Tire Builders at Goodyear, 1918
**Click Here for An Extensive Bibliography on American Labor History since 1865**
** Click Here for 20th Century Labor Documentary Film Festival
If you have a disability, please let me know soon what accommodations are
needed to enhance your participation in this course.
History colloquia and seminars in Urban Studies are courses in which students read and discuss literature on a specific subject. This course focuses on American labor history since 1877, but especially on urban workers in the Twentieth Century. Because this is a reading seminar, and because most of you likely have little knowledge of American labor history, I have designed the course to introduce you to some of the major events and themes in American working-class history, and to let you sample some of the wonderful literature on the subject.
Each week, we will read and discuss a common set of readings. To expand your knowledge of the literature on labor history, each week a few students will present brief oral reports on an article related to the week's focus. Each of you will make several such reports during the semester. Because I want you to read as much as possible, I have kept writing assignments to a minimum. You must prepare an historiographical essay on a subject related to the course that interests you. (See below for details.)
The purpose of these assignments is to
get you immersed in some fascinating subjects and
debates concerning the history of workers in the United States. From the first week's reading it
will be apparent that the writing of American labor history has changed considerably over the last
thirty years. Before the 1960's, most labor historians focused on the history of labor unions.
Reflecting the influence of labor economists at the University of Wisconsin who helped shape the
field of labor history, historians studied the growth and development of trade unions, the varieties
of trade union philosophies, and union structure and function. The work of British and European
social historians in the 1950's and 1960's helped to enlarge--and shift--the focus of labor history to
include the experiences, thought, behavior, and institutions of diverse immigrant and native-born
workers who may or may not have been union members. In ways this course will explore, recent
American labor historians have helped shed new light on working-class history--and United States
history--by examining such things as the relationship between ethnicity, race, gender, and class;
how and why work has changed; the roles of unions, families, churches, and other working-class
institutions in workers' lives; the relationships between working-class cultures and mass culture;
how capitalism, the state, and workers themselves have shaped class relations; and much else.
Although this "new labor history" has been enlightening, friendly critics of this approach charge
that by shifting their focus away from labor unions, the "new labor historians" have neglected the
important ways that unions may have shaped and reflected working-class aspirations and values,
and the larger national culture as well. These critics urge labor historians to combine the
conceptual frameworks and methodologies of the "old" and "new" labor histories.
You will have opportunities to read examples
of the "old" and "new" approaches as we
explore some of the literature on American working-class history in general, and on urban
workers in particular, in the years since the great upheaval of 1877.
Even by limiting the course to the years since
1877, many subjects and much literature
must be omitted. Still, I think we can accomplish much. Specifically, we seek:
1. To obtain an introductory knowledge of the main events and
American labor history and the history of urban workers since 1877;
2. To understand some of the historiographical debates about
working class history,
including the differences between the "old" and "new" labor history;
3. To read and discuss representative literature on periods
and subjects in American
4. To learn ways of conceptionalizing American labor history,
relationships between class, ethnicity, gender, and race;
5. To develop students' abilities to analyze working-class
history in class discussions,
oral reports, and in writing.
The following books are available at the UWM bookstore. They also are on reserve in the library.
1. Ardis Cameron, Radicals
of the Worst Sort: Laboring Women in Lawrence, Massachusetts,
1860-1912. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1995.
2. Kimberly Phillips, Alabama North: African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-Class
Activism in Cleveland, 1915-45. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1999.
3. Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal: Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1990
4. Thomas Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.
5. Stanley Aronowitz, From the Ashes of the Old: American Labor and America's Future. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1998.
Colloquia are cooperative enterprises.
I can suggest some readings and raise some questions, but to learn most
from this course you must participate fully in every respect. This
means you must come prepared to discuss the week's readings, meet deadlines,
and contribute suggestions and comments from which we all can learn.
To help us achieve the course objectives and to create an atmosphere of
cooperative learning, you must assume the following
1. Complete assigned weekly readings before class and be prepared
to discuss them.
For your own benefit, and to facilitate class discussion, I suggest (but do not
require) that you prepare a two-page summary of each week�s readings
in which you briefly state the study's scope, purpose, and thesis; summarize
the major findings; and mention strengths or weaknesses.
