木兰科mu lan ke

Liu Yuhu(刘玉壶) and Xia Nianhe(夏念和)

Trees or shrubs, deciduous or evergreen, usually hairy or rarely glabrous. Leaves simple, alternate, clustered or subverticillate, entire or rarely lobed, penninerved; stipules present, at first enclosing and protecting the buds, early caducous and leaving an annular scar around the node, sometimes absent. Flowers terminal, axillary or rarely in a cyme of 2-3-flowered, usually bisexual, rarely hermophrodite or dioecious; perianth usually petaloid, lobes 6-9-(45) in 2-many whorls, 3 (6) on each whorl; stamens many; ovary superior, carpels numberous, distinct or rarely connate, insect-pollinated; ovules inserted on sutures; embryo small; endosperms abundant.

Three tribes, 18 genera, circa 335 species are distributed in Southeast Asia, Southeast of N America, C America and North and Central of S America. There are 14 genera and about 165 species in SE to SW China.

Liu Yuhu, Wu Rongfen & Zhang Benneng in Liu Yuhu ed. FRPS 30(1):82-273, 1996. The origin and distribution was discussed by Liu Yuhu, Xia Nianhe and Yang Huiqiu (1995) (Journ. Trop. & Subtrop. Bot.).


1a.Woody vine. Leaves papery or submembranaceous, rarely leathery; flowers unisexual, monoecious or dioecious. Matured carpels in fleshy berries. III. Tribe Schisandreae

1b. Trees or shrubs. Leaves leathery or papery; flowers bisexual, monoecious, hermophrodite, rarely monoecious. Matured carpels in follicles, woody, rarely samaroid.

2a. Buds with numerous imbricate bud scales; stipule absent; stamens and pistils arranged on receptacle; flowers small II. Tribe Illicieae

2b. Buds surrounded by 2 valvate and hooded stipules; branchlets with annular stipule scars; stamens and pistils spirally arranged on elongated receptacles; flowers large I. Tribe Magnolieae


I. Tribe MagnolieaeDC. Prodr. 1: 79. 1824

木兰族mu lan zhu

Trees or shrubs, deciduous or evergreen, usually hairy, rarely glabrous; buds enclosed by hooded stipules. Leaves simple, alternate, sometimes fascicled on twig apex and becoming pseudoverticillate, entire, rarely lobed, penninerved, petioled; stipules adnate to petioles or free from petioles, caducous, remaining annular stipular scars on twigs after falling off, if adnate to petioles, remaining stipular scars on petioles. Flowers large, solitary, rarely 23 in thyrses, usually bisexual, rarely hermophrodite or dioeciousrarely monoecious; spathose bracts 1 to several below tepals; tepals 69 (--45), in 2 to many whorls, 3 (6) in each whorl, usually fleshy, sometimes outer ones nearly leathery, or reducing to calyx-like; pistils and stamens many, distinct, spirally arranged on elongated torus; androecium usually at the lower part of torus; anthers linear, thecae 2, longitudinally dehiscing introrsely or laterally, rarely extrorsely, filaments thick and short, sometimes elongated, connectives usually exserted and forming a long or short tip, insect-pollinated; gynoecium at upper part of torus, sessile or gynophored; carpels folded, usually distinct, sometimes connate at base or rarely connate completely; ovules 214 in each carpel, biseriate on ventral sutures. Aggregate apocarpus or sometimes syncarpous; matured follicles woody, bony or leathery, usually dehiscing along dorsal and/or ventral sutures, rarely connate to each other, thick woody or fleshy, irregularly dehiscing; seeds 112 in each fruiting carpel, pendulous on a filiform and elastic funiculus, exserted to the follicles; testa fleshy, red, endotesta bony; matured carpels rarely samaroid, seeds connate to endotesta; embryo minute; endosperm copious, oily. X=19.

15 genera, c. 300 species, mainly distributed in SE Asia and SE northern America, C America, Andilles Island, Mexico, Columbia, Venezuela, E Brasil. 11 genera and 107 species, 1 subspecies occurred in China.

The plants usually contain proanthercyanins, alkaloids (such as benzyl isoquinoline), aporphin, cyanogenic acid. Leaf epidermis cells usually accumlate silica. The parenchyma of leaves and tepals usually contain dotted essential oil cells and fine calcium oxalate crystals.

