book - Deep Water


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History of the Mafia

Section II - 1900-1919:
Mafia network emerges in U.S.,
establishes hierarchy, eliminates competitors.

Click highlighted names to open bios.

1905 1910 1915
Return to Section I (Pre-1900)
Advance to Section III (1920-1931)

Year
Month
Day
Location
Persons
Description of Event
1900


New York

Barrel murder victim is discovered at 11th Street and Avenue A
1900


New York
Ciro Terranova
Terranova, just 11, is known to be working with half-brothers and Ignazio Lupo, 23, in Morello Mob (later known as 107th Street Gang) in upper Manhattan.
President McKinley assassinated in Buffalo, NY - Sept. 6, 1901
1901
Sept.
30
New York
Vito Cascio Ferro
Cascio Ferro arrives in New York aboard La Champagne from Havre, France. The highly regarded Sicilian Mafioso previously lived in New York as a child and moved back to Sicily. He frequently ventured into other countries to escape prosecution and establish international contacts. At this time, his New York contacts appear to be the Morello family.
1902


Grodno, Poland
Meyer Lansky
Birth. (a.k.a. Maier Sucholjansky.)
1902


New York
Ignazio Lupo
Regarded as the leader of the Upper Manhattan Mafiosi. Giuseppe Morello, owner of a cafe at 220 Elizabeth Street and half-brother of Ciro Terranova, is considered a top lieutenant. Authorities believe Lupos and Morellos are blood relations but that may be due to confusion over a translation of the "Zu" (uncle) term of affection and respect given to Mafia leaders at the time.
1902


Chicago
Anthony D'Andrea
Convicted of counterfeiting. D'Andrea is considered an influential figure in the Unione Siciliana.
1902
July
23
Brooklyn
Joe Catania,
Giuseppe Morello
Catania's corpse is discovered packed in a potato sack linked with floor mats at 73rd Street at the bay. His throat had been cut and some bones broken (presumably after the killing in order to fit the corpse into the sack). Some boys heading into the bay for an early evening swim, discover the sack in some tall grass. Morello is believed to have participated in the killing. Catania, 40, was a Brooklyn green grocer who allegedly worked with Lupo-Morello organization on the import of counterfeit American currency manufactured in Sicily. Catania is believed to have violated the secrecy of the group.
1902
Aug.
6
New York, US
Arthur Flegenheimer
Birth at 1690 Second Avenue. ("Dutch Schultz")
1902
Aug.
24
Palermo, Sicily
Carlo Gambino
Birth.
1903
April

Lower East Side, New York, US
Benedetto Madonia,
Ignazio Lupo
According to some sources, Madonia, related to a Mafia clan in Buffalo, began moving into Lupo territory on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. The sources claim that Madonia was coercing Lupo-protected merchants into passing Madonia's counterfeit currency to their customers, and Lupo was enraged because his operations were therefore exposed to the scrutiny of the Secret Service. This, frankly, is a ridiculous argument (as is the suggestion by Balsamo and Carpozi that the quick-tempered and violent Lupo needed to consult with an elder Mafioso in Brooklyn in order to decide to "off" Madonia) since Lupo, himself, shortly entered the counterfeiting business (if he wasn't already in it). Other sources indicate that Madonia was a close relative of a police informer (or may have been one himself). The style in which Madonia was later dispatched makes this account more plausible. Even the proponents of the Balsamo story indicate that Madonia had an imprisoned brother-in-law, Giuseppe DiPrimo, from whom authorities were used to getting information. DiPrimo was jailed for counterfeiting and may have been in competition with the Lupo-Morello gang in that field.
1903
April
14
New York, US
Benedetto Madonia,
Ignazio Lupo,
Giuseppe Morello
Madonia's remains are found at 11th Street and Avenue D. The corpse, bearing more than a dozen stab wounds, is mostly buried in a barrel full of sawdust. Madonia's genitals had been cut from his body and stuffed into his mouth. His throat had been cut from ear to ear. This is generally the full treatment given by Mafiosi attempting to make an example of a squealer. In this case, it appears that Madonia was punished so severely for having a brother-in-law, Giuseppe DiPrimo, who was a police informant while serving time for a counterfeiting conviction.
1903