2. Collaborate with two or three others and lead the discussion
of one of the core
books. In leading the discussion, briefly summarize the book�s purpose, scope,
and thesis, and analyze how the author supports her/his argument.
Then raise questions for class discussion.
3. Prepare an analytic paper on a subject covered in weeks
3-15 in which you
incorporate reading for that week with other secondary sources drawn from
the bibliography and your own research. You should not try to exhaust
the literature on the subject for these papers. Rather, the purpose is
to critically analyze what light perhaps a dozen different studies shed
on the subject, and on major historiographical questions considered
in the course. Consult with me on this paper early in the semester.
For bibliographical aids, see the annual bibliography on labor history
in Labor History; the bibliography of articles on labor history in
each issue of the Journal of American History; and the indispensable
America: History and Life (library reference room and on the web through the library).
Length: 15-20 pages. Due: May 10.
Please Note: Papers must be typed and double-spaced, and must
conform to professional
standards. Consult a style manual for help.
Class participation: 50 percent
Paper 50 percent
A Note on Reading Assignments:
It is not possible for us to read all of the
many good books on American labor history
since 1865. However, we can sample some of these studies by reading articles that are derived or
are based on the larger works. That is why I have assigned so many articles for this course.
There is much to read, but I have tried to keep the assignments manageable. We will not read
everything that is listed as assignments each week. Instead, we will choose articles that look
I also encourage you to consult the bibliography
this course. If you find articles in this or other bibliographies
that look more interesting to you than the ones I have listed, please let
me know. We can add and substitute
readings at your suggestion.
2/2 WHAT IS THE FOCUS OF AMERICAN LABOR HISTORY
this session, we explore aspects of labor historiography (Brody, Baron),
conceptualizing labor history (Fink, Gutman,), views of urban life and workers,
and a working definition of class (Thompson).
1. David Brody, "The Old Labor History and the New: In Search of an
American Working Class," Labor History 20 (Winter 1979), 11-26.
2. David Brody, Reconciling the Old Labor History and the New," Pacific
Historical Review," 72 (February 1993), 111-126.
3. Ava Baron, "Gender and Labor History: Learning from the Past, Looking
to the Future," in Baron, ed., Work Engendered: Toward a New History of
American Labor. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
4. John Cumbler, �The City and the Community: The Impact of Urban
Forces on Working Class Behavior,� Journal of Urban History 3(4)
5. Leon Fink, "Looking Backward: Reflections on Workers' Culture and
Certain Conceptual Dilemmas within Labor History," in J. Carroll Moody
and Alice Kessler-Harris, eds., Perspectives on American Labor History:
The Problems of Synthesis. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press,
6. James Gregory, �Southernizing the American Working Class: Post-War
Episodes of Regional and Class Transformations,� Labor History 39 (May
7. Herbert G. Gutman, "Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing
America," in Gutman, Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing
America. New York: Knopf, 1976.
8. Howard Kimeldorf, "Bringing the Unions Back in (Or Why We Need a
New Old labor History)," with responses by Michael Kazin, Alice Kessler-
Harris, David Montgomery, Bruce Nelson, and Daniel Nelson, Labor
History 32 (1991), 91-129.
9. John F. McClymer, �Social Space and the Development of Working-Class
and/or Urban Culture,� Journal of Urban History 14(3) (1988), 406-412.
10. E. P. Thompson, "Preface," in The Making of the English Working Class.
New York: Vintage Books, 1963.
11. Joe William Trotter, Jr., �African Americans in the City: The Industrial
Era, 1900-1950,� Journal of Urban History 21(4) (1995), 438-457.
12. Joe William Trotter, Jr., �African-American Workers: New Directions in
U.S. Labor Historiography,� Labor History 35 (Fall 1994), 495-523.
13. Kenneth L. Kusmer, "African Americans in the City Since World War II:
From Industrial to the Post-Industrial Era," Journal of Urban History 21 (4)
(May 1995), 458-504.