Nodes penta-lacunar, or multilacunar (with five or more traces). Xylem with tracheids, or without tracheids; with fibre tracheids, or without fibre tracheids. Vessel end-walls scalariform, or simple, or scalariform and simple. Vessels without vestured pits. Wood parenchyma apotracheal (terminal). Xylem rays Kribs II A or II B type, mainly hetero- or rarely homo-shaped, belonging to mixed uniserial or multiserial ray; multiserial ray 34 (--7) cells wide, with short or elongated ends. Sieve-tube plastids S-type, or P-type and S-type; when P-type, type I (b). Pith with diaphragms, or without diaphragms.

Pollen grains large, bilateral symmetry, polar view elliptic, distally monosulcate, netted or granulate ornamented.


1a.Leaves 4-10-lobed, apex subtruncate or widely emarginate; anthers dehiscent extrorsely; aggregate fusiform, matured carpels samaroid, indehiscent, deciduous, fruit axis persistent; testa adnate to endocarp 11. Liriodendron

1b. Leaves entire or rarely 2-lobed at apex; anthers dehiscent introrsely or latrorsely; follicles in various shapes such as globose, ovoid, ellipsoid or terete, usually wristed because of some carpels undeveloped; follicles dehiscent or circumscissile; testa fleshy, free from fruit segments.

2a. Flowers axillary, gynoecium long stipitate.

3a. Carpels partly undeveloped, distinct, forming a long cylindric and sparsely aggregate, matured carpels dehiscent along dorsal suture or along ventral suture at the same time 8. Michelia

3b. Carpels all developed, connate or partly connate, completely connate and forming a fleshy or woody aggregate in fruiting

4a. Tepals 18-21; carpels numerous, connate and forming a fleshy aggregate in fruiting; fleshy exocarp irregularly deciduous when matured, axis and dorsal midribs persistent 9. Paramichelia

4b. Tepals 9; carpels 9-13, completely connate and forming a woody and concave aggregate; each follicle dehiscent into 2 woody segments, solitarily or severally deciduous from axis; seeds hanged on persistent axis. 10. Tsoongiodendron

2b. Flowers terminal; gynoecium sessile or stipitate.

5a. Gynoecium not elongated above stamens, long stipitate; stipules not connate to petioles, peitoles without stipular scars; follicles thinly leathery 7. Alcimandra

5b. Gynoecium elongated above stamens.

6a. Flowers bisexual, internodes of twigs dense and bamboo-internoded, or hermaphrodite or dioecious, gynoecium very short stipitate or sessile.

7a.Plants glabrous; petioles without stipular scars; flowers bisexual, internodes of twigs dense and bamboo-internoded, or hermaphrodite, tepals c. 12; gynoecium short stipitate, follicles dehiscent along dorsal suture 5. Parakmeria

7b. Plants partly hairy; petioles with stipular scars; flowers dioecious, tepals 6-7, gynoecium sessile; matured follicles dehiscent completely along ventral suture, and partly dehiscent along dorsal suture, at last into 2 segments 6. Woonyongia

6b. Flowers bisexual, internodes of twigs not bamboo-internoded.

8a. Each carpels with 3-12 ovules; evergreen trees, leaves leathery.

9a. Young leaves folded in buds; stipules connate to petioles, petioles with stipular scars; carpels on the base of gynoecium not elongated into short stalk; matured follicles thinly woody, dehiscent along dorsal suture or along ventral suture at the same time 1. Manglietia

9b. Young leaves spreading in buds, and enclosing next young buds; stipules distinct from petioles, petioles without stipular scars; carpels on the base of gynoecium elongated into short stalks; matured folllicles thickly woody; completely dehiscent along ventral suture and 2-lobed at apex 2. Manglietiastrum

8b. Each carpels with 2 ovules; evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs, leaves papery thickly leathery.

10a. Carpels distinct; matured follicles woody, dehiscent along dorsal suture, persistent on fruit axis 3. Magnolia

10b. Carpels connate, at least connate at base; matured follicles woody or bony, circumscissle, upper follicles solitarily or severally deciduous, lower follicles and hanged seeds persistent 4. Talauma


I. Subtribe ManglietiinaeLaw in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 22: 106. 1984.

木莲亚族mu lian ya zu

Evergreen large trees. Leaves leathery. Each carpel 414-ovuled; gynoecium sessile, rarely short stalked because of the base of lower carpels of aggregate elongated.

