French and Italian sources for Ralegh's 'Farewell False Love'

Jonathan Gibson
The Review of English Studies. Oxford: May 1999. Vol. 50, Iss. 198;  pg. 155, 11 pgs

Abstract (Article Summary)

Gibson identifies for the first time French and Italian sources for Sir Walter Ralegh's poem "Farewell false love."

Full Text (5881   words)

Copyright Oxford University Press(England) May 1999

This article identifies for the first time French and Italian sources for Sir Walter Ralegh's poem `Farewell false love'. Ralegh's immediate debt is to part of a long poem by Philippe Desportes, 'Contr'amour' (Les amours de Diane I), in a text dating to between 1573 and 1579. His adaptation of Desportes aggressively boils down an extensive anthology of Petrarchist tropes into a single act of valediction. Desportes's lines, in turn, derive from an Italian poem of uncertain authorship, 'La've l'aurora' (first printed in 1553), which Ralegh may also have known. Ralegh's indebtedness to Desportes proves that his poem was composed before `Most welcome love', a `companion poem' to `Farewell false love' written by Sir Thomas Heneage. The Ralegh-Desportes link, though, is less useful in adjudicating between the various theories that have been put forward to explain the existence of three different states of Ralegh's poem. Connections between 'La've l'aurora', Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier, and Pietro Bembo, meanwhile, allow `Farewell false love' to be read as a complicated response to Castiglione's depiction of Bembo's Neoplatonic view of love.

There has been surprisingly little investigation into potential French and Italian sources for Elizabethan manuscript and miscellany poetry. The important work in this area undertaken earlier this century by Janet G. (Espiner) Scott, not yet superseded, concentrated on printed sonnet sequences. Scholars such as Hyder E. Rollins and Steven W. May have tended to emphasize bibliographical problems at the expense of source study.1 The lack of work in this field opens up a large and promising area for contemporary researchers. Sir Walter Ralegh's poem `Farewell false love' is a case in point. Two analogues, one French, one Italian, have hitherto escaped detection.2

I give below the text of `Farewell false love' established by Steven W. May.3  May takes as copy-text Folger MS V. a. 89, fos. 7-7v, emending 'whence' at line 3 to 'whom', and 'porte' at line 11 to 'school' on the basis of other manuscript witnesses.

Farewell false love, thow oracle of lyes,
A mortall foe, an enemye to reste,
An envyous boye from whom all cares aryse,
A bastarde borne, a beaste with rage possest,
A waye of errour, a temple full of treason,
In all effects contrary unto reason;
A poysoned serpent covered all with flowers,
Mother of sighes and murtherer of repose,
A sea of sorrowes from whence are drawne suche showers
As moysture lends to every greife that growes;
A school of guile, a neast of deepe deceipte,
A gilded hooke that holds a poysoned bate;
A fortresse foyld whom reason did defend,
A syren songe, a fever of the mynde,
A maze wherin affection fyndes no end,
A ranginge cloud that rones before the winde,
A substance like the shadowe of the sunne,
A goale of greife for which the wysest runne;
A quenchelesse fire, a nurse of tremblinge feare,
A path that leads to perryll and mishappe,
A true retrayte of sorrow and dispayre,
An Idle boy that sleepes in pleasures lapp,
A deepe mistrust of that which certeyne seemes,
A hope of that which reason doubtfull deemes;
Sithe then thy traynes my yonger yeares betrayed,
And for my faythe ingratitude I fynde,
And sithe repentance hathe thy wronges bewrayed,
Whose course I see repugnant unto kinde,
False love, desire, and bewty frayle adewe,
Dead is the roote from whence such fancy grewe