New York
Joe Petrosino,
Ignazio Lupo,
Giuseppe Morello,
Vito Cascio Ferro
Lt. Petrosino arrests Lupo, Morello and six others for the barrel murder of Benedetto Madonia. None are convicted. Some sources trace the murder to Vito Cascio Ferro, who fled the country back to Sicily at about the time of the police investigation. Possible reasons for the Madonia murder vary. Some suggest that he was a rival to the cooperative organization of Cascio Ferro, Lupo and the Morellos. Some say it was due to Madonia's dabbling in counterfeiting, which Mafiosi feared would expose them to the wrath of the federal government. Another motive for the murder stems from Madonia's apparent relation to an individual - brother-in-law Giuseppe DiPrimo - who either had informed or was about to inform on gang activities to the police. (It may also have been Madonia who was the informer.) Odd as it seems, since it would mean Madonia was killed for an offense that was not his own, the latter motive seems more appropriate to the method of killing and to the available evidence. After eliminating rivals, the early Mafia gangs also eliminated their corpses (without a corpse, the state could not win a murder conviction) - in large furnaces or unlikely places of burial. Barrel murder victims, on the other hand, were meant to be found. The early Mafia accepted the risk of successful prosecution in order to send a clear message of warning to the community. There is evidence that DiPrimo had been cooperating with police. When the barrel murder victim could not be identified, supercop Joe Petrosino brought a photograph of the victim to DiPrimo's cell - not something he would have done if he expected DiPrimo not to cooperate. Investigation into the Madonia murder revealed pieces of the Morello Mob's own counterfeiting operation - ruling out fear of the feds as a motivation for the Madonia killing.
1903


New York
Giuseppe Masseria
Arrives in new York from Sicily. Masseria, about 24, had been a Mafia enforcer.
1903


Chicago
Anthony D'Andrea
President Theodore Roosevelt OK's the release of D'Andrea (counterfeiting) after just 13 months in prison.
1903


New York, US
Nicola Gentile
(a.k.a. "Zu Cola"). Some sources indicate Gentile arrived in New York City from Siculiana, Sicily, in this year, settling with an associate at 91 Elizabeth Street (Messick/Goldblatt). Gentile's arrival is placed later - 1907 - in other sources. After a brief stay in New York, Gentile reportedly traveled west to Kansas City
1903


New York
Annuziato Cappiello The New York Herald reports that Cappiello leads a group of Black Hand extortionists in the city.
1905
Jan.
18
Castellamare del Golfo, Sicily
Giuseppe Bonanno
Birth. (a.k.a. Joe, "Joe Bananas.") Bonanno was born into an established Mafia family.
1905


Castellamare del Golfo, Sicily
Salvatore Sabella
Sabella, just 14, murders his boss. The victim, who was training Sabella in the butcher's art (perhaps a little too well), is believed to have been repeatedly violent with his apprentice.
1905


New York
Joe Petrosino,
Tony Strolle
Petrosino arrests Neapolitan Strolle and succeeds in having him deported.
1905
Oct.

New York, US
Giuseppe DiPrimo
DiPrimo is released from prison. He has sworn to avenge the "barrel murder" of his brother-in-law Benedetto Madonia (1903).
1905
Oct.
24
Browntown, PA, US
Giuseppe DiPrimo,
Tomaso "Il Bove" Petto
A DiPrimo ally apparently catches up with Tomaso Petto, who was believed to have had a role in the Benedetto Madonia barrel murder. (Petto was found to have a pawn ticket for Madonia's watch when he was arrested for the murder.) Petto the Bull had moved to the Wilkesbarre, Pa., area and changed his name to Lucanio Parenno. But that didn't save him from DiPrimo. Petto was murdered at his home. DiPrimo could not have done the deed himself, as he was in prison at the time.
1906


Philadelphia, US
Nicola Gentile
According to Philadelphia Mafia historian Celeste Morello, Gentile was initiated into the Philly Mafia in 1906. Whether this was his actual Mafia initiation or merely a welcome extended to an existing Mafioso is unknown.
1906


New York, US
Ignazio Lupo
Lupo is arrested in connection with the kidnaping of Tony Bonzuffi, son of an East Side banker.
1906
April
28