THE RISE OF URBAN WORKING CLASSES AND WORKING-CLASS
PROTESTS IN LATE 19TH-CENTURY AMERICA
and workers responded to challenges in post Civil War America in different
Their responses were affected by-- and shaped--work and class relationships as cities
and urban working classes grew. At the root of these responses were intense struggles
for power and control. Depression, employer initiatives, and the maturing industrial society
caused great social dislocations and sparked extraordinary class conflict from the 1870's
through the 1890's. The readings below and two brief films explore these themes and
capture some aspects of workers' protests in these years.
Joshua Freeman, Nelson Lichtenstein, Stephen Brier, et al., Who Built America?
Volume Two: From the Gilded Age to the Present. New York: Pantheon Books,
1992, chapters 1-2.
1. David Montgomery, "Workers' Control of Machine Production in the
Nineteenth Century," in Montgomery, Workers' Control in America:
Studies in the History of Work, Technology, and Labor Struggles.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
2. Roy Rosenzweig, "Reforming Working-Class Play: Workers, Parks, and
Playgrounds in an Industrial City, 1870-1920," in Charles Stephenson and
Robert Asher, eds., Life and Labor: Dimensions of American Working-
Class History. Albany: SUNY Press, 1986.
3. Paul Avrich, The Haymarket Tragedy. Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1984, chaps. 4-5.
4. Nick Salvatore, Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 1982, chap. 5.
5. Eric Foner, "Class, Ethnicity, and Radicalism in the United States: The
Land League and Irish America," Marxist Perspectives 1 (1978), 6-55,
reprinted in Foner, Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
6. John Jentz, "Class and Politics in an Emerging Industrial City: Chicago in
the 1860s and 1870s," Journal of Urban History 17 (1991), 227-264.
7. Paul Krause, The Battle for Homestead, 1880-1892: Politics, Culture, and
Steel. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992, Chapter 2 and Part 6.
8. Herbert G. Gutman, "The Workers' Search for Power: Labor in the Gilded
Age," in Gutman, Power and Culture: Essays on the American Working
Class. New York: Pantheon, 1987.
9. Richard Schneirov, �Rethinking the Relation of Labor to the Politics of
Urban Social Reform in Late Nineteenth-Century America: The Case of
Chicago,� International Labor and Working-Class History 46 (1994), 93-
10. Richard Schneirov, �Political Cultures and the Role of the State in Labor�s
Republic: The View from Chicago,� Labor History 32(3) (1991), 376-400.
FILMS: "THE GRAND ARMY OF STARVATION" AND "THE BAYVIEW MASSACRE"
URBAN WORKERS, THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR, SOCIALISTS, AND
THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR, 1880'S-1890'S
great upheaval of the Gilded Age sparked contending labor ideologies and
organizations. How did the Knights, socialists, and trade unionists differ in
ideology and appeal? What does their existence reveal about American society in
Who Built America, chapter 3.
1. John H.M. Laslett, "Samuel Gompers and the Rise of American Business
Unionism," in Melvyn Dubofsky and Warren Van Tine, eds., Labor
Leaders in America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
2. Richard Oestreicher, "Terrence V. Powderly, the Knights of Labor, and
Artisanal Republicanism," in Dubofsky and Van Tine, eds., Labor Leaders
3. H. M. Gitelman, H. M. "Adolph Strasser and the Origins of Pure
and Simple Trade Unionism," Labor History 6 (1965), 71-82, reprinted in
Daniel J. Leab, ed., The Labor History Reader. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985.
4. Julie Greene, Pure and Simple Politics: The Amerian Federation of Labor
and Political Activism, 1881-1917. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998,
Introduction and Conclusion.
5. Julie Greene et al., Symposium on Pure and Simple Politics: The American
Federation of Labor and Political Activism, 1881-1917, in Labor History
40 (May 1999).
6. Kim Voss, The Making of American Exceptionalism: The Knights of Labor
and Class Formation in the Nineteenth Century. Ithaca: Cornell University
Press, 1993, Introduction and Conclusion.
7. Susan Levine, "Labor's True Woman: Domesticity and Equal Rights in the
Knights of Labor," Journal of American History 70 (September 1983),
8. Stephen Brier, "Interracial Organizing in the West Virginia Coal Industry:
The Participation of Black Mine Workers in the Knights of Labor and the
United Mine Workers of America, 1880-1894," in Gary Fink, ed., Essays
in Southern Labor History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977.