The French analogue comes from Desportes's Premieres oeuvres (first printed 1573), one of the most influential poetry books of the Renaissance. The passages linked with `Farewell false love' occur in the course of a long poem, 'Contr' amour', positioned near the end of Diane I. Ralegh used a text of the Premieres wuvres no later than 1579.4  'Contr'amour' is a celebration of the triumph of the narrator's reason over tyrannical Love. The narrator, a repentant lover, recognizes that his one-time master is no more than `un petit nain' (1. 11) and announces his intention to write poetry attacking him-'Afin que pour le moins chacun ait connoissance I Que je n'ay pas grand peur qu'il en soit offense' (ll. 23-4).5  After this introduction, 'Contr'amour' launches into the stream of invective adapted by Ralegh:


Amour, tyran cruel, monarque de martyre,
La seule occasion qui fait que l'on soupire,
Oracle de mensonge, ennemy de pitie,
Large chemin d'erreur, barque mal-asseuree,
Temple de trahison, foy de nulle duree,
Bref, en tous tes effets, contraire a l'amitie;
Amour, Roi des sanglots, prison cruelle et dure,
Meurtrier de tout repos, monstre de la Nature,
Bruvage empoisonne, serpent couvert de fleurs,
Affronteur courtisan, bastard songe-malice
Bestiale fureur, exemple de tout vice,
Capitaine des cris, des regrets, et des pleurs.
Amour, que dis-je Amour? Mais inimitie forte,
Appetit dereiglk, qui les hommes transporte,
Racine de malheur, source de desplaisir,
Labyrinthe subtil, passion furieuse,
Nid de deception, peste contagieuse,
Entretenu d'espoir, de crainte et de desir (ll. 25-42)6

This vitriolic outburst is followed by a string of Petrarchist descriptions of Love's cruelty (II. 43-162). The narrator ends the poem by taking formal leave of his antagonist:

Or, de moy . . . qui me delibere
D'estre franc pour jamais d'une telle misere,
Je pren conge d'Amour et de ses feux cuisans.
Adieu! Amour, Adieu! enfant plein de malice,

For the text given here I have incorporated the 1573-9 variants for lines 34-6 (p. 175). That Ralegh's text of the poem was of this earlier form is clear from his use of the 1573-9 readings `bastard songemalice' (1. 34) ('bastarde borne', 1. 4), and 'Bestiale fureur' (1. 35) ('a beaste with rage possest', 1. 4). Editions were published between 1573 and 1579 in 1575,1576, 1577, and 1578. Ralegh's friend Arthur Gorges, who also adapted poems by Desportes, used an edition of a similar vintage: see The Poems of Sir Arthur Gorges, ed. H. A. Sandison (Oxford, 1953), p. xxxi. Ralegh's use of an early text supports Carlo M. Bajetta's dating of the poem (see n. 3 above).

Adieu l'Oisevete, ta mere et ta nourrice,
Adieu tous ces escrits ou j'ay perdu mes ans! (II. 169-174)7

Two closing stanzas (ll. 175-86) bid farewell to Love's appurtenances (`Plaintes, pleurs et regrets . . ',1. 179) and vow service to Reason.

