Time 1950 AD - 1970 AD

1960 AD
The Karl Schwarzschild Observatory is founded.
The first television weather satellite, Tiros I, is
launched from the United States.
1960s AD Igor Novikov predicts the existence of
background radiation.
The "photodisintegration" of the iron nuclei within a dying star is first suggested by Willy Fowler and Fred Hoyle.
A faint radio galaxy is found to have a redshift of
0.46, making it the most distant object known.
1961 AD The Parkes Observatory, Australia's national radio astronomy observatory, completes a 64 meter dish antenna as part of the Australia telescope.
Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man is space.
1962 AD The source of X-rays in our Galaxy, Scorpius X-1, is discovered using a rocket-borne detector.
X-ray astronomy is born.
J. Glenn is the first American to orbit the Earth.
The first British-built satellite is launched from
Cape Canaveral.
The first transatlantic television pictures are
relayed via the Telstar satellite.
The Green Bank Telescope starts operations.
The Mariner 2 satellite reaches Venus, becoming
the first successful planetary probe.
The Arecibo radio telescope is used to bounce
radar signals off Mercury.
Thermal radio emissions are detected to be
coming from Mercury.
1963 AD Roy Kerr discovers the Kerr solution, a
mathematical description of a rotating, uncharged
black hole which is suspected to exist within our
Valentina Tereshkova-Nikolayeva is the first
woman in space.
For the first time two manned space crafts are in
orbit simultaneously.
Hydroxyl becomes the first interstellar molecule
to be discovered.
Taurus X-1 becomes the second X-ray source to
be discovered.
The first in a series of Soviet space probes,
known as the Zond space probes, is launched.
Quasars are identified.
1964 AD
The Davis detector, designed to detect solar
neutrinos, is installed 1,000 meters below the
ground in Lead, South Dakota. Here, Ray Davis
monitors the flux of solar neutrinos from the Sun,
and concludes that there are only ab out one-third
of the expected number of solar neutrinos.
Ranger 7 provides 4,316 high-quality pictures of
the Moon.
1965 AD The first "space-walk" occurs.
Mariner 4 is the first successful Mars probe.
The first OH maser is identified in the Orion
The Kerr-Newman solution, a solution to
Einstein's equations of the general theory of
relativity that describes a rotating, electrically
charged black hole, is developed by Ezra Newman based on the Kerr solution.
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, working for Bell nResearch Laboratories, accidentally find a constant source of background radiation.
The Early Bird communications satellite is placed in a geosynchronous "Clarke Orbit."
1966 AD John Wheeler and Franco Pacini suggest that the
source of energy emitted by the Crab nebula might be a spinning neutron star.
Fred Hoyle, Bob Wagoner, and Willy Fowler
develop the understanding of Big Bang
X-rays are detected from Cygnus A.
Luna IX makes the first soft landing on the Moon.
Two Lunar Orbiter space crafts send amazing
pictures of the Moon back to Earth.
Venera III is the first probe to land on Venus.
1967 AD The Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) begins
operations in Herstmonceux, Sussex.
The first pulsars are discovered by Jocelyn Bell, a radio astronomer working in Cambridge.
Mariner 9 sends back pictures of Mars.
Venera 4 makes the first soft landing of an
unmanned probe on Venus.
1968 AD The first BL Lac object is identified.
The Maffei galaxies, two galaxies which lie almost in the plane of the Milky Way, are discovered by Paolo Maffei.
The Crab pulsar is discovered.
Apollo 7 is the first manned Apollo orbital flight.
Apollo 8 is the first manned flight around the
The Vela pulsar, a pulsar associated with a
supernova in the constellation Vela, is discovered.
The speculation that the pulses of radio noise
from pulsars may be produced by a lighthouse
effect as a rapidly rotating neutron star sends out
beams, is first published by Tommy Gold. This is now called the Pacini-Gold model.
1969 AD Armstrong and Aldrin are the first humans to land on the Moon.
The identification of the Crab pulsar establishes
the Pacini-Gold model as being correct.