Georgia

School of Technology.

1888-89.



GEORGIA SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY.

ANNUAL CATALOGUE

OF THE

GEORGIA SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY,

A SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. A
DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY
OF GEORGIA.

ATLANTA, GEORGIA.

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ORGANIZED 1888.
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ANNOUNCEMENT FOR 1888-'89.

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ATLANTA, GEORGIA:
CONSTITUTION PUBLISHING COMPANY,
1889.




CALENDAR----1889-90.

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1889.

2 October, Wednesday--Fall Term begins, and Entrance Examinations.
28 November, Thursday--Thanksgiving Day.
21 December, Saturday--Christmas Recess begins.

1890.

3 January, Friday--Christmas Recess ends.
10 and 11 February, Monday and Tuesday--Mid-Term Examinations.
12 February, Wednesday--First Half Years ends and Spring Term begins.
22 February, Saturday--Washington's Birthday.
26 April, Saturday--Commemoration Day.
18 June, Wednesday--Second Half Year ends and Commencement Day.


CONTENTS.
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Act of General Assembly (extract) 32   Entrance 34
Admission 33   Mid Term 34
Apparatus 33   Final 34
Board 37   Specimen Questions 35-37
Buildings 32 Expenses 37
Calendar 5 Faculty 8-9
Commission 7 Fees 35
Course of Study 29 General Plan 32
Degree Conferred 34 Government 37
Departments: Laboratories 33
  Chemistry 21 Manufactures 33
  Drawing 18 Miscellaneous:
  English 15   Organization 32
  Geology 29   Plans of Buildings 38
  Mathematics 14   Practice 23
  Mechanical Engineering 22   Reference Books14-29
  Mineralogy 29   Religious Exercises37
  Physics 20   Reports 34
Equipment 33   Sessions and Terms33
Establishment 32   Students11
Examinations:   Tuition35
  Competitive 34

COMMISSION.
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Mr. N. E. Harris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Macon, Ga.
Mr. S. M. Inman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atlanta, Ga.
Mr. E. R. Hodgson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Athens, Ga.
Mr. O. S. Porter . . . . . . . . . . . . . Covington, Ga.
Mr. Columbus Heard . . . . . . . . . . . Greensboro, Ga.

FACULTY.
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ISAAC S. HOPKINS, Ph. D., D. D.,
President and Professor of Physics.

LYMAN HALL, (WEST POINT),
Professor of Mathematics.

WM. H. EMERSON, Ph. D.,
Professor of Chemistry.

J. S. COON, A. M.,
Professor of Mechanical Engineering.

_________________________
Professor of Mineralogy and Geology.

MILTON P. HIGGINS, B. S.,
Superintendent of Machine Shop.

REV. CHARLES LANE, A. M.,
Professor of English Language and Literature.

R. B. SHEPHERD, A. M.,
Professor of Free Hand and Mechanical Drawing.

FOREMEN--INSTRUCTORS.
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MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT.
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WILLIAM H. E. DUNCAN.
Foreman in Machine Shop.

G. E. CASSIDY.
Foreman in Wood Shop.

HORACE THOMPSON.
Foreman in Blacksmith Shop.

A. S. BUZZELL.
Foreman in Foundry.


RESIDENCES OF FACULTY AND INSTRUCTORS.
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I. S. Hopkins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Forrest Avenue.
Lyman Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Park Place.
W. H. Emerson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Calhoun street.
M. P. Higgins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Baltimore Place.
Charles Lane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Courtland street.
R. B. Shepherd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 N. Forsyth street.
Wm. H. E. Duncan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 W. Peachtree street.
G. E. Cassidy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Baltimore Place.
Horace Thompson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luckie street.
A. S. Buzzell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 W. Peachtree street.

APPRENTICE CLASS.
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NAME. POSTOFFICE. RESIDENCE IN CITY.
Almand, J. C. Conyers, Ga.
Anthony, H. J. Valdosta, Ga. 55 Walton street.
Anthony, J. R. Valdosta, Ga. 55 Walton street.
Ard, Charles E. Lumpkin, Ga. 53 Luckie street.
Arnold, E. V. Lexington, Ga. 348 Luckie street.
Bacon, D. C. Atlanta, Ga. 182 Peachtree street.
Barksdale, H. T.Meriwether, Ga.140 Rawson street.
Black, A. D.Rome, Ga.12 Howard street.
Blalock, R. L.Greenville, Ga.363 West Peachtree street.
Boaz, O. H.Atlanta, Ga.Ponce de Leon Avenue.
Bolles, W. K.West End, Ga.West End.
Boyd, R. D.Atlanta, Ga.23 Courtland Avenue.
Boykin, W. S.LaGrange, Ga.72 E. Pine street.
Brown, J. P.Greensboro, Ga.202 Luckie street.
Brown, V. O.Montezuma, Ga.348 Luckie street.
Caldwell, J. C. Silnam, Ga.11 Mills street.
Calloway, QuinnGordon Springs, Ga.47 E. Simpson street.
Cheves, W. T.Forsyth, Ga.47 E. Simpson street.
Colcord, A. R.Amoskeag, Ga.1 Park Place.
Collins, E. W.Acworth, Ga.12 Howard street.
Conn, C. F.Decatur, Ga.
Constantine, W. L. Atlanta, Ga. 58 Wheat street.
Constantine, F. L. Atlanta, Ga. 58 Wheat street.
Crowder, R. S. Stinson, Ga.53 Luckie street.
Cutter, H. D. Macon, Ga. 140 Rawson street.
Davis, E. H.Eatonton, Ga. 84 Ivy street.
Fain, W. M. Atlanta, Ga.67 Forrest Avenue
Fairbanks, C. E.Decatur, Ga.
Felton, H. E.Catersville, Ga.38 Alexander street.
Fluker, W. H.Washington, Ga.
Grace, W. M.Scrven, Ga.167 East Simpson street.
Gramling, W. R.Marietta, Ga.
Griffin, J. W.Hapeville, Ga.
Hammett, J. O.Marietta, Ga.
Hansell, W. H.Atlanta, Ga.377 South Pryor street.
Hatcher, C. C.Myrtle, Ga.38 Alexander street.
Higgins, A. C.Atlanta, Ga.371 Calhoun street.
Hightower, J. O.Jonesboro, Ga.
Hodnett, A. W.Jonesboro, Ga.
Houser, F. T.Myrtle, Ga.38 Alexander street.
Howard, C. H.Decatur, Ga.
Hubbard, P. M.Atlanta, Ga.26 Calhoun street.
Hudson, F. L.LaGrange, Ga.12 Howard street.
Hudson, N. B.Conyers, Ga.
Hunter, B. T.Jonesboro, Ga.
Jackson, E. F.Albany, Ga.1 Park Place.
Jaudon, H. S.Savannah, Ga.61 West Harris street.
Jenkins, G. W.Chipley, Ga.137 Luckie street.
Johnson, F. H.Clinton, Ga.140 Rawson street.
Johnson, M. R.Atlanta, Ga.Edgewood.
Keaton, W. E.Camilla, Ga.140 Rawson street.
Kehoe, W. J.Savannah, Ga.86 Ivy street.
Kenimer, O. E.Cleveland, Ga.167 East Simpson street.
Kincaid, B. W.Griffin, Ga.86 Ivy street.
Kneeland, F. G.Atlanta, Ga.371 Calhoun street.
Langston, L. L.Atlanta, Ga.Peachtree street.
Lanier, J. C.West Point, Ga.5 Baltimore Block.
Leary, M. F.Lexington, Ga.15 East Harris street.
Leiberman, F. B.Atlanta, Ga.207 Rawson street.
Little, C. B.Eatonton, Ga.167 East Simpson street.
Long, A. H.Paoli, Ga.265 Luckie street.
Longino, J. T.Palmetto, Ga.38 Alexander street.
Lumpkin, T. H.Trenton, Ga.50 North Avenue.
Maddox, C. F.Atlanta, Ga.112 Windsor street.
Mallory, W. H.Forsyth, Ga.50 East Cain street.
Marlin, JamesBronwood, Ga.136 Alexander street.
Maynard, R. B.Dalton, Ga.Woodward.
McConnell, F. R.Marlow, Ga.72 East Pine street.
McDonald, A. H.Atlanta, Ga.171 Washington street.
Mobley, D. S.Social Circle, Ga.212 Ivy street.
Moore, R. W.Culverton, Ga.50 North Avenue.
Nalley, W. J.Villa Rica, Ga.202 Luckie street.
Newman, H. W.Macon, Ga.280 West Peachtree street.
Norris, C. D.Warrenton, Ga.86 Ellis street.
Norman, H. H.McIntosh, Ga.11 Mills street.
Nowell, H. G.Monroe, Ga.212 Ivy street.
Oslin, J. S.Gainesville, Ga.47 E. Simpson street.
Parham, R. S.Stinson, Ga.53 Luckie street.
Pearson, M. M.Altamaha, Ga.108 Mangum street.
Porter, J. A.Covington, Ga.363 W. Peachtreet street.
Pratt, G. L.Decatur, Ga.
Raines, Nat.Talbotton, Ga.137 Luckie street.
Redding, J. A.Atlanta, Ga.62 Luckie street.
Reid, Andrew*Eatonton, Ga.244 W. Peachtree street.
Respess, HeardEatonton, Ga.244 W. Peachtree street.
Respess, J. R.Butler, Ga.280 W. Peachtree street.
Rodgers, D. L.Americus, Ga.51 Luckie street.
Rossman, J. G.Greensboro, Ga.202 Luckie street.
Scully, Thos.Atlanta, Ga.174 Crew street.
Seawell, LukeAtlanta, Ga.Water works.
Sherard, J. B.Jefferson, Ga.311 Courtland Avenue.
Sims, W. S.Melson, Ga.271 Rawson street.
Smith, J. L.Macon, Ga.140 Rawson street.
Snyder, H. D.Columbus, Ga.38 Alexander street.
Solomon, A. W.Savannah, Ga.1 Park Place.
Spence, J. W.Camilla, Ga.140 Rawson street.
Stanley, M.Stephensville, Ga.
Stone, E. P.Villa Rica, Ga.92 Luckie street.
Stone, O. B.Chattanooga, Tenn.Kirkwood.
Thompson, A. J.Cochran, Ga.155 E. Simpson street.
Thompson, T. C.Atlanta, Ga.76 Spring street.
Thrasher, J. C.McNuth, Ga.140 Rawson street.
Turner, C. R.Newnan, Ga.5 Baltimore Block.
Walthall, W. P.Palmetto, Ga.38 Alexander street.
Watts, B. H.Lumpkin, Ga.53 Luckie street.
Weinmeister, C. J.Atlanta, Ga.10 and 12 N. Forsyth.
Whitney, C. E.Augusta, Ga.172 Decatur street.
Whitney, F. E.Augusta, Ga.172 Decatur street.
Wight, Thos.Cain, Ga.73 Crew street.
Wiley, R. B.Sparta, Ga.220 Washington street.
Wilson, EugeneVilla Rica, Ga.92 Luckie street.
Wimpy, C. W.Decatur, Ga.
Wingfield, J. B.Washington, Ga.53 Luckie street.
Winn, R. L.Lawrenceville, Ga.348 Luckie street.
Wiseberg, S. W.Atlanta, Ga.80 Ivy street.
Zachry, J. L.Conyers, Ga.
  * Deceased.
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JUNIOR CLASS.
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NAME. POSTOFFICE. RESIDENCE IN CITY.
Brooks, P. C. Edgewood, Ga.
Davidson, Wm. Columbus, Ga. 50 North avenue.
DeGive, J. L.Atlanta, Ga.35 Irwin street.
Elsas, OscarAtlanta, Ga.56 Garnett street.
Glenn, W. H.Atlanta, Ga.169 Ivy street.
Goldsmith, J. D.Atlanta, Ga.5 Baltimore Block.
Jones, J. H.Atlanta, Ga.9 Wheat street.
McCrary, J. B.Senoia, Ga.12 Howard street.
Moore, J. S.Thomasville, Ga.311 Courtland avenue.
Pritchett, C. M.Catersville, Ga.12 Howard street.
Setze, T. S.Marietta, Ga.
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MIDDLE CLASS.
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NAME. POSTOFFICE. RESIDENCE IN CITY.
Crawford, G. G. Atlanta, Ga. 150 Whitehall street.
Smith, H. L. Conyers, Ga.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS.
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COURSE OF STUDY.