Ralegh's indebtedness is clear. His most obvious alteration is to reposition Desportes's initial definitions of love within a valedictory framework which resembles the ending of the French poem. He alters the order of images but retains enough of their phraseology to demonstrate his own poem's dependence. Five of Desportes's phrases are closely Englished. `Oracle de mensonge' (1. 27) becomes `oracle of lyes' (1. 1), `Large chemin d'erreur' (1. 28) 'A waye of errour' (1. 5), `Temple de trahison' (1. 29) 'a temple full of treason' (1. 5), 'Meurtrier de tout repos' (1. 32) 'murtherer of repose' (1. 8), and 'Nid de deception' (1. 41) 'a neast of deepe deceipte' (1. 11). The links are only slightly less clear between 'a beaste with rage possest' (1. 4) and 'Bestiale fureur' (1. 35), 'A maze wherein affection fyndes no ende' (1. 15) and `Labyrinthe subtil' (1. 40), and between 'A bastarde borne' (1. 4) and `bastard songe-malice' (1. 34). Ralegh's translation of Desportes' line 33 ('Bruvage empoisonne, serpent couvert de fleurs') omits 'Bruvage' but retains the adjective 'empoisonne': 'A poysoned serpent covered all with flowers' (1. 7). (Later on, 'Bruvage empoisonne' is transmuted to 'A gilded hooke that holdes a poysoned bate', 1. 12.) Desportes's 'ennemy de pitie' (1. 27) becomes in Ralegh's hands 'A mortall foe, an enemye to reste' (1. 2), while Ralegh's descriptions of Love as `An envyous boye from whom all cares aryse' (1. 2), `An idle boy that sleepes in pleasures lapp' (1. 22), and 'a nurse of tremblinge feare' (1. 19) are severally paralleled in Desportes's envoi: `Adieu! enfant plein de malice, I Adieu l'Oisevete, ta mere et ta nourrice' (ll. 172-3). 'A school of guile' (1. 11) appears to derive from Desportes's lines 61-2 (not quoted above): `Tout ce qu'on peut aprendre en tes vaines escoles, ICe sont des trahisons, des feintes, des paroles.. 8  `Mother of sighes' in line 8 concretizes `La seule occasion qui fait que l'on soupire' (1. 26). The image of fancy's `Dead . . . roote' (1. 30) in the closing line of Ralegh's poem echoes Desportes's `Racine de malheur' (1. 39), while the abstract definitions at the end of Ralegh's fourth stanza-'A deepe mistrust of that which certeyne seemes, l A hope of that which reason doubtfull deemes'-echo Desportes's 'Entretenu d'espoir, de crainte et de desir' (1. 42; cf. also `une esperance vaine', 1. 92). Here at line 24, as also at line 7 (`In all effects contrary unto reason'-a rewriting of 'Bref, en tous tes effets, contraire A l'amitie', 1. 30) and line 13 ('A fortresse foyld whom reason did defend'), Ralegh departs from his source to stress Love's opposition to Reason. The allegorical framework established at the beginning of 'Contr'amour'-Reason's role as the agent who has persuaded the writer to eschew `false love'-is thus imported into Ralegh's more concise text. The backward glance of the final stanza of `Farewell false love'-`Sithe then thy traynes my yonger yeares betrayed, And for my faythe ingratitude I fynde'performs a similar function, integrating into the valedictory structure of the English poem a quasi-autobiographical retrospection prevalent throughout 'Contr'amour'.9

Five of the images common to `Farewell false love' and 'Contr'amour' are also found in 'La've l'aurora', a long poem first published in 1553 in independent Venetian editions by Andrea Arrivabene (Il sesto libro delle rime di diversi eccelenti autori) and Lodovico Dolce (Rime di diversi eccellenti autori; Stanze di diversi illustri poeti). Each of these three collections attributed the poem to Egidio da Viterbo (Giles of Viterbo). In 1571 a new attribution was made. The poem was printed at Venice in Agostino Ferentilli's Primo volume della scielta di stanze di diversi autori Toscani. Ferentilli asserted that the author, Giovambattista Lapini of Siena, had written the piece for Laura Piccolomini de' Turchi.10  'La've l'aurora' is addressed to an audience of noble ladies. It praises the goddess 'Pudicizia' and attacks the depredations of Cupid. In the course of the poem, Love is characterized in terms very similar to those in `Farewell false love' and 'Contr'amour':

Amor Tiranno accorto, empio Monarca;
Oracol di menzogna, albergo d'ira;
Larga strada d'error, d'inganni carca;
Tempio, in cui sol si piange e si sospira;
Porto inquieto, e perigliosa barca;
Rinchiuso labirinto, e prigion d'ira;
Fallace guida, e simulato scudo;
Nido di tradimenti ingrato e crudo.
Ei Sommo Re di pianto acerbo ed empio
Da far sol di sospir dure conserve;
Mostro del mondo, e di natura scempio;
Mortal nemico di chi'l segue e serve;
D'atti inonesti, e d'ogni vizio esempio;
Sfrenato ardor, che di lascivia serve;
Illiciti piacer, vergogna, e scorno
Sono i trofei, onde'l suo carro e adorno.
                                      (stanzas 23-4)11