1. ManglietiaBl. Berh. Bat. Genoostsch. 9: 149. 1823.

木莲属mu lian shu

ParamanglietiaHu et Cheng

Evergreen trees. Stipules enclosing young buds, lower part adnate to petioles, leaving long or short scars on petioles. Leaves leathery, entire, young ones folded in buds. Flowers bisexual, terminal and solitary; tepals usually 9-13, 3 in each whorl, subequal, 3 of outer whorl usually thinner, subcoriaceous, greenish or red; filaments short and inconspicuous, anthers linear, dehiscent introrsely, connectives exserted and mucronate; gynoecium sessile; carpels numerous, adaxially completely connate to receptacle, abaxially usually with 1 or several furrows at base, spirally arranged, distinct, each carpels 4- or more ovuled. Aggregates dense, globose, ovoid, terete or ellipsoid-ovoid; matured follicles subwoody, or thicky woody, persistent, dehiscent along dorsal suture or sometimes also along ventral suture, usually beaked at apex, with 1 to more than 10 seeds.

About 30 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia. Twenty two species in China, distributed in the south of Changjiang River valley.

1a. Pedicels 3.5-10 cm; fruit pendulous.

2a. Pedicels slender, 4-10 cm.

3a. Twigs, perules, abaxial surface of leaves, petioles and pedicels ferruginous tomentose; leaves leathery, obovate-elliptic or oblanceolate, 1225 X 48 cm; aggregate ovoid, 57 X 3.56 cm
5. M. moto

3b. Twigs, perules, abaxial surface of leaves, petioles and pedicels sparsely appressed hairy or glabrous.

4a. Leaves glaucous and glabrous abaxially; perules, young branches glabrous; endotesta ridged 6. M. glaucifolia

4b. Leaves grayish green and brownish pubescent abaxially; perules and young branches brownish pubescent; endotesta with dotted projection. 7. M. chingii

2b. Pedicels thick, 1-5 cm.

5a. Leaves hairy adaxially or abaxially or on both surfaces.

6a. Leaves obovate, 2050 X 1020 cm, abaxial surface and pedicels brownish tomentose; aggregate 6.511 cm. 1. M. megaphylla

6b. Leaves obovate, ovate-elliptic, 1024 X 4-9 cm, abaxial surface and pedicels long brownish hairy; aggregate 57 cm. 2. M. rufibarbata

5b. Leaves glabrous on both surfaces.

7a. Leaves elliptic-oblong or obovate-oblong, 2035 X 10-13 cm, abaxial surface and young twigs without white powder; aggregate long ovoid, 1012 cm. 3. M. grandis

7b. Leaves oblanceolate or narrowly obovate-elliptic, 1326 X 58 cm, abaxial surface and young branches with white powder; aggregate ovoid, 56 cm.
4. M. crassipes

1b. Pedicels less than 3.5 cm; fruit erect.

8a. Aggregate subglobose, matured follicles only adaxial base on receptacle, dehiscent first along ventral and then dorsal suture; flowers white 8. M. aromatica

8b. Aggregate ovoid-cylindrical, subterete, ovoid-ellipsoid, ovoid or narrowly ovoid, triangular-ovoid, matured follicles completely or mostly on receptacle, dehiscent frist along dorsal and then ventral suture; flowers white or red.

9a. Stipular scars longer than 1/3 of petioles.

10a. Gynoecium and aggregate glabrous. Leaves lanceolate, narrowly obovate or oblong-obovate, 2030 X 610 cm. Aggregate cylindrical or subterete, 710 X 56 cm 11. M. hookerii

10b. Gynoecium and aggregate hairy. Leaves obovate or elliptic.

11a. Leaves obovate, grayish white abaxially; perules orange-red appressed hairy. Aggregate ovoid, c. 6 cm, follicles with a 3 mm beak 9. M. microtricha

11b. Leaves elliptic, perules and abaxial surface of leaves pale yellow appressed hairy. Aggregate obovoid-globose or long ellipsoid-ovoid, 610 cm, follicles with a 57 mm beak 10. M. hebecarpa

9b. Stipular scars shorter than 1/3 of petioles.

12a. Gynoecium hairy; aggregate with rudimentary hairs.

13a. Gynoecium ovoid-ellipsoid, 22.5 X 1.5 cm; aggregate ovoid, 8-10 cm. Leaves leathery, abaxially pale brown pubescent, white villose along midrib 12. M. szechuanica

13b. Gynoecium narrow ellipsoid, 78 mm; aggregate ovoid-ellipsoid, 56 cm. Leaves thinly leathery, glabrous on both surfaces 13. M. duclouxii

12b. Gynoecium and aggregate glabrous.

14a. Flower-buds oblong-ellipsoid; gynoecium terete, basal 1/3 of tepals narrowed into claws.