APPRENTICE CLASS.

October to March, Algebra.
March to June, Algebra and Plane Geometry.
October to January, Plane and Solid Geometry completed.
January to March, Place and Spherical Trigonometry.
March to June, Surveying.
October to June of this year: Theoretical and practical course in Descriptive Geometry in the Department of Drawing.

MIDDLE CLASS.

October to March, Analytical Geometry.
March to June, Calculus.

SENIOR CLASS.

October to February, Calculus.
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FIELD PRACTICE.

JUNIOR CLASS.

October to March, Leveling, practical instruction in Topography.
March to June, Compass and Transit Surveying.

MIDDLE CLASS.

Plane Table Surveying; Topographical map work.

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EQUIPMENT.

The department is equipped with instruments of the finest quality, including Transits, with solar attachment, Levels, Plane Table, Compass, etc., to which additions will be made from time to time as necessity may require.
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INSTRUCTION.

Recitations are made daily, an hour being devoted to each section. Perfection in the recitation system is attained by marking every student daily, thereby requiring a thorough preparation of each lesson. With this end in view classes are sub-divided into sections, each section numbering from fifteen to twenty-five students.

In the lower branches attention is given to continued drill in examples and problems and to accuracy in recitations. In the higher branches interest is awakened by original problems and practical investigations requiring a thorough understanding of the principles of the text. The Differential and Integral Calculus are pursued together, thereby enabling their early application in Mechanics and Physics.

Requirements for entrance to the Apprentice Class in Mathematics:

Arithmetic--complete.

Algebra--fundamental operations, including Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division.

The following text books are recommended to candidates for admission: Robinson's Practical or Sanford's Higher Analytical Arithmetic, and Wentworth's Elements of Algebra. The latter book is named on because the student will continue his course of study in the same book after entering the institution.

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TEXT BOOKS USED IN THE COURSE.

Wentworth's Elements of Algebra.
Wentworth's New Plane and Solid Geometry.
Faunce's Descriptive Geometry.
Davies' Surveying (Revised by Van Amringe.) (Students will have access to Gillespie's, Carhart's and Murray's works on Surveying and plane table notes of the United States Coast Survey.)
Wentworth's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry.
Bowser's Analytical Geometry.
Taylor's Calculus.
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DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH.
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FALL TERM.

APPRENTICE CLASS.

In this Department the Apprentice Class recites four times a week. The length of the recitation is one hour.

The work for the first half year (extending to "Syntax of the Verb," page 168 of Patterson's "Advanced English Grammar") embraces the study of words, phrases, clauses and sentences. The text book provides daily exercises illustrating the form, structure and use of each. In these exercises much attention is given to accuracy and neatness.

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SPRING TERM.

APPRENTICE CLASS.

The work for the second half year is devoted to Syntax and Analysis. Extracts from the best authors are used to illustrate the niceties of construction and the idioms of our language.
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FALL TERM.

JUNIOR CLASS.

It is proposed, during the first half year, to drill the student thoroughly in the work of composition, from the choice of a subject to the completion of an essay. It is assumed that the learner is a beginner in the art. The attention is directed to the followng divisions:

Finding something to say--or, Invention. Finding how to says what is to be said--or, Style. The preparation of the manuscript for the eye of another--or, Punctuation and Capitals. The critical examination of what has been written--or, Criticism. The special kinds of writing most common--or Specific Forms of Composition.

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SPRING TERM.

JUNIOR CLASS.

During the second half year, the time of three recitations each week is devoted to exercises in Applied Rhetoric, in which the design is to familiarize the mind with those details of composition and expression which are most in requisition in practical life.
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FALL TERM.

MIDDLE CLASS.

The Middle Class is engaged during the first half year in the study of "The Laws of Mind," "Laws of Idea" and "Laws of Form." The whole rhetorical process in a speaker or writer aims at producing effects in other minds, hence there is no more important study than the laws according to which these effects must be produced.
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SPRING TERM.

MIDDLE CLASS.

The Middle Class, during the first two months of the spring term, will study and discuss the following subjects: Production, Division of Labor, Capital and Labor, Trades Unions, and Commercial Crises. During the remainder of the term they will study "Our Government" in its Executive, Judicial and Legislative departments.
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FALL TERM.

SENIOR CLASS.

The time of the Senior Class, during the first half year, will be spent in the study of English Prose in its representative Historical Periods Literary Forms, and in some of its representative Authors.
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SPRING TERM.

SENIOR CLASS.

This class will spend the first two months of this term in the direct study of some of the great masterpieces of Shakespear. Dr. Hudson's Annotated Classics will be used as hand-books in this study. The remainder of the term is devoted to Literary Criticism and lectures by the professor.
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DECLAMATION.

The members of the Apprentice, Junior and Middle classes recite extracts four times a year, in the months of October, December, February and April. The members of the Senior class will deliver three original speeches during the year, in the months of November, February and April. Every effort is made to preserve the pupil's individuality and secure naturalness and directness.
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COMPOSITION.

The kinds of composition required in the Apprentice class are Epistolary and Narrative. Subjects for composition : "A Letter to Grandfather," "An Overland Trip to California," "A Letter to My Mother," "The Travels of a Nickle." Papers due November 15, Janualry 15, March 15, May 10.