Numerous verbal links-such as those between `Larga strada d'error' and `Large chemin d'erreur' (1. 289-establish beyond question Desportes's indebtedness to 'La've l'aurora'. Ralegh's poem, though, appears to derive entirely from Desportes's version. Nevertheless, since the sequence of images Ralegh uses in (Farewell false love' is the most substantive point of contact beween the Italian and French poems, it is possible that Ralegh was aware of both texts.12

` Farewell false love circulated in three different states, as a text, variously, of three stanzas,13 of four stanzas,14 and of five The three-stanza versionunique to the Houghton manuscript-is associated with a three-stanza poem attributed to Sir Thomas Heneage (`Most welcome love') which is clearly intended as a companion poem to `Farewell false love' and which counters the images of Ralegh's first three stanzas line by line:

Most welcome love, thow mortall foe to lies,
Thow roote of life, and ruiner of debate,
An Impe of heaven, that troth to vertue ties,
A soone of choise, that bastard lustes doth hate,
A waye to fasten fancy most to reason,
In all effects, and enemy most to treason.
A flowre of faith that will not vade for smart,
Mother of trust, and murderer of our woes,
In sorowes Seas, a Cordiall to the hart,
That medcyne gives to every grief that growes,
A skoale of witt, a nest of sweet conceit,
A percynge eye, that findes a gilt disceit.
A Fortres sure which reason must defend,
A hopefull toyle, a most delightinge bande,
Affection mazed, that leades to happy ende,
To ranginge thoughtes a gentle raigninge hande,
A Substaunce such as will not be undonne,
A price of Joye for which the wysest ronne.16

Ralegh's indebtedness to Desportes proves that `Farewell false love' was composed before `Most welcome love', despite its transcription in the Houghton manuscript after Heneage's poem.17 The Ralegh-Desportes link, though, is less useful in adjudicating between the various theories put forward to explain the existence of the three different states of Ralegh's poem.18  Pierre Lefranc suggests that `Farewell false love' was written in three stages between 1584 and 1592. Michael Rudick, wielding Occam's razor, argues that, as only the three-stanza version is answered in detail by Heneage, no other version can safely be attributed to Ralegh. Steven W. May argues that Heneage's poem replies to the full five-stanza version of `Farewell false love'. He points out that Heneage's line 2 ('Thow roote of life, and ruiner of debate') does not clearly reflect Ralegh's second line but seems instead to transform a phrase from the last line of Ralegh's poem, `Dead is the roote' into 'thow roote of life'. Furthermore, the dead 'fancy' of Ralegh's last line seems to be echoed by Heneage's 'waye to fasten fancy most to reason' (l. 5), as opposed to Ralegh's 'waye of errour, a temple full of treason'.19 The reading `Racine de malheur' (l. 39) in 'Contr'amour' raises the possibility that Heneage was replying to an ur-text of `Farewell false love' in which Desportes's phrase was translated in Ralegh's second line, and that his scribe copied a later text of Ralegh's poem into the Houghton manuscript. No similar argument applies to Heneage's reference to 'fancy', though, and May's suggestion remains persuasive, if not unassailable. All five of Ralegh's stanzas can be linked without difficulty to passages in 'Contr'amour', although Ralegh's indebtedness decreases as the poem progresses. Despite this, Lefranc's thesis of three chronologically distinct phases of composition fails to convince.20

