The Tuck School is the first graduate school of management. At the turn of the 20th century, the plan to establish a school of business with the status of a graduate department was bold and unorthodox. The foresight and wisdom of this action, however, have been amply verified by the growth in graduate management education over the past century. Today, descendants of the basic model pioneered by the Tuck School of Business can be found in most of the great universities in the country.
In 1900, the United States was going through a period of explosive growth in every respect, especially in commerce and industry. An increasing number of college graduates were going into business. William Jewett Tucker, president of Dartmouth College, was concerned about business leadership in a broad social sense, or, as he put it, "training commensurate with the larger meaning of business." Tucker thought of his former college roommate, Edward Tuck, who enthusiastically agreed to help.
Thus, Edward Tuck established the Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance in 1900, named in memory of his father. In 1941, the name was changed to the Amos Tuck School of Business Administration. Tuck initially donated $300,000 in the form of 1,700 shares of preferred stock in the Great Northern Railway Company of Minnesota. He later gave $100,000 to build the first Tuck Hall (now McNutt Hall) in 1901, and over $500,000 for the current Tuck Hall complex in 1929.
The Tuck Family
Edward Tuck (1842-1938) was an international financier and philanthropist. After graduating from Dartmouth in 1862, he moved to Paris, where he served as embassy vice consul before turning to banking ventures and railroad investments as his father had. "International banking turned out to be the ideal field for him," according to his biographer, Vanderbilt professor Franklin Brooks, "for he had an uncanny grasp of issues involving the gold and silver markets, currency regulations, and foreign exchange." He quickly became a partner in Munroe & Company (which eventually merged with Morgan Bank). In 1886, he became a director of the newly organized Chase National Bank of New York (now Chase Manhattan). The third bank in which he took particular interest was George F. Baker's First National Bank (now Citicorp/Citibank). By 1880, he was able to retire from an active life in business. Dividing his time between his home in Paris, his "Vert Mont" chateau outside Paris, and his winter home in Monte Carlo, Tuck managed his own investments. Of these, none was more profitable than the Great Northern Railroad, which fueled Tuck charities for decades.
Tuck was married to Julia Stell, an orphaned heiress, and "the inspiration and partner of all his philanthropy," according to Robert Davis (D'03) in the Dartmouth Alumni Magazine. The two of them, Davis continues, spent the rest of their lives "devoted to enlargement of collections of precious objects and realization of their projects of private and community well-doing." Their philanthropic projects in both New England and France were prodigious. They were deeply involved in French war-relief efforts during World War I, funding and working in refugee hostels and military hospitals; they donated their art collection and a new gallery to the Petit Palais in Paris; they gave a park, school, museum, their Bois-Preau chateau, and the Stell Hospital to the town of Rueil-Malmaison; they were major donors to the Phillips Exeter Academy and the New Hampshire Historical Society-plus about 20 other projects.
Edward's father, Amos Tuck, also was a Dartmouth alumnus-as well as a lawyer, congressman, Dartmouth trustee, and a founder of the Republican Party. His most noteworthy accomplishment was mobilizing the New Hampshire antislavery votes into a new Republican party; he even has a claim to have invented the party's name. "Lincoln...would never have realized his goals," according to Dartmouth historian Professor Frank Smallwood, "if his old friend, Amos Tuck of Exeter, New Hampshire...had not played such an influential role in helping him to secure the Republican party's presidential nomination in 1860."
The First Half Century: 1900-1950
Less than a handful of students, paying $100 tuition fee, enrolled in the first year of the Tuck School. They were taught in the Old Hubbard House, known previously as the "pest house" for students with contagious diseases. A year later, thanks to a second gift of $100,000 from Edward Tuck, the original Tuck Hall, now McNutt Hall, was built and used primarily for Dartmouth's new experiment in graduate management education.
The first-year curriculum included: Modern History, Economics, Political Science, Sociology, Foreign Language, and English Composition and Speaking. Second-year courses included: Modern History and Diplomacy, Finance, Transportation, Insurance, Law, Municipal Administration, Demography and Social Institutions, Language, and Practice Organizations.