The kinds of composition required in the Junior class are Expositoru and Argumentative. Subjects for composition : "The Importance of Mechanical Training to Southern Young Men," "Are Great Men the Greatest Benefactors of the World," "The History of Steam in its Application to Machinery," "The Character of Philip Ray Superior to That of Enoch Arden." Papers due November 15, January 15, March 15, May 10.

The kinds of composition required in the Middle class are Literary and Political. Subjects for composition : "Novel Reading," "Money," "The Wit and Humor of America," "Commerce." Papers due November 15, January 15, March 15, May 10.

The kinds of composition required in the Senior class are Biographical, Critical and Æsthetic. Subjects for composition: "Benjamin Franklin," "The Value of Herbert Spencer's Writings," "The Monuments of Antiquity." Papers due October 20, December 20, January 20. Speeches due November 20, February 20, April 10.

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REQUIRED READING.

During the year the Apprentice class will read Irving's Sketch Book, Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield, Life of Franklin. The Junior class will read Scott's Lady of the Lake, Ivanhoe, Enoch Arden. The Middle class will read Macaulay's Essay on Milton, Among My Books, (Lowell,) Lofe of Frederick the Great, (Carlyle.) The Senior class will read Herbert Spencer on Style, Lowell's Oration on Democracy, Hammerton's Intellectual Life.
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COURSE OF STUDY.

FALL TERM.

Apprentice Class.--ADVANCED ENGLISH GRAMMAR--Patterson's.
Junior Class.--RHETORIC--Hill's.
Middle Class.--SCIENCE OF RHETORIC--Hill's.
Senior Class.--ENGLISH LITERATURE--Taine's.

SPRING TERM.

Apprentice Class.--ADVANCED ENGLISH GRAMMAR--Patterson's.
Junior Class.--RHETORIC--Hill's.
Middle Class.--POLITICAL ECONOMY--Jevon's.
Middle Class.--OUR GOVERNMENT--Martin's.
Senior Class.--ENGLISH LITERATURE--Taine's.
Senior Class.--SELECT PLAYS OF SHAKESPEAR--Dr. Hudson's.

BOOKS OF REFERENCE.

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Chambers' Encyclopedia of English Literature, Smith's Synonyms Discriminated.

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DEPARTMENT OF DRAWING.
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By reason of its connection with the various industrial arts and manufactures, the science of drawing, both free hand and mechanical, has a more immediate bearing on the pursuits of everyday life, than any other branch of technical education. Not only is it an aid, but an actual necessity to the moulder in the foundry, the patter maker at his bench, the blacksmith at his forge, and the fitter and finisher at his vise and lathe.

In this department special reference is had to the practical and useful. Free hand drawing is taught as it relates to the mechanical arts--such free hand drawing as every mechanical engineer would be the more efficient for knowing, while special attention is given to mechanical drawing, both in theory and practice, such attention as will enable the student to make detailed and finished working drawings of machines from specific descriptions, and to furnish the solution of special problems in machine movements.


APPRENTICE CLASS.

This class begins with elementary Free-hand Drawing, taking up in regular order the study of straight lines, angles, curved lines, figures of symmetry, and outlines of familiar objects from the "flat" and the blackboard. Then follows sketching from elementary objects with pencil, after which the class drops the pencil and takes up the crayon upon elementary geometrical solids, when they are first taught to understand and appreciate the use of shading and the practical application of the same.

From this point the class ceases to work as a whole, but each individual student works independently, and can advance as rapidly as his talent will permit.

The department is well supplied with a good collection of plaster casts and copies from celebrated artists.

The class works two and a half hours each week.

All the instruction tends towards the industrial rather than the æsthetic. Should any one show himself to be possessed of a genius for drawing he will be given opportunity to develope that genius within certain limits, but it must not be forgotten that this is not a school for the study of limner's art, but is intended to develope those talents which are latent in every one, and which pertain to the practical and useful in life.


JUNIOR CLASS.

This class begins the study of Descriptive Geometry, which is the foundation of every mechanical draughtman's education, and without which he could not intelligently make complete drawings of anything. Then follow Projections, Stereotomy, Shades and Shadows, construction of mouldings, etc. The remainder of the year is devoted to making complete machine drawings from the "flat" and from models.

The class works seven hours each week.


MIDDLE CLASS.

This class takes up "washed" drawings, or those that are finished with the brush either in India ink or colors. Architectural drawing and construction in all its branches, finishing with a complete course in Perspective.

SENIOR CLASS.

This class completes a course in gear cutting and the use of the Odontograph; in the construction of machinery, boilers, chimneys, steam fitting and the arrangement of steam plants, finishing with an original thesis on some mechanical device, accompanied by complete drawings of the same.

This class works seven hours each week.

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DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS.
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The studies of this department are begun in the Apprentice Class and continued throughout the entire course. Every facility is offered the student to acquire a thorough knowledge of physics. The outfit in apparatus and instruments is large and varied, and additons are being constantly made by purchase, and manufacture in the shops of the institution. No effort will be spared to illustrate and verify by experiment the principles taught in text books and lectures.

The Apprentice Class study during the first term, the general properties of matter; during the scond term, the laws of motion and machines.

The Junior Class study during the first term, hydrostatics and pneumatics. The second term is given to accoustics and magnetism.

The Middle Class are occupied the firs term with electricity--statical and dynamical, during the second term they study the subjects of heat and light.

The Senior Class are engaged for the most part in experimental work in the physical laboratory, and in investigations under the direction of the Professor of Physics. They are taught by lectures and experiment the modes of making precise measurement, the construction, adjustment and use of instruments of precision.

Among the subjects to which special attention will be given, are such instruments as employ the vernier, micrometer screw and divided circle; the construction and use of linear and circular dividing engines; the establishment and comparision of the standard yard and meter; the determination of co-efficients of expansion of solids and liquids; construction and use of barometers; the determination of specific heats of various substances; construction and use of thermometers and pyrometers; the use of the goniometer; the calculation and construction of lenses; spectrometric examinations and analyses; construction and application of the polariscope.

It is sought in this department to give the student such interest in the practical application of the princilples of physics as will encourage him to make original researches at the same time that he finds those principles verified under his immediate observation.

Constant reference is had to the practical applications of the science. To such knowledge as may be attained through text book, lectures and experiment it is sought to add the stimulus which comes from actual work in the physical laboratory and original investigations under the direction and suggestions of the Professor.


BOOKS OF REFERENCE.

Stewart and Gee's Practical Physics.
Glazebrook and Shaw's Practical Physics.
Kohlrausch's Physical Measurements.
Pickering's Physical Manipulations.
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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY.
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The course in Chemistry requires three years; it is begun in the Junior year and continues through the Middle and Senior years.

JUNIOR YEAR.

At the beginning of the Junior year General Chemistry is taken up--Remsen's Inorganic Chemistry, "Brief Course," being used as the guide. The subject is studied by means of experiments and recitations, each student devoting six to seven hours per week to experimental work illustrating the principles of General Chemistry; the recitations consisting of questions on the text and on the work in the laboratory. The experimental work in General Chemistry may be completed in less than a year. When it is finished Qualitative Analysis is taken up. Stoddard's Qualitative Analysis is used with Fresenin's Qualitative Analysis as reference.

MIDDLE YEAR.

Metallurgy is taken up the first of the year. This course includes fuels, ores of iron, methods of reduction, chemical and physical properties of iron and steel, analysis of iron and steel. A few other useful metals will be more briefly considered. In the laboratory Qualitative Analysis is continued, and Quantitative Analysis is begun, Fresenin's Qualitative Analysis is used; also Troilus on the Analysis of iron and steel.

SENIOR YEAR.

The Senior class will receive lectures on Organic Chemistry 1st half year; 2d half year lectures on Technical Industries. They will also meet occasionally to report on articles published in four selected chemical journals, which are at their command. In the laboratory they continue Quantitative Analysis, both gravimetric and volumetric analysis, and gas analysis.

The work in the laboratory is carefully supervised, every effort being made to see that the experiments are neatly and properly conducted, that the purpose and significance of each experiment is clearly perceived, and that no experiment is passed over with imperfect results. At the same time the students are encouraged to work independently, especially after they have made some progress in th laboratory. In the analytical work the student is not allowed to learn methods of separation by rote, but is required to ascertain the chemical reactions involved at each step, and represent them by appropriate equations. Throughout the course special reference is had to the properties of iron and steel, their origin, method of manufacture, composition, effects, impurities, and their detection.

No effort is made to keep the class together in the laboratory. Each one is encouraged to proceed as rapidly as is consistent with a thorough comprehension of the subject.

The department of chemistry is well equipped for the present work. It occupies the East wing of the third floor. There is a lecture room capable of seating comfortably a hundred students, with lecture table provided with every concenience--gas, water, sinks, hood, etc.; a laboratory for students, each one having at his desk gas, water, sink, drawers, closet, etc. There are also a store room and a balance room. It is proposed to increase the laboratory space, also the stock of chemical apparatus, so as to accomodate the advancing classes.