9. Leon Fink, "The Uses of Political Power: Toward a Theory of the Labor
Movement in the Era of the Knights of Labor," in Frisch and Walkowitz,
eds., Working Class America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983.
2/23 ETHNICITY, FAMILY, WORK, UNIONS: 1890'S-1930'S
session focuses on the social history of the "new immigrants" who came
Southern and Eastern Europe between the 1890's and 1920's. How did ethnicity
and gender contribute to working-class unity and disunity? How did families,
unions, and other working-class institutions help immigrants adjust to America and
new work requirements?
Who Built America, chapter 4.
James R. Green, The World of the Worker: Labor in Twentieth Century America.
New York: Haill and Wang, 1990, chapters 1-3.
1. James R. Barrett, "Unity and Fragmentation: Class, Race, and Ethnicity on
Chicago's South Side," in Dirk Hoerder, ed. "Struggle a Hard Battle":
Essays on Working-Class Immigrants. DeKalb: Northern Illinois
University Press, 1986.
2. Paul B. Worthman, "Black Workers and Labor Unions in Birmingham,
Alabama, 1897-1904," Labor History 10 (Summer 1969), 375-406.
3. Virginia Yans-McLaughlin, "A Flexible Tradition: South Italian Immigrants
Confront a New Work Experience," Journal of Social History 7 (Summer
4. Kathy Peiss, "Gender Relations and Working-Class Leisure: New York
City, 1880-1920," in Carol Groneman and Mary Beth Norton, eds., "To
Toil the Livelong Day": America's Women at Work, 1780-1980. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 1987.
5. John J. Bukowczyk, "The Transformation of Working Class Ethnicity:
Corporate Control, Americanization, and the Polish Immigrant Middle
Class in Bayonne, New Jersey, 1915-1925," Labor History 25 (Winter
6. Judith E. Smith, "The Transformation of Family and Community Culture in
Immigrant Neighborhoods, 1900-1940," in Herbert G. Gutman and Donald
H. Bell, eds., The New England Working Class and the New Labor
History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.
7. Christopher K. Ansell, and Arthur L. Burris. �Bosses of the City Unite!
Labor Politics and Political Machine Consolidation, 1870-1910,� Studies in
American Political Development 11 Spring 1997), 1-43.
8. Lawrence Glickman, �Inventing the �American Standard of Living�:
Gender, Race, and Working-Class Identity, 1880-1925,� Labor History 34
(Spring/Summer 1993), 221-235.
9. Nancy L. Green, �Women and Immigrants in the Sweatshop: Categories
of Labor Segmentation Revisited,� Comparative Studies in Society and
History 38 (July 1996), 411-433.
10. Georg Leidenberger, �The Public is the Labor Union: Working-Class
Progressivism in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago,� Labor History 36 (Spring
11. Maxine Schwartz Seller. "The Uprising of the Twenty Thousand: Sex,
Class, and Ethnicity in the Shirtwaist Makers' Strike of 1909," in Dirk
Hoerder, ed., "Struggle a Hard Battle":
12. Julie Greene, "'The Strike at the Ballot Box': The American Federation of
Labor's Entrance into Election Politics, 1906-1909," Labor History 32
(Spring 1991), 165-192.
3/1 THE IWW AND WOMEN WORKERS, 1900-1919
In an era of liberal Progressive reform, radical
working-class groups, often deeply
enmeshed in ethnic subcultures, posed alternative solutions and new challenges to
the shaping of America's liberal state. We explore aspects of this history here.
1. Ardis Cameron, Radicals of the Worst Sort: Laboring Women in
Lawrence, Massachusetts, 1860-1912.
2. Joseph R. Conlin, "William D. 'Big Bill' Haywood: The Westerner as Labor
Radical," in Dubofsky and Van Tine, eds., Labor Leaders in America.
3. Julie Greene, "Negotiating the State: Frank Walsh and the Transformation
of Labor's Political Culture in Progressive America," in Kevin Boyle, ed.,
Organized Labor and American Politcs, 1894-1994: The Labor-Liberal
Alliance. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998, 71-102.