The first-year courses were taught by Dartmouth instructors from fields such as law and political science, history, sociology, rhetoric and oratory, economics, and public speaking; the second-year courses drew heavily on outside businesspeople, such as an export merchant, an attorney, an insurance company president, and an accountant. Edward Tuck was pleased as he wrote to President Tucker in February 1902, "I am glad that it will be the aim of the school to bring students in touch with practical businessmen."
The school grew and prospered under the leadership of Frank Dixon from 1900-1904, followed by Harlow Person from 1904-1919. Other graduate business schools were starting in many universities around the country. Many at first tended to offer specialized technical courses linked neither to the liberal arts tradition nor to the broader purposes and responsibilities of business. Thanks to Dean Person, to Dartmouth President Tucker, to Edward Tuck, and later to Tucker's successor, President Hopkins, Tuck maintained itself as a school of general management in the broadest liberal sense. Years later, a study sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation was to observe, "The Tuck School probably went further than any other institution in the pre-war period in putting its work on a demanding intellectual level." By the end of World War I, the "Tuck Pattern" was firmly established, and many of the new business schools settled down to follow that pattern.
In still another way, the Tuck School made a major contribution to industry. Person, together with the faculty, invited Frederick W. Taylor and 300 leading men and women of industry (including Lillian Gilbreth) to a major conference on scientific management in October 1911. Business historians agree that this conference served as the kick-off for what was to become later the worldwide Scientific Management movement.
Many Tuck men served in World War I, and members of the faculty distinguished themselves in important positions in Washington. Afterward, the school entered a new era under the deanship of William Gray (T'05), who served from 1919 through 1937. That the school flourished is reflected in a letter from Dartmouth President Hopkins to Edward Tuck. "The Tuck School is doing a more and more wonderful job all the time. Wherever I go in the country I find greatest interest in it-and what it is furnishing its men as they go into the world's work."
Gray was succeeded as dean by Herluf Olsen in 1937. "Olie" was instrumental in creating the Tuck-Thayer program which combined the joint needs and skills of engineering and business. World War II soon burst on the campus, absorbing all the energies of faculty and staff in training military officers. Following the war, the school was flooded with applications by Dartmouth men returning as veterans. Many were married, living in temporary facilities and later in the permanent married student housing at Sachem Village.
The New Tuck Hall
In the 1920s, President Hopkins was troubled by the fact that the Tuck students attended classes together but were otherwise quartered in different parts of the campus. According to Hopkins, "the values of the school and the advantages of association with it would be greatly increased if the men could live and work together in greater detachment than is possible in the Tuck School as presently placed." Before he could move the business school, however, Hopkins had to receive permission to do so from Edward Tuck. Tuck had stipulated that the original Tuck Hall be used exclusively for a business school. In July of 1928, Hopkins wrote to Tuck, then 85 years old and living in France, outlining the reasons for the proposed move and asking him to release Dartmouth from his stipulation regarding the use of the original Tuck Hall.
Edward Tuck did far more than merely give his permission. Although Hopkins had not expected or even solicited a donation, Tuck offered to pay for the new building. In his August letter, Tuck wrote, "The success and growth of the school have gone far beyond our original expectations, and we have every reason to be proud of it. It would be a satisfaction to me to do it [that is, donate the funds] if I could, rather than have outside capital contribute to a work which thus far I have taken care of financially myself."
In 1929, he gave 600 shares of Chase National Bank stock; the shares were sold for $569,766. Dartmouth appropriated an additional $125,000. About a month after the Tuck cornerstone was sealed, the stock market crashed and the boom years of the 1920s came to an end. Construction of the Tuck School was not directly affected.
By 1930, Edward Tuck Hall was completed, flanked by Chase and Woodbury dormitories, named for two Dartmouth graduates-Salmon P. Chase and Levi Woodbury-both of whom served as U.S. senators, as secretaries of the treasury, and as justices on the U.S. Supreme Court. Stell Hall, the dining facility, was named after Tuck's beloved wife, Julia Stell. The new set of adjoining buildings had a profound effect on life at Tuck. Tuck students now had classes together, lived together, and studied together in a stimulating, interactive academic and social environment.
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