Tony Accardo
(a.k.a. "Big Tuna") Birth.
1907


New York
Salvatore Lucania (Luciano)
Arrives at age 9 with his family in New York. Settles in Lower East Side, on First Avenue near 14th Street, in a neighborhood generally populated by Jews and Eastern Europeans.
1907
Apr.
17
New York
Joe Petrosino,
Enrico Alfano
Petrosino arrests Alfano, believed to be the leader of the city's Camorra groups, begins process of having him deported. Petrosino's success at arresting and deporting Italian/Sicilian criminals in the city is noted. He is particularly successful against the Neapolitan Camorra members.
1907


New York
Giuseppe Masseria
Arrested and received a suspended sentence for burglary and extortion. Masseria may have been working with the legendary Giosuele at this time.
1907


New York
Nicola Gentile
Visits from Sicily to New York, possibly part of ongoing communication/cooperation between Mafiosi in the two locations.
1908


New York
Ignazio Lupo
Lupo is believed to be operating out of a headquarters at 210 Mott Street. His influence has spread throughout the Sicilian-Italian communities in Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx.
1908


New York, US
Ignazio Lupo
Lupo vanishes from his bankrupt wholesale grocery leaving huge amount of unpaid debts. According to one estimate, Lupo's business debts total $700,000.
1908


Milan, Italy
Salvatore Sabella
Sabella begins a three-year sentence in a Milan prison for the murder of his boss in 1905.
1908


Sicily
Jack Dragna
With Dragna 8 years old, his family takes him back to Sicily after a brief stay in the United States.
1908


New York
Vincent Terranova,
Sam Sicci
Is questioned and released following the murder of "Diamond Sam" Sicci.
1908


Brooklyn
Joe Bonanno
Bonanno, at age 3, comes to US with his family. Settles briefly in Brooklyn.
Ford unveils the Model T - 1908.
1908
May
24

Sam Giancana
Birth.
1908


Chicago
Johnny Torrio,
Jim Colosimo,
Frank Yale
Torrio leaves New York (he had been a leader of the Five Points gangs, which had spread, with Frank Yale's help, into Brooklyn) at the invitation of Chicago underworld leader Jim Colosimo. Torrio is assigned the task of eliminating Black Handers who are preying on Colosimo's operation.
1908


New York
Joe Petrosino,
Enrico Costabili
Lt. Petrosino arrests Neapolitan criminal Costabili and arranges for his deportation.
1908


New York
Raffaele Palizzolo,
Joe Petrosino
Fleeing Sicilian authorities and a murder charge, Palizzolo sails to New York. He is given a hero's welcome by much of the Sicilian-American community, and is banqueted. Petrosino begins to move against him, but Palizzolo leaves the city on his own.
1908


New York
Vito Cascio Ferro,
Ignazio Lupo
Cascio Ferro visits Lupo and Morellos in New York City, possibly to discuss a resolution of the Petrosino problem. Cascio Ferro may have returned to Sicily via New Orleans (to coordinate operations with Mafiosi there).
1908
Oct.

New York
Ignazio Lupo
Lupo reportedly promises to eliminate Petrosino. Makes a trip to Sicily.
1909


New York
Joe Petrosino
New York police decide that information held by Italian and Sicilian police would be helpful in pursuing immigrant criminals. Petrosino is chosen to make a trip to Europe. Is the police department working with Mafia to eliminate Petrosino?
1909
Feb.
19
New York, US
Joe Petrosino
NY Police Commissioner Bingham is on record publicly discussing Petrosino's "secret" mission to Italy and Sicily.
1909
Feb.
21
Rome, Italy
Joe Petrosino
Petrosino arrives in Italy and begins his research. Reportedly being followed.
1909
Feb.
28
Sicily
Joe Petrosino
Arrives in Sicily. Begins touring countryside.
1909
March
14
Palermo, Sicily
Joe Petrosino,
Vito Cascio Ferro,
Ignazio Lupo
Petrosino, touring the Mafia capital alone, is shot and killed by unknown persons. Murder is believed to have been arranged by Cascio Ferro and Lupo and performed by enforcers from New Orleans. Cascio Ferro, who was in the area at the time of the killing, is believed by some to have administered the coup de grace shot to Petrosino's face.
1909