THE EMERGENCE OF BLACK URBAN WORKING CLASS:
CLEVELAND AS A CASE STUDY
Kimberly Phillips, Alabama North: African-American Migrants, Community, and
Working-Class Activism in Cleveland, 1915-45.
THE TRANSFORMATION OF WORK IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY:
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AND FORDISM
scientific management and its successors, capitalists have steadily sought
to gain more control over work, and to replace human labor with technology. In
various ways, and in such diverse settings as department stores, sweatshops, and
factories, workers have created their own work cultures and struggled to maintain
some measure of control over their work. These readings provide some insights
into these developments.
1. Brody, David. "The Rise and Decline of Welfare Capitalism," in Brody,
Workers in Industrial America: Essays on the 20th Century Struggle, 2nd
ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
2. David Montgomery, "Whose Standards? Workers and the Reorganization
of Production in the United States, 1900-20," in Montgomery, Workers'
Control in America.
3. Patricia Cooper, "Women Workers, Work Culture, and Collective Action
in the American Cigar Industry, 1900-1919," in Charles Stephenson and
Robert Asher, eds., Life and Labor: Dimensions of American Working-
Class History. Albany: SUNY Press, 1986.
4. Susan Porter Benson, "'The Customers Ain't God': The Work Culture of
Department-Store Saleswomen, 1890-1940," in Frisch and Walkowitz,
eds., Working Class America.
5. Hugh G. J. Aitken, Scientific Management in Action: Taylorism at
Watertown Arsenal, 1908-1915. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
 1985, chap. 3.
6. David F. Noble, "Social Choice in Machine Production: The Case of
Automated Controlled Machine Tools," in Andrew Zimbalist, ed., Case
Studies on the Labor Process. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979.
7. Patricia Cooper, "The Faces of Gender: Sex Segregation and Work
Relations at Philco, 1928-1938," in Baron, ed., Work Engendered.
3/22 SPRING BREAK
3/29 FROM THE LEAN YEARS TO THE WAGNER ACT: 1919-1935
and unions suffered crunching defeats in widespread strikes in 1919.
Employers adopted welfare capitalism and other measures to keep unions out
permanently. Bleak times for workers in the 1920's became worse as the
Depression set it. The Wagner Act (1935) sought to save capitalism by helping
Who Built America, chapters 5-7.
Green, The World of the Worker, chapter 4.
Robert Zieger, American Workers, American Unions, 2nd ed. Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press,  1994, chapters 1-2.
1. Steve Fraser, "From the 'New Unionism' to the New Deal," Labor History
25 (Summer 1984), 405-430.
2. David Brody, "The Rise and Decline of Welfare Capitalism," in Brody,
Workers in Industrial America.
3. Roy Rosenzweig, "Organizing the Unemployed: The Early Years of the
Great Depression, 1929-1933," Radical America 10 (1976), 37-62.
4. Delores Janiewski, "Seeking 'a New Day and a New Way': Black Women
and Unions in the Southern Tobacco Industry," in Groneman and Norton,
eds., "To Toil the Livelong Day".
5. Elizabeth Faue, "Paths of Unionization: Community, Bureaucracy, and
Gender in the Minneapolis Labor Movement of the 1930s," in Baron, ed.,
6. Christopher M. Sterba, �Family, Work, and Nation: Hazelton,
Pennsylvania, and the 1934 General Strike in Textiles,� Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography 120 (January/April 1996), 3-35.
7. Rosalinda M. Gonzalez, "Chicanas and Mexican Immigrant Families 1920-7
1940: Women's Subordination and Family Exploitation," in Lois Scharf and
John M. Jensen, eds., Decades of Discontent: The Women's Movement.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
8. Darryl Holter, "Sources of CIO Success: The New Deal Years in
Milwaukee," Labor History 29 (Spring 1988), 199-224.
FILM: "THE UPRISING OF '34"
THE RISE OF MASS PRODUCTION UNIONISM AND A NEW DEAL
The Wagner Act gave unions and workers legal authority
production industries, while Roosevelt's New Deal brought millions of workers
into the Democratic Party. But as Liz Cohen suggests in the main reading for this
week, other forces also contributed to working-class victories in the 1930's.