The text books used are Remsen's Organic and Inorganic Chemistries, with Richter's Chemistries for reference, Bauerman's Metallurgy of Iron and Steel, Stoddard's Qualitative Analysis, Fresenin's Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis, Troilus' Analysis of Iron and Steel. The more advanced students have access to a private library containing a number of standard works on pure and applied chemistry; also three or four of the leading chemical journals.

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.
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The course in Mechanical Engineering includes instruction in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Practice.

In Theoretical Mechanics, the principles of Statics and Dynamics are taught and illustrated in the solution of a wide range of problems, including in Statics, the combination of the Simple Mechanical Powers, the determination of centre of gravity of surfaces and solids, the effect of friction, the pressure of liquids, the centre of pressure of immersed surfaces; and in Dynamics, relations of time, space and velocity in uniformly accelerated motion, the altitude, range, and time of flight of projectiles, the impact or collision of bodies, the constrained motion of bodies, including the pendulum, the moment of inertia of surfaces and solids, the motion of liquids, etc.

In Applied Mechanics, problems are solved relating to the strength and deflection of beams, pillars and girders; the bursting strength of boilers, pipes, and thick hollow cylinders, the torsional strength of axles and shafts, the construction of gears, the designing of link and valve motion for the locomotive, the energy and work of moving bodies, the work of steam in the steam cylinder, the tractive power of the locomotive, the transformation of energy, and many other problems relating to the construction of hydraulic and steam motors and machinery.

Those who desire to begin the course in Mechanical Engineering must enter the Apprentice Class. A limited number, however, may be admitted to this department in an advanced class, provided they have had sufficient experience and actual work in wood or iron in some approved shop, together with sufficient advancement in scholastic training. In each case a certificate from the proprietor or forman of the shop will be required, setting forth the amount and kind of work which the apprentice has done.


PRACTICE.

Two principles are observed in the arrangement of the practice in this department: First, that while labor with hand tools and machines should be wisely blended, yet, since machinery has a constantly increasing share in the conversion of material into useful forms, the educated mechanic should know how to design, construct and assemble the parts of a machine, as well as how to make its product; and, second, that excellence in construction is to be sought as a most valuable factor in instruction.

The power of the engineer to decide upon general grounds the best form and material for a machine, and to calculate its parts, is vastly increased by blending with it the skill of the craftsman in manipulating the material, and the fact that the product is to be tested and used, kindles interest in its manufacture, and furnishes additional incentive to thoroughness and exactness. After the earliest lessons, the practice is on commercial goods, and follows the best methods of commercial production.

The shop building contains engine room, engine and boilers; blacksmith shop, tool room, draughting room, painting and finishing room, and large work rooms, for both wood and metals, fully equipped with tools and machinery. Here the students in Mechanical Engineering spend their practice hours as apprentices, and it is believed that the graduates in this department will as skillful mechanics as ordinary apprentices who have served three years in a shop, and they will have in addition the advantages of a solid education. This result will be attained under the following conditions:

1. These shops are organized as a manufacturing establishment, and the great variety of work always in progress of construction, will enable the students to have constantly the wholesome atmosphere of real business. This, with a determination on the part of the superintendent to maintain a high standard of workmanship, will make the progress of the students in the best methods of construction both rapid and thorough, and will prove the most effective means of giving them an exact knowledge of shop practice.

2. The work of each student is done under the personal supervision and direction of a skilled workman, and with the advantage of the best obtainable tools and machinery; for it is as true in handicraft as in the training of the intellect, that the best tools and appliances are not too good for instruction.

3. Every student receives training in drawing during the entire course. In this way exact knowledge of form and proportion is secured, and the students make more intelligent and satisfactory progress in the shop, than is possible for those who have not had the advantage of this training. Beside the general training in free hand and instrumental drawing, students in this department have practice during Senior year in making working drawings of machines, and in determining the strength, dimensions, and proper proportions of machines from numerical specifications.



WOOD SHOP.

4. The weekly practice is distributed so as to occupy five hours of each of two days. Each student is required to render a strict account of these hours. The time thus spent serves the double purpose of practice and of exercise.

5. Each student advances as fast as possible, unchecked by the difficulties of his neighbor, or any business necessity of the shop.

To these advantages, viz., the service of construction in the work of instruction, the discipline and culture of free-hand drawing, careful distribution of time, and relief from unnecessary detail, should be added the consideration which far outweighs them all, that students come to their with the perceptive faculties, the reason, the judgement and the taste under all constant and careful training in school. Theory and practice accompany and supplement each other. Under these conditions, it is clear that the students must during their practice have direction and efficient instruction. With the present facilities, one hundred and fifty are accomodated.

In general the Apprentice Class are taught the use of wood-working tools and machineryl the Junior, Middle and Senior Classes work mainly on iron.

Practice in the Machine Shop and Draughting rooms is given in manufacturing the various products of the shops. It comprises,


IN THE WOOD ROOM:

     Bench Work.--This includes a great variety of manipulation, under constant instruction, in laying out work with knife and pencil, the use of planes, the hand-saws, chisels, gouges, squares, guages and other tools.
     Wood Turning.--With the use of the various turning tools, on hard and soft wood.
     Machine Sawing.--With large and small circular saws, and scroll saws.
     Machine Planing.--With the Cylinder and Daniels planer, Machine Boring, the use of the shaping and Moulding Machines, and the auxiliary manipulations of all the machinery used.

IN THE IRON ROOM:

     Bench Work.--Filing and chipping, preparing work for lathes, tapping, reaming, scraping and fitting plane surfaces, finishing with oil-stone and emery cloth.
     Work with Speed Lathe.--Drilling and countersinking, filing and polishing, hand-tooling.
     Work with Engine Lathe.--Instruction in the use and care of lathe and turning tools, squaring up, the proper and maximum speed for cutting metals, turning to exact size, the use of the calipers, a variety of turning, both heavy and light; cutting threads, squaring up and finishing nuts, chucking straight holes, reaming, inside boring, boring with boring-bar, fitting bearings, etc.
     Drilling.--With speed-lathe, upright and traverse drillers.
     Milling.--Use of the universal milling machine--milling nuts, bolt heads and studs, cutting splines, fluting taps and reamers, milling to size and line, cutting gears.


MACHINE SHOP.

     Planing.--Instruction in the use of the planer, planing surfaces and bevels.
     Work with Screw Machine.--Making machine bolts with revolving head screw machine, cutting up stock, making screws and studs, and tapping nuts.
     Tool Making.--The correct forms of turning tools, and the principles of grinding them; making taps, dies, reamers, twist-drills, countersinks, counter bores, mills, milling machine cutters, mandrels, boring-bars, chuck-drills, centers.
     Management of Steam.--Care of the boilers and engine, including the work of firing; the care and control of the steam pressure and the water supply; also, the care and manipulation of the steam pump and injectors. The practice in the steam department is under the constant oversight of the Engineer.
     Designing and Constructing.--In Senior Year after the students have each accomplished the practice just specified, they will build one or more complete machines from their own drawings. These drawings, though made from definite specifications, are intended to afford ample field and scope for the personal responsibility and originality of each student, in making correct design and arrangement of the parts of the machine in hand. While this work is not copying, it must not depart essentially from the best practice among manufacturing mechanics.

While we depend mainly upon real work, with machines and tools in the hands of the student, to give him practical knowledge and experience, we also desire to make the instruction as broad and general as possible.



FOUNDRY.

---------------
DEPARTMENT OF MINERALOGY AND
GEOLOGY.
----------
Instruction in this department will begin with the middle year, to be continued throughout the Senior year. The method of instruction embraces lectures, recitations, and practical work in the laboratory and in the field. Cabinets of materials and geological specimens will be provided as the demand arises for them. The Mineralogical laboratory will be provided with tables, blow pipes, combustion, crucible, muffle and roasting furnaces, crushers and grinders, and other appliances adapted to experimental work and investigation.

The department embraces Crystallography, the localities, properties, forms and uses of the principle minerals. An important feature of the course will be the practical use of the lens, magnet, blow pipe, and simple analysis in the determination of minerals. Especial attention will be given to such determination and to the assaying of ores.

Geology will be studied in its lithological, historical, and dynamical features, and great promimence will be given to its economic bearings, the formation of soils, and deposits of valuable minerals in Georgia.

Field excursions will form a part of the regular course.

Text books and books of reference: Dana, Plattner, Crook, Le Conte, Geikie.

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COURSE OF STUDY.
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SYNOPSIS OF STUDIES.

APPRENTICE YEAR.