15a. Outer whorl of tepals red or purplish red; leaves oblanceolate, oblong or oblong-elliptic; stipular scars as long as 1/41/3 of petioles, glabrous
14. M. insignis

15b. Tepals white; leaves obovate; stipular scars as long as 1/101/5 of petioles 15. M. chevalieri

14b. Flower-buds globose or ellipsoid; gynoecium ovoid or long ellipsoid.

16a. Leaves hairy on both surfaces.

17a. Leaves obovate, narrowly obovate, oblong-obovate; outer whorl of tepals oblong-elliptic, 4.57 cm, abaxially reddish brown appressed pilose at base 20. M. forrestii

17b. Leaves narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate; outer whorl ot tepals abaxially glabrous at base.

18a. Leaves leathery, margin not wavy; outer whorl of tepals oblong-elliptic; basal carpels 56 mm, styles c. 1 mm, each carpel 810-ovuled 21. M. fordiana

18b. Leaves thinly leathery, margin wavy; outer whorl of tepals broadly ovate or obovate; basal carpels 7-10 mm, styles inconspicuous, each carpels 58-ovuled 22. M. hainanensis

16b. Leaves glabrous on both surfaces.

19a. Leaves thickly leathery or leathery.

20a. Leaves thickly leathery, hard, obovate-elliptic or obovate-oblong, 1232 X 610 cm; aggregate c. 7 cm 16. M. pachyphylla

20b. Leaves leathery, oblanceolate, narrowly obovate-elliptic or narrowly oblong, 814 X 2.54 cm 17. M. yuyuanensis

19b. Leaves thinly leathery.

21a. Leaves obovate-elliptic, 1418 (--20) X 3.57 cm; lateral veins 13-15 each side; carpels not striated abaxially 18. M. patungensis

21b. Leaves obovate, 611 X 36 cm; lateral veins 911 on each side; carpels striated abaxially M. obovalifolia


1. Manglietia megaphyllaHu et Cheng in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 158. 1951.

大叶木莲da ye mu lian

Tree, up to 3050 m, 0.81 m in DBH; branches, abaxial suraface of leaves, petiole, stipule, peduncle and spathaceous bracts densely long ferruginous tomentose. Stipular scars as long as 1/32/3 of petioles. Petioles 23 cm. Leaves usually 56 clustered on branch apex, obovate, 2550 X 1020 cm, leathery, lower 2/3 narrowed, base cuneate, apex acute, adaxially glabrous, lateral veins 2022 each side, reticulate veins sparse, prominent on both surfaces when dry. Peduncles thick and strong, 3.54 X 1.5 cm; spathaceous bracts 1, c. 3 mm apart from tepals; tepals thickly fleshy, 910, in 3 whorls, those of outer whorl obovate-oblong, 4.55 X 2.52.8 cm, adaxially c. 7-striated, those of inner 2 whorls smaller; stamens villose, 1.21.5 cm, filaments flat, c. 2mm, anthers 0.8-1 cm, chambers free, c. 1 mm wide, connectives exserted with a 1 mm triangular appendage; gynoecium ovoid, 2-2.5 cm, 6075-carpeled, glabrous; pistils c. 1.5 cm, with 1 furrow reacheed to style apex. Aggregate ovoid or long-ellipsoid, 6.511 cm; follicles 2.53 cm, apex acute, slightly curved extrorsely, dehiscent along dorsal and ventral sutures; fruit stalks thick and strong, 13 X 11.3 cm. Fl. Jun; fr. Sep-Dec.

Endemic; Guangxi and Yunnan. In forest, alt. 4501500 m.

Type from Fadou, Xichou, Yunnan.

Timber and ornamental.

2. Manglietia rufibarbataDandy in Not. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 16: 128. 1928.

锈毛木莲xiu mao mulian

Tree, up to 10 m; bark grayish white, smooth. Buds, young twigs, peitoles, midribs of leaves abaxially and pedicels brownish long hairy. Stipular scars as long as 1/3 of petioles. Leaves obovate or obovate-elliptic, 1018 (--25) X 4-9 cm, leathery, base cuneate, rarely obtuse, apex acuminate or long acuminate, adaxially glabrous, abaxially pale red villose, midribs appressed abaxially, lateral veins 12-15 each side. Bract 1, spathaceous. Tepals 9-12, those of outer whorl thinner, oblong-elliptic, c. 3 X 2 cm, 5-striated, those of inner 2 whorls obovate, narrower and smaller; stamens 1216 mm, anthers c. 10 mm, connectives with 1 mm mucronate; gynoecium narrowly ovoid. Aggregate terete, 57 X 2-3 cm; fruiting pedicels 3.56 cm; follicles dehiscing completely along dorsal suture and along ventral suture or indehiscent. Fl. MayJun; Fr. SepOct.