It is significant that `Farewell false love' shares a competitive framework with both its Continental analogues. In Desportes's text, 'Contr'amour' is immediately preceded by 'Plainte' (`Quand je pense aux plaisirs qu'on revoit en aimant'), a poem interleaving stanzas which attack Love with stanzas which praise it. This structure is underlined by the use of opposing refrains. Stanzas sympathetic to Love end with a refrain of the form `Il n'est donc si doux que l'estat d'un aimant', while stanzas attacking Love use the form `II est donc bien-heureux qui garde sa franchise'. 'Chanson' ends with an invitation to others to write poems attacking or praising Love: `Vous qui goustez d'Amour le doux contentement, t Chantez qu'il n'est rien tel que l'estat d'un amant; I Vous qui la liberte pour deesse avez prise, I Chantez qu'il n'est rien tel que garder sa franchise' (II. 49-52).21  'Contr'amour' clearly constitutes an initial response, hostile to Love, to this double invitation. Desportes seems to be constructing a contest with himself, in which poems earlier on in the sequence of Diane I praise Love, and 'Contr'amour' attacks it. Maybe Ralegh was inspired by this context to write `Farewell false love' as a 'braving' poem, inviting answer-poems such as Heneage's. Alternatively, Heneage and Ralegh might together have come up with the idea of acting out the agonistic suggestion of 'Chanson'.22 In any case, the discovery of its source reveals `Farewell false love' to be an aggressive work of adaptation, which boils down an extensive anthology of Petrarchist tropes into a single act of valediction.23

'La've l'aurora', too, appears to have been conceived in a competitive context. In 1753, endorsing Ferentilli's attribution of the poem to Lapini, A.-F. Seghezzi asserted that 'La've l'aurora' was a reply to Pietro Bembo's 'Stanze' ('Ne l'odorato e lucido Oriente'), and printed the two poems on alternate pages.24 The full title of Bembo's poem specifies its courtly function:

Stanze di M. Pietro Bembo, recitate per giuoco dallui e dal S. Ottaviano Fregoso, mascherati a guisa
di due ambasciatori dell dea Venere, mandati a Mad. Lisabetta Gonzaga Duchessa d'Urbino e Mad.
Emilia Pia sedenti tra molte nobili donne e signori, che nel bel palagio della detta citta danzando
festeggiavano la sera del Carnassale MDVII 25

The 'Stanze' praise carnal love in extravagant terms, recalling, as Bembo's editor Carlo Dionisotti points out, the argument of Gismondo in the second book of Bembo's Asolani (p. 651). 'La've l'aurora', hostile to carnal love and Love's tyrannical reign, is structured as an embassy from the court of the goddess 'Pudicizia'; it does indeed appear to have been composed (either by Giles of Viterbo or Giovambattista Lapini) as a `companion poem' to the 'Stanze' 26 Desportes's dependence on 'La've l'aurora' and the latter's association with Bembo lend an intriguing subtext to Ralegh's composition of `Farewell false love'.

Bembo is feigned in Castiglione's Book of the Courtier to have delivered in Urbino a speech setting forth an elevated, Neoplatonic ideal of love.27 This speech is said to have been delivered following an equally elaborate (and high-minded) account by Ottaviano Fregoso of the ethical duties of the ideal courtier. Their two speeches, like most of the speeches in the book, are primarily directed at the duchess of Urbino and Emilia Pia. The communicative context of Bembo's 'Stanze' parallels that of Bembo's speech in The Book of the Courtier so closely that it is tempting to hypothesize that Castiglione framed the speech in The Book of the Courtier as a deliberate companion piece to the poem. The courtly setting for the 'Stanze' is exactly shared by the speech, yet the two texts promulgate radically different, indeed diametrically opposed, visions of Love.28

`La 've l'aurora' opposes the arguments of Bembo's 'Stanze'-which in turn are opposed to the arguments of Bembo's speech in the Book of the Courtier. It can thus be read, with hindsight, as a rewriting of Bembo against himself. Desportes's adaptation of 'La've l'aurora' swerves away from the Bembist context by transplanting the strategies of the Italian poem into an etiolated debate between different parts of Diane I. However, Ralegh returns to Bembo: in stripping down Desportes's recension of the anti-Bembist images to fit them once again for action in court, he can be seen-ironically-to be situating himself at the heart of the Renaissance ideal of Neoplatonic courtliness. Aggression, a key component of Ralegh's courtly self-identity,29 becomes paradoxically identified with Neoplatonic elevation.