Who Built America, chapter 8.
Green, The World of the Worker, chapter 5.
Zieger, American Workers, American Unions, chapter 2.
Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal.
FILM: "MEAN THINGS HAPPENING"
4/12 WORKING-CLASS IDEOLOGY IN THE 1930S AND 1940S
The 1930s was a pivotal decade in American history.
What do we make of it?
How radical were working-class demands? What influence did radical elements
within the labor movement have on shaping goals and objectives? Why weren't
more workers radical? This week's readings raise--and answer--these and related
questions. They also address another problem. Many historians argue that
workers and organized labor became more ensnared in the state apparatus, and
became more conservative politically, during the war. Some of the readings
below�and some for next week�explore this theme too.
*Means all should read.
*1. Melvyn Dubofsky, "Not So 'Turbulent Years':
A New Look at the 1930s,"
in Stephenson and Asher, eds., Life and Labor.
*2. Bruce Nelson, �Radical Years: Working-Class Consciousness on the
Waterfront in the 1930's,� in Eileen Boris and Nelson Lichtenstein, eds.,
Major Problems in the History of American Workers (Lexington, KY:
D.C. Heath, 1991), 387-407.
*3. John Bodnar, "Immigration, Kinship, and the Rise of Working-Class
Realism in Industrial America," Journal of Social History 14 (Fall 1980),
*4. David Brody, �Thinking about Industrial Unionism,� in Brody, Workers in
Industrial America: Essays on the 20th Century Struggle (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1993), 120-156.
*5. Richard Oestreicher, "Urban Working Class Political Behavior and
Theories of American Electoral Politics, 1870-1945," Journal of American
History 74 (March 1988), 1257-1286.
6. Nelson N. Lichtenstein, Labor�s War at Home: The CIO and World War
II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982, chapters 1 and 2.
7. David Montgomery, "American Workers and the New Deal Formula," in
Montgomery, Workers' Control in America.
8. Sharon Hartman Strom, "Challenging 'Woman's Place': Feminism, the Left,
and Industrial Unionism During the 1930s," Feminist Studies 9 (Summer
9. Martin Halpern, "Taft-Hartley and the Defeat of the Progressive
Alternative in the United Auto Workers," Labor History 27 (Spring 1986),
10. Howard Kimeldorf, "World War II and the Deradicalization of American
Labor: The ILWU as a Deviant Case," Labor History 33 (Spring 1992),
11. Ronald Schatz, "Philip Murray and the Subordination of the Industrial
Unions to the United States Government," in Dubofsky and Van Tine, eds.,
Labor Leaders in America.
12. Torigian, Michael. "National Unity on the Waterfront: Communist Politics
and the ILWU During the Second World War," Labor History 30 (Summer
WORLD WAR II, WOMEN AND BLACK WORKERS, AND THE
war opened up new opportunities for women and blacks to obtain jobs, but
discrimination remained at work and elsewhere. The readings explore what
happened to black and white men and women, and how they created new
opportunities for themselves (or didn't) after wartime jobs vanished. They also
discuss the ideological basis for the so-called �postwar compromise� in which
workers allegedly traded promises of good wages, stable jobs, and union
recognition for radical changes in America.
Who Built America, chapter 9.
Green, The World of the Worker, chapter 6.
Zieger, American Workers, American Unions, chapters 3-5.
1. Karen Anderson, "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers During
World War II," Journal of American History 69 (June 1982), 82-97.
2. Dennis Dickerson, "Fighting on the Domestic Front: Black Steelworkers
during World War II," in Stephenson and Asher, eds., Life and Labor.
3. Nancy F. Gabin, "Women Workers and the UAW in the Post-World War II
Period: 1945-1954," Labor History 21 (Winter 1979-1980), 5-30.
4. Jacqueline Dowd Hall, "Disorderly Women: Gender and Labor Militancy
in the Appalachian South," Journal of American History 73 (September
5. Ruth Milkman, Redefining 'Women's Work': The Sexual Division of Labor
in the Auto Industry During World War II," Feminist Studies 8 (Summer
6. Randy Albelda, "'Nice Work If You Can Get It': Segmentation of White
and Black Women Workersin the Post-War Period," Review of Radical
Political Economics 17 (Fall 1985), 72-85.