In forest, 13001600 m; Yunnan and [N Vietnam].

3. Manglietia grandisHu et Cheng in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 158. 1951.

大果木莲da guo mu lian

Tree, up to 12 m; twigs thick and strong, pale gray, glabrous. Stipules glabrous, stipular scars as long as 1/4 of petioles. Petioles 2.64 cm. Leaves elliptic-oblong or obovate-elliptic, 2035.5 X 1013 cm, leathery, base broadly cuneate, apex acute or cuspidate, glabrous, adaxially lucid, abaxially papillate, lateral veins 1726 each side, conspicuous when dry. Flowers red; tepals 12, outer ones thinner, obovate-oblong, 911 cm, 911-striated, innest 3 fleshy, obovate-spoon-shaped, 812 X 36 cm; stamens 1.41.6 cm, anthers c. 1.3 cm, connectives with 1 mm mucronate; gynoecium ovoid, c. 4 cm, midribs of each carpels concaved abaxially to the apex of styles. Aggregate ellipsoid-ovoid, 1012 cm; fruiting pedicels thick and strong, 1.3 cm in diam., matured follicles 34 mm, dehiscing along ventral sutures, apex acute, minutely incurved. Fl. May; Fr. SetpOct.

*In forest, 1200 m. Guangxi and Yunnan. Type from Malipo, Yunnan.


4. Manglietia crassipesLaw in Bull. Bot. Res. 2(4): 134. 1982.

粗梗木莲cu geng mu lian

Tree or shrub, 4 m; buds, twigs, abaxial surface of leaves glaucous. Twigs thick and strong, 0.610 mm in diam. Stipular scars as long as 1/6 of petioles; petioles thick and strong, 33.5 X 0.20.25 cm. Leaves oblanceolate or obovate-elliptic, 1326 X 58 cm, leathery, base broadly cuneate, apex shortly acute, adaxially green, abaxially glaucous; midribs slightly prominent or flat adaxially, lateral veins and reticulations prominent on both surfaces when dry, lateral veins 814 each side, reticulations sparse. Bract 1, spathaceous, thin; tepals 9 in 3 whorls, white, outer 3 obovate-oblong, 3.54 X 22.5 cm, thin, 5-striated, inner 2 whorls thick, fleshy; stamens numerous, 11.5 cm, anthers 89 mm, connectives exserted, triangular, 23 mm; gynoecium ovoid, c. 1.5 X 1.8 cm; pedicels thick and strong, 3.54 cm. Aggregate ovoid, 56 X 45 cm; follicles ellipsoid, 1.52 cm, short beaked, dehiscing into 2 valves along both ventral and dorsal sutures when matured. Fruiting pedicels thick and strong, 4.55.5 X 1 cm. Fl. May; Fr. Sep.

*In forest, 1300 m; Guangxi (Jinxiu). Type from Dayaoshan, Jinxiu, Guangxi.

This species is affinity to M. pachyphyllaChang, but differs from that species by buds, twigs and abaxial surfaces of leaves glaucous, reticulations prominent on both surfaces, tepals smaller, 24 X 22.5 cm, aggregate 56 X 45 cm.

5. Manglietia motoDandy in Not. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 16: 128. 1928.

毛桃木莲mao tao mu lian

Tree, up to 14 m, c. 50 cm in diam.; barks deep gray, with several lenticels transversely arranged or linked into pieces; young twings, buds, petioles, young leaves, fruiting pedicels densely ferruginous tomentose. Stipules lanceolate, c. 6 X 1.2 cm, ferruginous tomentose; stipular scars narrowly triangular, as long as 1/3 of petioles. Petioles 24 cm, upper part narrowly furrowed. Leaves obovate-elliptic, narrowly obovate-elliptic or oblanceolate, 1225 X 48 cm, leathery, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, apex acute or acuminate, glabrous adaxially, ferrugineous tomentose abaxially, especially along midribs; lateral veins 1015 each side. Pedicels 612 cm; flowers fragrant; tepals 9, milky white, outer 3 nearly leathery, oblong, 6.57.5 cm, middle 3 thicky fleshy, obovate, 6.57 X 3.54 cm, inner 3 thickly fleshy, obovate-spoonshaped, 66.5 X 22.5 cm; stamens red, 1113 mm, anthers c. 10 mm, connectives exserted, 1.52 mm, mucronate; gynoecium ovoid, c. 2 X 1.5 cm, basal carpels narrowly ellipsoid, 1012 X 3 mm (including styles), 46-ridged dorsally, upper carpels 1 shallowly furrowed abaxially, apex sharply long acuminate, each carpel with 6-8 ovules in 2 series. Aggregate ovoid, 57 X 3.56 cm; follicles tuberculate abaxiallyl, apex with a 23 mm beak. Fl. MayJun; Fr. AugDec.