New York, US
Arnold Rothstein
Rothstein opens gambling house at Hotel Francis on West 45th Street. It is reportedly his first established gaming location.
1909
Nov.
15
New York
Ignazio Lupo,
Giuseppe Morello,
Comito
Lupo and Morello and 13 Italian associates are arrested for counterfeiting after police raid their printing plant a stone house in Highland, NY. Morello is arrested at his home and is found to be in possession of Black Hand correspondence with victims in New Orleans. One associate, Pasqual Vasi, is apprehended with 1,200 phoney bills on him. The Secret Service says it recovered counterfeit American and Canadian currency in the raid. Gang's printing specialist, Comito, agrees to testify against the other counterfeiters.
1910
Jan.
26
New York, US
Ignazio Lupo,
Giuseppe Morello,
Comito
Counterfeiting trial of Lupo, Morello and six others begins in the Federal Building in New York City (A handful of others who participated in the counterfeiting operation - including government informant Comito - are to go to trial separately). Judge George W. Ray presides over the U.S. Court for the Southern District of New York. Assistant District Attorney Abel I. Smith is the prosecutor.
1910
Feb.
10
New York, US
Ignazio Lupo
U.S. government considers deporting Lupo back to Italy, where he faces a lengthy sentence for murder, but decides to hold him here.
1910
Feb.
19
New York, US
Ignazio Lupo,
Giuseppe Morello,
Giuseppe Calicchio,
Giuseppe Palermo,
Nicola Sylvestro,
Antonio Cecala,
Vincenzo Giglio,
Salvatore Cina
Judge Ray announces the counterfeiting sentences: Lupo, 30 years, $1,000 fine; Morello, 25 years, $1,000; Calicchio, 17 years, $600; Palermo, 18 years, $1,000; Sylvestro, Cecala, Giglio and Cina, 15 years, $1,000. Lupo and Morello begin sentences of hard labor at Atlanta Federal Prison.
1910
Feb.

New York
Nicholas Morello,
Vincent Terranova,
Ciro Terranova
Without two most powerful Morello Mob personalities jailed, leadership of the gang falls to Nicholas Morello, about 45, Vincent Terranova (who goes by the name "Morello"), 23, and Ciro Terranova, 21.
1911


New York
Meyer Lansky,
Jake Lansky
The Lansky brothers are living in New York's Lower East Side.
1911


New York, US
Giuseppe Gallucci,
Giosue Gallucci,
Aniello "Zopo" Prisco
Zopo is apparently responsible for the death of Joe Gallucci, brother of Giosue Gallucci who would soon be known as "king" of Italian Harlem.
1911
Oct.
29
New York, US
"Chuck" Minaco,
Aniello "Zopo" Prisco,
Nelly Lenere,
Pasquarella Spinelli
Minaco, about 25, was stabbed to death by Lenere, 20, in the home she shared with her step-mother Spinelli. Police hear that Minaco, an associate of Prisco's, gained entrance by telling Lenere he had information about her estranged husband who was near death. According to Lenere, Minaco had beaten here to learn the combination of a safe at the home at 239 E. 109th Street. As he attempted to open the safe, Lenere stabbed him 25 times. Some newspapers speculated that the incident was a lovers' quarrel. The police found that Lenere acted in self-defense, but Zopo swore vengeance on the two women.
1912


Brooklyn, US
Salvatore Sabella
The future Philadelphia Mafia ruler arrives in Brooklyn after sailing from his native Sicily.
1912
March
20
New York, US
Pasquarella Spinelli,
Aniello "Zopo" Prisco,
Nelly Lenere
Prisco appears to follow through on his vow to avenge the death of Chuck Minaco (1911). At dusk, he and an associate corner Pasquarella in her stable, 334 E. 107th Street, and fire three bullets into her. She falls dead as her step-daughter, Lenere, watches from a front window of their new home across the street at 335 E. 107th Street. Lenere later flees the country. Some say she was subsequently found and murdered in Italy.
1912
April
17
New York

Conflict erupts between Sicilians and Neapolitans in the city. Asbury reports that five men are killed in a gun battle at 114th Street and Third Avenue.
1912
June
6
New York, US
W. Bourke Cochran,
Giuseppe Morello
Attorney Cochran files an appeal of the verdict in Morello's counterfeiting trial. He argues that the prosecution earned a guilty verdict in the counterfeiting case by providing evidence that Morello had been guilty of murder. The verdict is upheld by the appeals court.
1912


Castellamare del Golfo, Sicily
Joe Bonanno
The Bonanno family returns home to Sicily after learning of a threat to their interests their.
1912
Oct.