FIRST TERM:--Mathematics--Algebra.
     Drawing--Elementary Free-Hand.
     English--Advanced Grammar, Readings, Essays.
     Physics--General Properties of Matter.
     Shop Work.
SECOND TERM:--Mathematics--Algebra and Plane Geometry.
     Drawing--Crayon and Shading.
     English--Advanced Grammar, Readings, Essays.
     Physics--Motion and Machines.
     Shop Work.

JUNIOR YEAR.

FIRST TERM:--Mathematics--Plane and Solid Geometry, Field Practice in Leveling.
     Drawing--Descriptive Geometry, Elementary Projections, Stereotomy, Shades and Shadows.
     English--Rhetoric, Readings, Essays.


FORGE SHOP.

     Physics--Hydrostatics and Pneumatics.
     Chemistry--General and Theoretical.
     Shop Work.
SECOND TERM:--Mathematics--Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Surveying, Field Practice in Compass and Transit Surveying.
     Drawing--Mouldings, Machine Drawings from "the flat" and from models.
     English--Rhetoric, Readings, Essays.
     Physics--Accoustics, Magnetism.
     Chemistry--Qualitative Analysis.
     Shop Work.

MIDDLE YEAR.

FIRST TERM:--Mathematics--Analytical Geometry; Field Practices in Plane Table Surveying.
     Drawing--Finished drawings in India ink or colors; Architectural work.
     English--Science of Rhetoric; Readings; Essays.
     Engineering--Materials; Foundations.
     Physics--Electricity.
     Chemistry--Metallurgy; Analyses.
     Geology--Physiographic and Lithological.
     Shop Work.
SECOND TERM:--Mathematics--Calculus; Field Practice; Map Work.
     Drawing--Perspective; Machine Drawing.
     English--Political Economy; Science of Government; Readings; Essays.
     Engineering--Machinery; Mill Work.
     Physics--Heat and Light.
     Chemistry--Quantitative Analyses.
     Geology--Historical.
     Shop Work.

SENIOR YEAR.

FIRST TERM:--Mathematics--Calculus.
     Drawing--Gear Cutting and Odontograph; Machine Design.
     English--English Literature; Criticisms; Original Speeches; Readings.
     Engineering--Prime Movers; Applied Electricity; Boilers.
     Physics--Laboratory Work.
     Chemistry--Organic Chemistry; Lectures.
     Geology--Historical.
     Shop Work.
SECOND TERM:--Mathematics--Calculus.
     Drawing--Machine Design.
     English--Criticism; Original Speeches; Readings.
     Engineering--Prime Movers; Thermodynamics; Engine Construction; Applied Electricity.
     Chemistry--Technical Industries.
     Geology--Dynamical.
     Shop Work.

---------------
GENERAL INFORMATION.
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Extract from the Act of the General Assembly of Georgia, entitled an "Act to establish a Technological School."

* * * "That there shall be established, in connection with the State University and forming one of the departments thereof, a Technological School for the education and training of students in the industrial and mechanical arts.

* * * "That there shall be one beneficiary for each Representative in the General Assembly from every county in this State, selected by the Board of Education in each county on competitive examination, and who shall be first entitled to the benefits of said school; that the tuition in said school shall be free to all students who are residents of the State of Georgia. The rates of tuition to others than residents of the State shall not exceed one hundred and fifty dollars per annum."

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GENERAL PLAN.

In conformity with this Act of the Legislature, the leading object of the School will be to teach the principles of science, especially those which relate to the mechanic and industrial arts.

The school offers an education of high grade, founded on the mathematics, the English language, the physical sciences and drawing, while it gives such familiarity with some industrial pursuits as will enable the graduate to earn a living.

There are no elective courses, each student being required to follow the prescribed course, both mechanical and scholastic. The time and attention of students will be duly proportioned between scholastic and mechanical pursuits, and special prominence will be given to the element of practice in every department.

The methods of the school are in the main such as have been found advantageous in the Polytechnic Schools of Europe and at the Worcester Free Institute, with such modifications as adapt it to the peculiar needs of this section.

To thorough supervision and instruction in handicrafts are added the stimulus of production for the market and such other conditions as are likely to be met with in the active business of life. Students do not receive money compensation for their work.

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BUILDINGS.

The school occupies a beautiful site, in a campus of nine acres, lying at the junction of North Avenue and Cherry Street, easily accessible by street car lines on Marietta Street and on North Avenue. The Academic building is a splendid edifice of brick, trimmed with granite and terra cotta, slate roof. It has one hundred and thirty feet front, is one hundred and twenty deep and is four stories high above basement story. It contains ample accommodations in halls, offices, apparatus rooms, recitation and lecture rooms, free hand and mechanical drawing rooms, library and chapel.





The workshop is also of brick, two hundred and fifty feet long by eighty wide, and two stories high. It is beautifully designed with reference to its use, and affords ample space for the various departments of instruction pursued in it. It contains boiler and engine rooms, wood shop, machine shop, forge room and foundry.

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EQUIPMENT.

The Chemical and Physical laboratories have been fitted up with reference to practical work, and such additions will be made from time to time as may be required for experimental research. The apparatus and appliances are of the newest and best forms, and will be increased as occasion may demand.

The workshops have been equipped with machinery and tools from the best makers, and of the latest patterns, at a cost of over twenty thousand dollars. In pursuance of the fundamental idea of giving the student access to the best machinery and experimental knowledge of the best methods of mechanical work, the commission have put the mechanical department on a footing with the most approved and complete shops in the country, and hardly any process requiring fine material and accurate workmanship is beyond its capacity.

The shops of the institution have already won an enviable reputation for the quality of its iron and brass castings, perfection in gear cutting and the beauty and variety of its wood-work.

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SESSION AND TERMS.

The session begins the first Wednesday in October and ends the third Wednesday in June. It will be divided into two terms of equal length. The first half year ends the second Wednesday in February. There will be an intermission of two weeks, embracing the Christmas holidays.
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CONDITIONS OF ADMISSION.

Candidates for admission to the Apprentice Class must be at least sixteen years old, must be of good moral character and must pass examination in the following studies, viz.:

Arithmetic, including elementary principles, Fractions, Compund Quantities, Percentage, and Interest and Proportion.

Algebra, through simple operations--addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

English, including grammatical construction of sentences, composition or letter showing proficiency in spelling, puntuation and division into paragraphs.

Geography, particularly that of the United States.

History of the United States.

The entrance examinations will take place on Wednesday, October 2, 1889, at nine o'clock, a. m., in the Academic building.

Candidates for admission to advanced classes must be of relatively proper age, and must show that they are qualified to enter the class for which they apply, either by certificate of work done at other institutions or by examination.

Students will not be admitted to the institution at any other time than at the beginning of the session in October.

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EXAMINATIONS.

Competitve examinations will be held, in accordance with the Act of the legislature organizing the school, at such time and place in the various counties and by such persons as will best secure the end contemplated in the Act. Each county in the State is entitled to as many students in the institution as it has representatives in the House of Representatives. The number of representatives in the House is now 176, a number somewhat in excess of the present capacity of the school.

It is hoped that by the beginning of the next school session the legislature will have made provision for the large number now applying for admission, and so multiply the facilities of the institution to meet the demands being made upon it.

In addition to the competitive examination, there will be in all cases, an Entrance Examination, and students will, under no circumstances, be admitted to the institution who are not prepared to receive its instruction with profit. These two examinations are of about the same grade, and this grade has been fixed at such a point as, in the judgement of the management, is consistent with the purpose for which the institution was organized.

Monthly, mid-term, and final examinations are held during the session. Students are liable to be dropped from the roll of their class at mid-term who do not meet the requirements of the mid-term examination. All examinations are written.

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DEGREE CONFERRED.

The degree conferred in this school is that of Mechanical Engineer.
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REPORTS.

Reports of the standing of students are issued twice during the session--one at the close of the fall and the other at the close of the spring term.

Bulletin boards are placed in the halls, and upon these are posted each month, the grading of students as ascertained by the monthly examinations.

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TUITION AND FEES.

There will be no charge for tuition to residents of the State of Georgia. All others pay a tuition fee of $150.

Every student, of whatever place of residence, pays an annual fee of $20 to cover contingent expenses. Half of this amount is payable on the opening day of each term in advance.

A contingent fee of $5 will be required to be deposited with the treasurer on entrance, to cover injury done to college buildings or furniture, which sum will be returned to the student on leaving college, if not forfeited.

The student is advised to defer the purchase of drawing instruments and materials until he can have the direction of the Professor in their selection.

Text-books and stationery can be purchased in Atlanta on good terms. The student is advised, however, to bring such scientific books as he may possess.

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SPECIMEN EXAMINATION (For Entrance.)

ARITHMETIC.