In forest, on acidy yellow soil, 4001200 m; S Fujian, Guangdong, W Guangxi and S Hunan. Type from Longtoushan, North River, Guangdong.


6. Manglietia glaucifoliaLaw et Y. F. Wu in Guihaia 6:263. 1986.

苍背木莲cang bei mu lian

Tree, c. 8 m; buds and twigs glabrous; twigs yellowish brown. Stipules connate to petioles, stipular scars as long as 1/31/2 of petioles; petioles 1.52 cm. Leaves oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 918 X 23.5 cm, base cuneate, apex acuminate, adaxially deep green, abaxially glaucous, glabrous on both surfaces, midribs impressed adaxially, lateral veins and reticulation inconspicuous, lateral veins 1015 on each side. Pedicels c. 4 cm. Flowers white, tepals 9, outer whorls 3, oblong-obovate, 45 cm, inner whorls 6, fleshy, obovate or obovate-spoonshaped; stamens numerous, 11.5 cm, anthers 810 mm, connectives thick, exserted and tapered triangular. Gynoecium ellipsoid, 1.62 cm, carpels numerous, each carpel 10-ovuled. Aggregate ovoid, pendulous, 4.55 cm; matured carpels ellipsoid, 1.52 cm, papillate abaxially, apex short beaked; fruiting pedicels 46 cm; seeds heartshaped, c. 7 X 5 mm. Fl. MayJun; Fr. Aug.

*In forest, 1600 m; Guizhou. Type from Leishan, Guizhou.

It is affinity to M. chingii, but differed from that by buds and twigs glabrous, leaves abaxially glabrous and glaucous.

7. Manglietia chingiiDandy in Journ. Bot. 69: 232. 1931.

桂南木莲gui nan mu lian

Manglietia tenuipesDandy

Evergreen tree, up to 20 m; barks gray and smooth; buds and young twigs reddish brown pubescent. Stipular scars 35 mm; petioles 23 cm, narrowly furrowed, appressed villose at first. Leaves oblanceolate or narrowly obovate-elliptic, 1215 X 25 cm, leathery, base narrowly cuneate or cuneate, apex short acuminate or rotund, adaxially glabrous, abaxially grayish green and hispidulous or glaucous at first; lateral veins 1214 on each side. Flower buds ovoid; pedicels slender, pendulous, 47 cm, with 1 bract-scar below tepals; tepals 911, 3 in each whorl, outer 3 usually green, thinner, elliptic, 45 X 2.52.8 cm, apex rotund, middle 3 fleshy, obovate-elliptic, 55.5 X 2.53 cm, inner 34 fleshy, obovate-spoonshaped, 44.5 X 1.52 cm; stamens c. 1.52 cm, anthers 89 mm, connectives exserted and with a triangular mucro. Gynoecium 1.52 cm, lower carpels 0.81 cm, 34-furrowed abaxially, styles c. 2 mm. Aggregate ovoid, 45 cm; follicles tuberculate, apex short beaked; endotesta dotted. Fl. MayJun; Fr. SepOct.

On hills, wet places in valley, 7001300 m; N Guangdong, C & E Guangxi, SE Guizhou, Yunnan and [N Vietnam]. Type from Shiwandashan, Guangxi.

Timber, ornamental and medicinal.

8. Manglietia aromaticaDandy in Journ. Bot. 69: 231. 1931.

香木莲xiang mu lian

Paramanglietia aromatica(Dandy) Hu et Cheng

Tree, up to 35 m, 1.2 m in DBH, glabrous except buds white appressed pubescent, aromatic; barks gray and smooth; young twigs pale green; terminal buds ellipsoid, c. 3 X 1.2 cm. Stipular scars as long as 1/41/3; petioles 1.52.5 cm. Leaves oblanceolate-oblong, oblanceolate, 1519 X 67 cm, thinly leathery, base slightly decurrent, lower 1/3 gradually tapered, apex short acuminate or acuminate; lateral