7. Horace Huntley, "The Red Scare and Black Workers in Alabama: The
International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, 1945-1953," in
Asher and Stephenson, eds., Labor Divided.
8. Sharon Hartman Strom, "'We're No Kitty Foyles': Organizing Office
Workers for the Congress of Industrial Organizations, 1937-50," in
Milkman, ed., Women, Work, and Protest.
9. Robert A. Nisbet, "The Decline and Fall of Social Class," Pacific
Sociological Review 2 (Spring 1959), 11-17.
10. Nelson Lichtenstein, "Walter Reuther and the Rise of Labor-Liberalism," in
Dubofsky and Van Tine, eds., Labor Leaders in America.
11. James W. Rinehart, "Affluence and Embourgeoisment of the Working
Class: A Critical Look," Social Problems 19 (Fall 1971), 149-161.
12. Blumberg, Paul. Inequality in an Age of Decline. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1980, chap. 1.
13.. George Lipsitz, Class and Culture in Cold War America: A Rainbow at
Midnight. New York: Praeger, 1981, chaps. 1, 7-10.
14. Gary Gerstle, "Catholic Corporatism, French Canadian Workers, and
Industrial Unionism in Rhode Island, 1938-1956," in Asher and
Stephenson, eds., Labor Divided.
15. Stephen Amberg, "The CIO Political Strategy in Historical Perspective:
Creating a High-Road Economy in the Post-War Era," in Kevin Boyle, ed.,
Organized Labor and American politics, 1894-1994, 159-194.
THE COLLAPSE OF URBAN WORKING-CLASS AMERICA: A CASE
Thomas Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar
5/3 NEW WORKERS AND CONCERNS SINCE THE 1960'S
labor markets, union decline, deindustrialization, and changes in
working-class composition and consciousness have shaped American labor history
over the last three decades. Some glimmer of these developments is found in this
Who Built America, chapters 10-12.
Green, The World of the Worker, chapter 7.
Zieger, American Workers, American Unions, chapters 6-7.
1. David Brody, "The Uses of Power I: Industrial Battleground," "The Uses
of Power II: Political Action," and "A Movement in Crisis," in Brody,
Workers in Industrial America.
2. Rick Fantasia, Cultures of Solidarity: Consciousness, Action, and
Contemporary American Workers. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1988, chap. 1.
3. Vicki L. Ruiz, "By the Day or the Week: Mexicana Domestic Workers in
El Paso," in Groneman and Norton, eds., "To Toil the
4. Cletus E. Daniel, "Cesar Chavez and the Unionization of California Farm
Workers, "in Dubofsky and Van Tine, eds., Labor Leaders in America.
5. Robert Korstad, and Nelson Lichtenstein. "Opportunities Lost and Found:
Labor, Radicals, and the Early Civil Rights Movement," Journal of
American History 75 (December 1988), 786-811.
6. Elizabeth Weiner, and Hardy Green. "A Stitch in Our Time: New York's
Hispanic Garment Workers in the 1980s," in Jensen and Davidson, eds., A
Needle, A Bobbin, A Strike.
7. Robert Asher, "Organized Labor and the Origins of the Occupational
Safety and Health Act," Labor's Heritage 3 (1991), 54-76.
8. Robert A. Slayton, �Labor and Urban Politics: District 31, Steel Workers
Organizing Committee, and the Chicago Machine,� Journal of Urban
History 23 (November 1996), 29-65.
9. Matt Witt, and Rand Wilson, �The Teamsters� UPS Strike of 1997:
Building a New Labor Movement,� Labor Studies Journal 24 (Spring
10. Kevin Boyle, "Little More Than Ashes: The UAW and American
Reform in the 1960s," in Boyle, ed., Organized Labor and American
Politics, 1894-1994, 217-238.
THE FUTURE OF AMERICAN WORKERS AND WORKING-CLASS
Stanley Aronowitz, From the Ashes of the Old: American Labor and America's
and History Department Policies
Return to: History Department Home Page
Return to: Michael Gordon's Home Page