1. Divide, by decimal division, two-tenths by one tens of millionths.
2. Divide 34 bu., 2 pks., 5 qts., 1 pt., by 7.
3. A speculator sold 18 mules for $2,148.84, thereby making a profit of 26 per cent. What did the mules cost apiece?
4. If 450 soldiers are to be furnished with clothing, each suit requiring 9 yards of cloth one yard wide, how many yards of flannel 3/4 of a yard in width would be required to line the suits?
5. Define notation, numeration, a factor.
Time allowed, two hours.

ALGEBRA.

1. Add x2-xy+ab, x3+2xy-2ab, 4xy+6xy-x2 and 10x3+2xz-10ab2.
2. Subtract x10-y10 from x2+2xy-y10.
2. Multiply x2-2xy+y2 by x3-y3+3xy2-3x2y.
4. Divide 60yz-40xz+12xy+100z2+9y2+4x2 by 2x+3y-10z.
5. Define a term, a coefficient, a monomial, a power.
Time allowed, two hours.
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HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES.

1. How many voyages did Columbus make to America? Give the date of each.
2. At what point was the American Continent proper discovered, and by whom?
3. Name the original thirteen states.
4. Name the wars the colonies were engaged in before the Revolution.
5. Who discovered the Pacific ocean, and when?
6. Name the presidents in order to Cleveland, and place opposite the name of each the length of his term in service.
7. Give the causes of the War of 1812 and the Mexican War.
8. Mention the important facts in Jackson's administration.
9. Name the principle battles of the Civil War, and give the names of the principle generals.
10. What was the Missouri Compromise?
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GEOGRAPHY.

1. Bound Missouri, Idaho, and New Mexico, and give the capitals of each.
2. Where are the islands--Malta and St. Helena?
3. Give the Capitals and the principle cities of the following countries: England, France, Germany, Russia and Brazil.
4. Between what parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude do the United States lie?
5. Through what waters would you pass in going by steamer from Pittsburg, Pa., to St. Petersburg, Russia?
6. Name the principle bays which touch the United States.
7. Name the great lakes of the United States in their order from east to west.
8. Mention the rivers of Georgia and Texas.
9 Name the countries which lie on the easter and southern coasts of Asia.
10. Mention the three largest States in our Union.
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ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

1. Define the parts of speech and give an example of each in sentences of your own composition.
2. What is the difference between a transitive and an intransitive verb?
3. Give a sentence containing a verb in the active voice, and then change it to the passive; also a sentence using an infinitive as a nounl also sentences showing that the same word may be used as an adjective and as a noun.
4. Make short sentences showing the different uses of the participle.
5. Parse the italicized words in the following sentence: "James had returned home before the rain began to fall."
6. Correct the following sentences and give reasons: "The man who I seen was named John Smith;" "These sort of apples make good cider."
7. Write out the 3rd person singular of the verb "to do," in all its moods and tenses, active and passive.
8. What is meant by the terms: appostion, government, agreement? Illustrate by examples of each.
9. Give the three degrees of comparison of the following adjectives: good, beautiful, little, bad, ill.
10. Give the feminine of the following masculine nouns: author, singer, czar, stag, salesman, agent.
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EXPENSES.

Board can be had with good families at from $12.50 to $20 per month. Special arrangements can be made for fuel and lights. Washing costs from $1.50 to $2 per month.

A list of such boarding houses may be had by applying to the President.

Each student should have two suits of overalls costing from $1.50 to $2 each.

Books, stationery, drawing material and drawing instruments may be estimated to cost about $25 the first year, and from $5 to $10 each year thereafter.

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RELIGIOUS EXERCISES.

Each student is required to attend some church or place of worship, according to his denominational preference, once on Sabbath.

Chapel service is held each morning in the college chapel, and students are required to attend unless specially excused.

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GOVERNMENT.

The institution is conducted upon the general idea of cultivating in the student a spirit of manly independence and loyalty to all proper authority.

Neglect of duty and disregard of order are taken as evidence that those guilty of such offences cannot be profited by remaining in the institution, and the prompt withdrawl of such offenders is insisted on.


----------

*THE PLACE OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHOOLS IN THE
WORK OF EDUCATION.
-----

*Address delivered at Athens, Ga., May 2, 1889. [by Isaac S. Hopkins]

I speak to-night to the Georgia Teachers' Association, and the subject I have to present by invitation is "The Place of Technological Schools in the Work of Education."

I may be indulged in saying that I am sensible, to the highest degree, of the honor to myself involved in the occasion. And yet the occasion has in it so much of significance and responsibility as to almost forbid the indulgence of what might otherwise be a positive pleasure.

In the very rare nature of the case an audience of teachers listening to a teacher, like a congregation of preachers listening to a preacher, must of necessity be the most critical of audiences. Not in the objectional sense, as when the critic steels himself against the influences of the occasion and the purpose of the speaker, but in the higher and better sense that he seeks to know the real value of what may be said and catch as fully as possible whatever inspiration there may be in the thoughts presented.

My subject, too, gives me no little concern. It is not in the least extravagant to say that no one branch of education has excited within the last decade or two so absorbing an interest and provoked so wide a discussion. It has been the war cry of opposing factions in an honest contest for the truth. It has been viewed in almost every conceivable aspect and bearing. Writers and speakers have approached it from high philosophic grounds and have worked their problem from above downward--from generals to particulars. They have discussed its merits from within outwards, and denied or admitted its value from the standpoint of utility. Inductive methods and deductive methods have probed and sounded it until to those who have followed the drift of the discussion the subject has lost the charm of novelty.

I repeat, that before such an audience and with such a theme I may well hesitate. I sincerely trust I may have your earnest attention, and that you may accord me at least the credit of speaking as one of the great body of teachers, honestly striving to do his part in the work of education.

I have spoken of the Place of Technological Schools in the Work of Education.

Have Technological Schools such a place? The best answer that can be given to this question is a brief glance at the history of such schools.

The Technological School is the product of the present century. The nearest approach to it in the previous century was the famous Ecole Polytechnique at Paris. This school, however, while it embraced something of constructive art, was essentially a military school. Napoleon was accustomed to say of it that it was the hen that laid the golden eggs. Its purpose was to train engineers, and of these it gave to Napoleon not a few whose services in field and march could have been ill spared by the man of destiny.

To France, however, belongs, I believe, the honor of having established the first school which clearly comes within the scope of the present conception of the Technical School. This was the school founded in 1802 at Chalons, the object of which was to train foremen and workmen of special skill, founders, blacksmiths, machinists and finishers. Later, schools of the same character and grade were established at other points--Angers in 1811 and that at Aix in 1843. In 1829 was established in Paris the celebrated Ecole Centrale, a scool which embodies more than any other of its age in France the modern conception of the technical school. It embraces courses in mechanics, civil engineering, chemistry, metallurgy and architecture. Its courses cover three years of attendance, and its requirements for admission include the elements of physical science and mathematics through descriptive and analytical geometry.

There has been an increasing demand in France for such schools, and they have multipled in large variety to meet special needs for wood and iron workmen. Paris alone has over one hundred art schools free to both resident and foreign pupils.

Germany has at least eight technical schools of the grade of the Ecole Centrale with a course of four years and having requirements for admission which reach beyond the average attainments of the best American colleges at the end of the sophomore year, with the omission of Greek.

Switzerland has one such school at Zurich; Italy three, one at Milan, one at Turin and one at Naples. At Berlin is a monster establishment erected and equipped at a cost of over two and a quarter millions of dollars and with accomodations for four thousand students.

As long ago as 1806 Germany founded its first technological school at Augsburg, since which time schools of this character have multiplied in that country with wonderful rapidity, until it is almost impossible to count those which are distinctly technical and stand separated from the university. In many instances the teaching coincides with that given in the university, the cheif distinction seeming to be in the arrangement of courses of instruction and in the admission of students who have not had a preliminary classical training. Engineers of every description, architects, builders, and manufacturing chemists find in these schools the scientific and technical training which the lawyer and physician, and in some instances the industrial chemist seek in the university.

At Berlin, Vienna and Munich, the university and the polytechnic school co-exist, and in certain cases in which a very special training is required to fit a student for his career, after spending three or four years at a polytechnic school, he passes on to another institution, such as a dyeing school, where his studies are further specialized with a view to his future work.

In England the tendency is growing to associate technical training with university education. Of the more recently erected English colleges, the Owens College at Manchester, is the most important, combining the facilities of a university with those of a technical school. Yorkshire College, at Leeds, has a special school for teaching weaving and dyeing. Similar institutions exist at Birmingham, Newcastle, Sheffield, Nottingham, Dundee, Cardiff, and elsewhere. University College and King's College, London, is each an example of the combination referred to. The Royal School of Mines, is another.

Russia has two schools which have long been famous, and which have furnished the models upon which many others have been organized. That at Moscow and that at St. Petersburg, which, in addition to the training they give to the vast numbers of students in attendance, furnish the standards and tests to which contracts for government supplies must be brought, and which supply the country at large with the best classes of machinery.

