states and territories and for long-gun purchases in 11 states.
Law Enforcement On-Line: A national interactive, computer communications
and information capability for duly-constituted law enforcement agencies
or approved members of an authorized law enforcement special interest
group. LEO provides a state-of-the-art Intranet to link all levels
of law enforcement nationwide. LEO offers real-time chat capability,
news groups, distance learning, and articles on law enforcement issues,
to name a few.
“Throughout the law enforcement community nationwide
and worldwide, you just say the word, ‘Quantico,’ and people automatically
think leadership and excellence.”
— Bruce J. Gebhardt, Deputy Director
FBI National Training
is always a crime scene in Hogan's Alley, a simulated town
used for operations training.
In the FBI, learning
is a lifelong process for both Special Agents and support personnel.
New Agents’ Training incorporates counterterrorism, counterintelligence,
and cyber investigation matters into basic investigative courses
so Agents are better able to recognize and address these intertwined
threats. For example, training in financial crimes shows Agents how
certain acts should be closely reviewed for possible money laundering
activities by terrorist groups.
FBI support personnel enjoy a variety of training opportunities throughout
their careers, including in-service training on counterterrorism, counterintelligence,
cybecrime, and other matters; language training; distance learning
via satellite; and courses offered through the FBI’s “Virtual Academy.”
College of Analytical Studies
The FBI’s College of Analytical Studies provides training for intelligence
analysts using state-of-the-art computer tools. A variety of courses
are offered to FBI personnel, members of Joint Terrorism Task Forces
around the country, and Department of Justice analysts.
playing at the FBI Academy.
Since 1935, the FBI has offered the National Academy program to experienced
law enforcement managers nominated by their agency heads because
of their leadership qualities.
The 11-week multidisciplinary
program emphasizes leadership development. The University of Virginia
accredits its academic courses. Courses offered include management
science, law, behavioral science, law enforcement communication,
and forensic science. More than 36,000 police managers have graduated
from the FBI National Academy.
Field Police Training
A Special Agent at each FBI field office coordinates training programs
for state and local law enforcement and public safety employees within
that office’s territory. Course topics include hostage negotiation,
computer crime, death investigations, violent crimes, criminal psychology,
and forensics. In FY 2002, the field police training programs trained
48,021 law enforcement and public safety employees.
Leadership and Management Science Programs
The FBI conducts three five-day National Executive Institute seminars
for heads of large law enforcement agencies each year. Since the program
began in 1976, more than 800 top police managers have completed the
seminar. In FY 2000, 59 police managers from mid-sized law enforcement
agencies completed the FBI’s two-week Law Enforcement Executive Development
Seminar (LEEDS). The FBI also offers 18 Regional Mini-LEEDS/Command
Colleges each year for the heads of small law enforcement agencies.
International Training and Assistance
In FY 2002, the FBI provided training to more than 8,050 police officers
and executives representing
118 countries through courses offered at FBI facilities and at on-site
in-country seminars. Courses were offered in Major Case Management
and Terrorist Crime Scenes Investigation, among others. The FBI also
administers an International Law Enforcement Academy in Budapest, Hungary,
and supports a second Academy in Bangkok, Thailand. The curriculums
of both International Academies are based on the FBI National Academy
|Students take firearms training at Quantico.
cars' are used to teach students how to handle a skidding
vehicle. Extra wheels lift the car off the ground, causing
main tires to lose traction with the road surface.
Agent-in-training practices hand-to-hand combat techniques.
INTERNAL INVESTIGATIONS: Ensuring Accountability
“The greatness of an institution can be measured by
the strength of its internal investigations.”
—Robert S. Mueller, III
All FBI offices and programs are subject to regular inspections by
the FBI’s Inspection Division to ensure their economic value and effective
compliance with objectives, governing laws, rules, regulations, and
policies. These reviews are also to ensure that FBI personnel conduct
the organization’s activities in a proper and professional manner.
The Division conducts organizational streamlining studies, program
evaluations, and process-reengineering and improvement projects. The
Inspection Division also ensures compliance with instructions and recommendations
issued as a result of the inspection of field offices, Legats, and
Headquarters, and is responsible for the coordination and processing
of Intelligence Oversight Board matters.
Office of Professional Responsibility
The Office of Professional Responsibility (OPR) is part of the Office
of the Director and is responsible for the investigation of, and the
supervision of investigations of, allegations of criminal conduct and
serious misconduct by FBI employees. Additionally, OPR is responsible
for the adjudication of cases of administrative discipline based on
its investigation, determining whether the allegations have been substantiated,
and making written findings and recommendations regarding what, if
any, disciplinary action is appropriate.
OPR is responsible for setting policy and establishing procedures regarding
the disciplinary process and for monitoring its effectiveness to ensure
that the ability of the FBI to perform its law enforcement and national
security functions is not impaired.
OPR is responsible for the investigation and adjudication of allegations
of wrongdoing on the part of FBI employees and for the resolution of
internal disciplinary matters. It also has responsibility for the ethics
training of all FBI employees throughout their careers.
The Office of the Inspector General (OIG), established by the Inspector
General Act Amendments of 1988, is an independent entity within the
Department of Justice that reports to both the Attorney General and
Congress on issues that affect the Department’s personnel or mission.
The OIG is responsible for finding and discouraging waste, fraud, abuse,
and misconduct among DOJ employees and its programs, and also promoting
integrity, economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in its operations.
The OIG also enforces criminal and civil laws, regulation, and ethical
standards within DOJ by investigating individuals and organizations
that allegedly are involved in financial, contractual, or criminal
misconduct in DOJ programs and operations. This year, the OIG will
devote significant resources to reviewing DOJ programs and operations
that affect its ability to respond to the threat of terrorism. The
current Inspector General is Glenn A. Fine, who was confirmed on December
15, 2000. Inspector General Fine is a Harvard-trained attorney, an
experienced prosecutor, and a long-time civil servant.
The Security Division
The FBI’s Security Division works to ensure a safe and secure work
environment for FBI employees and others with access to FBI facilities,
and to prevent the compromise of national security and FBI information.
It works to prevent espionage and to protect personnel, facilities,
and information from both external and internal threats.
The Security Division is responsible for ensuring the integrity and
reliability of the Bureau’s workforce. It uses the product of personnel
security investigations to determine whether someone can be trusted
to properly protect sensitive or classified FBI information. It performs
polygraph examinations to help determine trustworthiness and to support
The Security Division manages programs to protect staff, contractors,
and Bureau visitors. These programs include force protection, facility
access control, incident reporting and management, and continuity
of operations planning. The division also conducts security training
help prepare staff and contract personnel to execute their general
and specific security responsibilities.
The Security Division manages programs, techniques, and processes
to protect and defend information and information systems by assuring
their integrity, authentication, availability, non-repudiation, and
confidentiality. For documents in an electronic format, this process
is accomplished through information systems certification and accreditation,
access control and “need-to-know”, intrusion detection, as well as
encryption and secure messaging. For hard-copy documents, the division
sets policy that governs the protection of sensitive and classified