New York
Frank Yale
Uale (a.k.a. Frankie Yale) is charged with disorderly conduct - first charge to go on his police record.
1912
Dec.
16
New York, US
Aniello "Zopo" Prisco,
Giosue Gallucci,
John Russomano
Upstart Prisco has been attempting to extort money from East Harlem rackets boss Gallucci. A meeting was set up between the two men for late Dec. 16 at Nick DelGaudio's barbershop. Gallucci suddently took ill before the meeting and sent word through assistant Tony Capilongo that he would meet Prisco in the rear room of a bake shop downstairs from his apartment. As Prisco arrived, he was shot in the head by Gallucci bodyguard Russomano. Police decided the killing was in self-defense. Gallucci had reported that Prisco shoved a revolver to his belly and demanded $100. Seeing that Russomano drew a weapon. Prisco turned toward Russomano but Russomano got the first shots off. Russomano was subsequently marked for death by members of Prisco's gang. (When police arrived, a Gallucci employee named Michael Morelles was in the front room of the bake shop playing a fiddle. News reports insist that he had been playing the fiddle through the entire incident.)
1913
Feb.
18
New York, US
John Russomano,
Tony Capilongo
Unknown gunmen fired what were believed to be rifles equipped with silencing devices at Russomano and his bodyguard Capilongo as the two were about to enter Russomano's home at 329 E. 109th Street. No shots were heard, but Russomano told police Capilongo (also known as Tony Vivola) turned, cried out and fell. It was then that Russomano felt a sting in one arm, then his back and then his other arm. He cried out for help, and Giosue Gallucci ran over from his nearby business. Police blocked off the street but could not find the gunmen. The incident was believed to be linked to Russomano's killing of Aniello Prisco (1912).
1913
April
9
New York, US
Amadeo Buonomo
Buonomo is shot at close range in the back of the head as he begins to climb downstairs to a wine cellar at 113th Street and First Avenue. Buonomo is believed to have been a member of the Zopo Prisco gang.
1913
May
23
New York
Vito Genovese
Arrived in New York at the age of 16.
1913


New York
Giuseppe Masseria
Masseria, 34 and an emerging figure in Terranova's Harlem operations, is arrested and sentenced to 4.5 years after a failed burglary of a pawn shop at 164 Bowery.
1914


Philadelphia, US
Salvatore Sabella
The future Mafia boss is noted in the south Philadelphia business community.
1914


New York
Umberto Valenti
Valenti's presence in the city is noted by the media.
1914



Jack Dragna
Dragna returns to the U.S. for good. Briefly affiliated with Chicago gangs before establishing himself in southern California.
1914
May
23
New York
Charles Lomonte,
Ciro Terranova,
Giuseppe Masseria
Charles Lomonte is gunned down at 116th Street and 1st Avenue. Lomonte was a trusted ally of Terranova and perhaps the Mafia chief of East Harlem. Author David Chandler believes the murder was the work of Masseria as he broke with Terranova. Other sources feel it was the result of competition with Neapolitans or of a feud with Umberto Valenti.
World War I begins in Europe - July 28, 1914.
1914
Nov.
6
New York, US
Owney Madden
Owney "the Killer" Madden, leader of the Gophers gang, is shot five times by members of the Hudson Dusters gang while relaxing at the Arbor Dance Hall, Seventh Avenue and 52nd Street. Madden survives. He refuses to cooperate with police, choosing to handle the matter himself.
1914
Nov.
28
New York, US
Owney Madden,
William Moore
Madden believed to be responsible for ordering the killing of Hudson Duster William Moore. Moore is killed by Gopher gangsters in a saloon on Eighth Avenue and 41st Street.
1915


New York
Frank Costello
Costello is jailed for one year for carrying a concealed weapon. Serves 10 months.
128 Americans killed after German U-Boat sinks British Lusitania - May 7, 1915.
1915
May
17
New York, US
Giosue Gallucci,
Charles Lomonte
The "king" of the East Harlem underworld is shot to death along with his son Luca at his coffeehouse, 336 E. 109th Street. Gallucci, born in central Italy, had previously led a band of Sicilian and Neapolitan racketeers in East Harlem. The Lomonte brothers and the Terranova-Morello clan were believed to have served as his lieutenants. The murders of Charles Lomonte (1914) and Gallucci seems to indicate that the Sicilian and Neapolitan factions have split.
1915
June
26
Brooklyn
Paul Castellano
Born as Constantino Paul Castellano.
1915
Oct.
13
New York
Thomas Lomonte
Lomonte, brother of the murdered Charles Lomonte (1914), is also killed. He is shot at the corner of 116th Street and First Avenue.
1916