Sweden, Denmark, Belgium and Holland have schools hardly inferior to those mentioned, indeed, in some instances, superior; and even Spain and Portugal have laid claim to renewed respect from sister nations by commendable advances in this line of special education.

In this country the idea involved in technical education has found expression in forms and institutions now almost innumerable. Leaving out of the list the military and professional schools, such institutions as the Columbia school of Mines at New York, the Sheffield school at New Haven, the Rensselaer at Troy, the Institute of Technology at Boston, the Stevens Institute at Hoboken, the Worcester Free Institute at Worcester, the Rose Polytechnic at Terre Haute, the Washington University at St. Louis, the Tulane University at New Orleans, the Industrial Institute for Women at Columbus, Miss., the annex of a mechanical department at Vanderbilt, and other universities, the Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical college, and last, but let us hope not least, the Georgia School of Technology, now in its first year, are instances of the gradual but sure shaping of the general idea underlying the technical school.

Add to these the various agricultural and mechanical colleges which have multiplied almost without number, and we have this idea further emphasized. In the light of these facts it is safe for us to assume that schools of Technology have a place.

And not only have they a place in fact, but back of this we must see the sentiment which made the fact possible. Not every educational enterprise, intrinsically meritorious though it may be, is feasible. The agricultural college is not a new idea. It is within the memory of some who bear me to-night, that this type of education, conceived by wise men and sustained by earnest efforts seemed doomed to failure. To give currency to an idea or permanence to an institution needs something more than the recognition of its necessity and the forecast of its value to future generations. Along with such intuitive recognition by the few and the most strenuous advocacy of its claims, there must come the response of public recognition and approval. Great ideas, whether in individuals or nations, or the race, are of slow growth--they are not to be forced. When once the seed has found its habitat and, under favoring conditions of warmth and light, it has struck its roots downward and lifted the branches upward and outward, growth seems easy and life assured. It is not extravagant to affirm that no movement in education within the entire history of education has met with such universal recognition and welcome as has this one of technical education of high grade. At another time it would be an interesting inquiry to look into the philosophy of this general sentiment of approval and endorsement. But such inquiry would be apart from our purpose now. I cite it to show that the technical school has a place, not a temporary and insecure place, but one imbedded in the convictions of men of all grades of culture and all modes of thinking, a place in which it is destined to abide through time and from which it will send forth streams of influence irresistible in their depth and sweep, to change the types of nationalities and mould anew the civilizations of the world.

Having seen that the place of Technological Schools is not one held on sufferance and by grace, let us inquire into the right and title by which this place is held. And I think we shall find that this right is an inherent one and that the title is unassailable.

In the first place, then, such schools hold their place and will continue to do so, because they are schools in the highest and best sense--because they educate.

Let us look for a moment into what a school of this character proposes to teach. The course of study in the technical school, as determined by long experience and in all countries, is substantially the same. It is about as follows: Mathematics--beginning with algebra and geometry, passing into trigonometry, then into analytical geometry, thence into the calculus; these and theoretical and applied mechanics.

Physics, embracing elementary principles and their applications, the solution of a large variety of problems, laboratory practice.

Chemistry--elementary principles, with constant laboratory practice and analytical work, its applications to the arts and industries.

Language--the mother tongue, with full training in the literature of the language and with a view to its accurate and elegant use. This with a knowledge of one or more modern tongues besides the mother tongue.

Drawing, both free hand and mechanical, including perspective, orthographic and isometric projection, shades and shadows.

Geology and Mineralogy as far as practicable, and particularly in their relation to mining industries.

In all three studies special reference is had to their practical bearings, and the general idea which obtains in the workshop, namely, constant and familiar contact with implements and apparatus and the solution of practical problems, is embodied and emphasized.

I do not think I could do better than give here, as a summary of the objects and methods of technical schools, the principles set forth by Prof. Thompson as those of one of the oldest and most popular of the schools of this country. The Worcester Free Institute appeared to our law-makers, under the report of the commission sent North and West some years ago, to embody the best conception of industrial education.

"This institution was organized under the influence of a belief that after all that has been done in technology, there is still need of a system of training boys broader and brighter than "learning a trade," and more simple and direct than the so-called 'liberal education;' that while the boys should be thoroughly trained in all the essentials of a polytechnic course, they should also find a workshop open where they could get all the essentials of a trade, so that upon graduating they should have sufficient knowledge of machinery and handicraft to enable them to earn a living while pushing their way up to the highest positions for which nature and their training had qualified them. It was held that not the least important of their qualifications for high positions is a good experience of the lower positions.

"It is the undoubting opinion of the managers of the Institute and of all who have watched its operations that the connection of academic culture and the practical application of science is advantageous to both in a school where these objects are started together and carried on with harmony and equal prominence. The academy inspires its intelligence into the work of the shop, and the shop, with eyes open to the improvements of productive industries, prevents the monastic dreams and shortness of vision that sometimes paralyze the profound learning of the college."

The Worcester School was opened in 1868 with the following principles for its guidance, and so far has seen no reason to depart from them:

1. That all mechanical engineers will find it advantageous to go through a workshop training.

2. This training in the work shop may precede, accompany, or follow scholastic training and theoretical instruction, but for many reasons it preferably accompanies them.

3. The work shop instruction is best given in a genuine manufacturing machine shop, where work is done that is to be sold in the open, market, and in unprotected competition with the products of other shops.

4. That in a course of three and one-half years, working 800 hours the that half year, and 500 hours each year thereafter, a boy beginning without any knowledge of mechanics can acquire skill enough to offer himself at graduation as a journeyman, and will be found, on trial, not inferior to those who have spent the entire time of three and a half years in a regular machine shop.

5. That the work shop practice must be a part of every week's work in the institution; that it shall be momentarily Supervised by skilful men, and that the student must not expect to receive money compensation for his work.

6. That the question as to who among the students shall become a superintendent or foreman or engineer, engaged in designing or drafting machinery, can not be forecast in any school, that being a question to be determined by actual trial only; because the discipline of the judgment by actual practice into which personal responsibility enters is vital and essential to a valid claim to the post of superintendent. Hence it will follow, that while all receive the preliminary training requisite for engineering, many will not attain to it, but all will find a full reward for their time and labor in superior intelligence as workmen--in being masters and not servants of the machines they make or run.

7. A principle announced when the first class graduated, and inculcated upon all subsequent classes, is that the value of the education they have received will show itself in the rate of their advancement, and will be easily detected by their employers, and that they should not be so much concerned in seeking places and about high wages or great positions as about the chances ahead for advancement. Indeed, there might be cases in which they could well afford to wait and work content to earn a bare subsistance, counting themselves remunerated largely in the enlargement of their experience.

Several things urge themselves upon our consideration in view of this statement of the purpose and plan of the technical school.

1. That a very important and prominent object is the preparation it gives to the student for earning a living when he shall have passed beyond a certain stage in his training. This, it must he clearly held in view, is incidental, and yet in thousands of cases it becomes one of the gravest questions, a question not of deliberate choice but of hard, stern necessity.

Poverty and hardship are the rule in the world now as they have always been. Ease of position and freedom to choose the amount of time to be spent in school and college are the exception. The primary object of the system, the highest and best object, is not to leave boys with this bare preparation for earning a living, but that it can furnish thus much to those whom fortune has not smiled upon is no small consideration in making up an estimate of the worth of the technical school.

2. Again it is obvious that the purpose of the system is to furnish the country at large with men who have attained high mechanical skill at the same time that they have been trained in some mental pursuits; in a word, to send forth engineers of a superior class who shall have in charge the superintendence of mechanical plants, the erection of manufactories, the development of mining and other industries. The phraseology of the schools denominates these men mechanical engineers.

I shall not stop to draw the nice distinction often made, and not so often definitely understood, between the civil engineer and the mechanical engineer.

The experience of one of the oldest and best equipped schools of Austria--that at Vienna--is instructive. Baron Von Eybesfeld, minister of public instruction, found a great excess of engineers over the demand. These engineers were trained in the theory of their profession, but with little knowledge derived from actual experience in the workshop. To meet the demand for skilled mechanical engineers, a new order of school was organized in which the workshop practice formed a leading feature. Every piece of the work done in the new school was done with reference to its salability; and Dr. Exner, who had the management of the school, reported that the work sold in the open market brought in returns the first year of a thousand guelden. Since then most schools of this character have multiplied in Austria, where mechanical skill is imparted alongside the training in the theory and principle.

Our own section, the South, presents a striking illustration of the necessity of such training for our engineers of public works. Each year our various institutions are sending out men, thoroughly equipped under the old idea, as engineers, and it is a serious question as to what becomes of them. Now and then we hear of one surveying a new route for a railroad, but more frequently acting in a subordinate capacity to some one who has been more fortunate in his training. The lack of opportunity for the application of their specialty drives them into other callings. How many men do we know, of Southern birth and Southern training, who are superintendents of mills and managers of manufactories or engaged in the development of mining industries?

As further illustration of our poverty in men, it may be mentioned that of the men employed in the workshops of the Georgia School of Technology, the superintendent and three foremen out of four in the several departments had to he brought from beyond the limits of our own State, and not from the South. We did not have the men for the enterprise.

No question touching the matter of education is more vital to the material prosperity of the State and the South in general than the one we are now considering.

We hear much of the material advantages of the South, its genial climate, its sunny skies, its water powers, its rich mineral deposits, ores and coal in convenient proximity, its rich soil and wonderful staple; we congratulate ourselves ever and anon on some new enterprise which marks our material advancement, and yet, when we come to consider the facts as they really exist, we are doing almost nothing in material development as compared with our possibilities and as compared with the advancement made by our Northern brethren. Of the total manufacturing done in the United States, the census of 1880 shows that only nine per cent of it is done in the Southern States. For the full development of the resources so abundant and so varied, special training in the direction of mechanical skill is the demand too obvious almost for statement. But this skill must be allied with knowledge of the forces to be met and mastered, and only in the conjunction of the lecture room and the work shop is such a combination to he found. The engineer, after all, must be distinct and separate from the mere artisan or mechanic. Call him a civil engineer and set him to building highways, railroads, waterworks and sewers, or call him a mechanical engineer and let him deal solely with machines from the original design in the draughting room through the machine shop up to the full operation of the perfected engine; or call him electrical engineer and set him to constructing telegraph line, or chemical engineer and set him to making dye stuffs and supplying the great industrial acids, it all comes to the same thing at last, he is efficient only by as much as he possesses large and accurate knowledge of the principles of the science with which he deals and has learned in laboratory and workshop to verify these principles by actual experiment and observation.

Time and your patience would hardly suffice for even the most striking illustrations of what has been accomplished by trained, skilful hands, under the direction of a well informed mind, and under the quickened perception which comes from dealing with practical issues. The elder Roebling, the architect of the Niagara railroad bridge, and the designer of the great Brooklyn bridge, was a graduate of the Berlin Polytechnic.

The bridge over the Vistula at Warschau was built by a graduate of Carlsruhe. Mr. Ellet, who built the first wire suspension bridge in this country, that over the Schuylkill at Philadelphia, and who first spanned Niagara with a bridge, was a student at the Paris school. The bridge over the Volga was built by English engineers. The latest, largest, and most costly bridge in Russia, that over the Neva, was built by the graduates of the Imperial Technological school at Petersburg, and every piece of iron that entered into this structure was tested in the laboratories of the Imperial school.

Some years ago the Italian government made comparative tests of different armor plates for use on vessels of war, and the plates that best stood the tests and answered the demands of strength and resistance were constructed by Schneider at the shops of the French Technological school a Le Creusot.

Another thing, however, which appears from the summary of the Worcester plan is that this system really educates.

We hear much in discussions on education about the old system and the new--much as to the comparative merits of the education based upon the classics and metaphysics and that which has its foundation in physical science. Time and the occasion forbid that we should enter at length into this discussion. It may he said, however, that much of the controversy on these questions is irrelevant and unnecessary. It betrays a narrow and meagre view of education itself and deliberately ignores facts which themselves set a bound to the processes and plans of education. Already I have indicated that the question often is not how much of language and mathematics and science can one learn in the few years to be employed in the work of mental discipline, but how can the boy best get in some sort of readiness to meet the stern demand upon him, to take his place among the busy breadwinners of the world. Surely no man who has thought over and through these grave questions of opportunity and necessity will regret that modern methods of education have made it possible for a boy to spend his cramped moments in a definite plan with such mental discipline as it allows and bestows, rather than follow a plan the merits of which he can not grasp and comprehend, and which to a large majority of boys is a fearful drudgery.

If the object of education were culture only, and culture for its own sake, I suppose there would be no debate as to the value of the classics and the humanities. Indeed, I will go further, and at least raise the question as to how far these branches of polite and elegant learning may have made possible this later and newer education.

In education as in all things else the age in which we live is one of transition from the old to the new. It is not needful that in our veneration for the old we should despise and reject the new, nor is our appreciation of the new to he measured by regarding the old as wholly vicious and effete. Indeed, the question is not at all which is the best education abstractly considered, but what things are best to be learned under the conditions which exist in modern life, and how may the wise teacher give to the pupil that which will serve him most in his need, and according to his opportunity.

Can it be said of the course of study indicated in this paper that it really and truly educates? Two leading ideas lie at the foundation of all education, or, if you please, mind is the meeting ground of two streams, one ever flowing inward and bearing its treasures of thought and knowledge; the other, as constantly flowing outward, and bearing away to other minds the gifts it has received. In what the mind receives are comprehended facts, phenomena, properties, laws; principles, causes; the one class embracing the realm of sense, the other embracing the realm of ideas. In what the mind gives out it uses some language and makes its utterances in these forms which are best adapted to clothe its thought. Articulate speech is but one of the forms in which thought clothes itself. The harmonies of music, the limned landscape, the marble bust, the glorious temple, the stately ship, are but the varied forms in which the artist or builder has voiced for us what nature, or art, or science, or God has spoken to him.

Measured by this simple conception of education, who will say that there is not an education in the constant effort to put into tangible form by hammer and lathe the thought which comes from text book and nature, by spoken word and the mechanism of the universe?

I think enough has been said to show that in the great work of education, so near and so dear to this body of men and women, the School of Technology has a place, and that no mean or unimportant one; that this place, unique as it is and bearing relations of unspeakable significance and value to the prosperity of our common country and the well being of our people, does not antagonize or exclude any other form of education; that it is in harmony with the profoundest philosophy of education, and that, if fostered, it offers to the youth of the land now among us, and to the generations to follow, an education which is not a substitute for something better, but which has in it the promise and potency of a higher civilization than we have yet known, and a broader life than the vast majority of our youth have yet experienced.

We do well to recognize the claims of the boy of to-day in an education which he will receive and which is adjusted to his special needs. To impart to him the power to think along any useful line; to stimulate him to the exercise of judgment and reason; to give him a sense of reliance upon his own strength and resources; to lead him to feel that, the question of a livelihood apart, he has a place in the busy working world; to teach him caution in his undertakings, care in his methods; to impart to him the sweet sense of successful achievement--these belong to the ethical side of the technical school. His intellectual drill and furnishing will come in the study of mathematics, language and science. If time and circumstance favor, add whatever to these is possible of literature or the classics to round out the intellect in symmetry and strength. Fill his heart with high and worthy ambition to wield large and beneficient power over nature and over men.

These principles, I may be permitted to say, have entered into the conception which lies at the foundation of the Georgia School of Technology. By a chain of beneficent providence from the original proposal to found such a school, through the appointment of the committee of practical, earnest men to visit and report upon the best forms of such schools in this country, on down through the appointment of a commission of broad-minded, far-seeing men to have special oversight of its organization and equipment, the history of the school has been marked by a breadth of conception and a liberality of interpretation upon which the State has just reason to be congratulated.

We am building and working not for a day but for the centuries. The stupendous possibilities of this enterprise come over me at times like a vision. Georgia, freed from the grasp and reproach of poverty, lifted upward and onward among her sister commonwealths, enriched not only in her material resources and her mechanical and manufacturing enterprises, but made better and richer far in the intelligence of her sons in the high, true, real culture which must and will come as the fruit of this inspiration to found and sustain a school of technology of the best and highest order.

I read the other day one of the many accounts given us by travellers, of the Spectre of the Brocken. In the Hartz Mountains, the home of many a wild legend and popular superstition, the native guide reserves as the final wonder and charm of his mountain solitudes, a curious spectacle. In the stillness of the evening the traveller is led to an elevated spot and is bidden to mat his eye over the beautiful valley stretched in many a fold and curve below him. While he gazes enraptured upon the scene, there starts out of the many shadows a strangely distinct and complete human form of gigantic proportions. Very few who look upon this sight, it is said, can resist the grewsome feeling akin to awe, as if the old dreams and fancies of the Genii were not, after all, empty vanities. It is only after repeated trials that the observer realizes that each motion of his own is repeated by the spectre, and that he is in reality only gazing upon his own shadow.

This freak of the setting sun casting his slant rays along the mountain sides may serve us with a figure and a moral.

By this new education we have led the boy of to-day to unaccustomed heights. We have bidden him to look below into the broad valleys and beautiful fields of human endeavor. The sun of an old civilization is setting behind him, a civilization of which he, perhaps, could not without experience understand the charm. The mystery of vision is upon him. The shadows are taking shape, and the Titan whose marvelous size fills him with awe is the shadow of himself. As the spectre stretches itself in lengthening and broadening sweep over valley and plain, and to the horizon beyond, it remains with the boy to give substance to the shadow, to fill its darkness with a living light, and to give it power over earth and air and sky.


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