New York
Salvatore Lucania (Luciano)
At 19, he is sentenced to a year behind bars for dealing in narcotics. Serves six months.
1916
March-April

Coney Island
Pelligrino Morano,
Allesandro Vollero,
Antonio Notaro
Notaro is quickly initiated into Brooklyn Camorra as the group plans an attack on the Morello mob leadership.
1916
July
25
New York
Giuseppe DiMarco
As a possible retribution for the Lamonti killings, DiMarco, who ran a gambling establishment at 54 James St., is killed. Terranova is believed to have ordered the hit.
1916
Sept.

Brooklyn
Pelligrino Morano,
Alessandro Vollero,
Vincenzo Paragallo,
Antonio Notaro,
Ralph Daniello
The leadership of the Brooklyn Camorra decides to attack directly against the leadership of the Manhattan Mafia (Morellos Mob). The Camorra is led by Morano, with Paragallo serving as his lieutenant. Vollero appears to have run an affiliated gang. The Camorra assigns Tony Notaro, from out of town, and Ralph Daniello to a group of assassins.
1916
Sept.
7
Brooklyn
Nicholas Morello,
Charles Ubriaco
Nicholas Morello, probably about 51 and acting boss of the Morello Mob, and his bodyguard, 42-year-old Charles Ubriaco, are lured to Brooklyn for peace talks with Neapolitans. They are ambushed and killed on Johnson Street between Fleet Place and Hudson Avenue. Ciro and Vincent Terranova are the remaining leadership of the Morello Mob.
1916
Oct.

New York
Salvatore DiMarco
Police find the remains of Salvatore DiMarco, Neapolitan and brother of murdered Giuseppe DiMarco, under the Manhattan side of the Queensboro Bridge.
1916


New York
Tony Notaro,
Ralph Daniello,
Pelligrino Morano,
Allesandro Vollero
Notaro and Daniello assist police. They claim to have been abandoned by the Neapolitan gang leaderhip after the hit on Nicholas Morello and Charles Ubriaco. Police learn that a state of war has existed between the Sicilians based in Manhattan and the Neapolitans based in Brooklyn for several years. Pelligrino Morano and Allesandro Vollero are jailed for the Morello-Ubriaco killings.
1917


New York

New York police announce to the media that Sicilian and Neapolitan criminal organizations in the city appear to be combining forces.
1917
Jan.

New York
Vito Genovese
Genovese is arrested for carrying a handgun.
U.S. enters World War I - April 6, 1917.
1918


Brooklyn
Frank Yale
Yale oversees Mafia interests in Brooklyn and rises to position of national president of the Unione Siciliana.
1918
May
14
New York
Pelligrino Morano,
Tony Notaro
Notaro testifies against Morano in the trial for the murders of Morello and Ubriaco.
1918
June
6
New York
Ciro Terranova,
Giuseppe DiMarco
Terranova is tried for the hired murders of Charles Lombardi and Joe DiMarco. All testimony against him is ruled to have come from co-conspirators, and Terranova is found not guilty.
Influenza epidemic hits New York City. Single year flu deaths number 12,562 - 1918.
1919


United States

Prohibition Era begins.
1919


Chicago
Alphonse Capone,
Johnny Torrio,
Frank Yale
Capone, wanted for murder in New York, flees to Chicago to work with Torrio. Yale, mentor to Capone, reportedly made arrangements with Torrio. (As non-Sicilians, Torrio and Capone are viewed as allies but not members of the Mafia and the Unione Siciliana.)
World War I ends - June 28, 1919.
1919


Philadelphia, US
Salvatore Sabella
Sabella takes the reins of the Philadelphia Mafia. He was trained for his new position under Giuseppe Traina of the Toto D'Aquila organization in Brooklyn, NY.




















See this website's bibliography page for a list of sources used in compiling this timeline.

Compiled and edited by Thomas Hunt, New Milford, CT
Copyright © 2005-06