Ralegh's awareness of the full network of textual connections is not essential to a sense of the violence of the work of adaptation performed by `Farewell false love': it is sufficient to point to the most obvious contrasts between the three intertexts: 'La've l'aurora' is an elaborately constructed poem which develops at length its moral opposition to carnal love and its positive valuation of chastity. 'Contr'amour' rewrites the libel of Love into a self-contained universe of discourse detached from history and unmoored from moral bases. The images of love take their place in an anthology which functioned primarily as a Petrarchist formulary for poets and lovers. Ralegh's poem returns the images to court society,30 but in sharply attenuated form. Gone are Lapini's elaborate structure and Desportes's encyclopedic copia: all that remains is pointed abuse--cold, brilliant, crude.

1 Scott's Les Sonnets elisabethains: Les Sources et l'apport personnel (Paris, 1929) builds on earlier research by L. E. Kastner and Sidney Lee. Rollins describes his approach to source study in the introduction to his edition of The Phoenix Nest 1593 (1931; repr. Cambridge, Mass., 1969): `It seems a safe generalization that the majority of the poems in the second half of The Phoenix Nest are either translations or adaptations of French or Italian. I have made no special hunt for sources. . . but a merely casual glance through Petrarch, Desportes and Ronsard has brought to light enough evidence to justify my generalization' (pp. xl-xli). Exhaustive source identification is not a prime consideration either in May's meticulous editorial work (Henry Stanford's Anthology: An Edition of Cambridge University Library Manuscript Dd.5.75 (New York, 1988); `The Poems of Edward DeVere, Seventeenth Earl of Oxford, and of Robert Devereux, Second Earl of Essex', Studies in Philology, Texts and Studies, 1980) or in his seminal study The Elizabethan Courtier Poets: The Poems and their Contexts (Columbia, Oh., 1991).

2 An alternative source proposed by W. Oakeshott is parallel to Ralegh's poem in structure and theme but not in substantive detail: The Queen and the Poet (London, 1960), 163. In an important recent discussion of the poem, Carlo M. Bajetta links `Farewell false love' to a number of verse attacks on love by writers associated, like Ralegh, with the circle of the earl of Oxford in the late 1570s and early 1580s:

Sir Walter Ralegh: Poeta di corte elisabettiano (Milan, 1998), 139-50. One of the poems mentioned by Bajetta, Thomas Watson's `Love is a sowr delight', has quite close verbal links with Ralegh's poem.

3 May, `Companion Poems in the Ralegh Canon', English Literary Renaissance, 13 (Autumn 1983), 267-8. `Farewell false love' is attributed to Ralegh in two early manuscripts: British Library Harleian MS 7392 (fo. 37') and Harvard University Library Houghton MS f Eng. 1285 (fo. 72'). Bajetta convincingly argues that the poem was written in about 1579: Sir Walter Ralegh, 129-53.

4 Philippe Desportes, Les Amours de Diane: Premier livre, ed. V. E. Graham (Geneva, 1959), 173-83.

5 `So that at least everyone will know/ That I am not greatly afraid that he will be thereby offended.'

6 `Love, cruel tyrant, monarch of martyrdom, / The only occasion which makes one sigh, / Oracle of lying, enemy of pity, / Great road of error, unsteady boat, / Temple of treason, transitory faith, /In sum, in all your effects, contrary to friendship /Love, King of sobs, cruel and hard prison, / Murderer of all rest, monster of Nature, /Poisoned drink, snake covered with flowers, / Impudent courtier, bastard plotter of mischief, Bestial fury, pattern for all vice, / Captain of cries, regrets, and tears. / Love, why do I say Love? Rather, strong hatred, /Unregulated appetite carrying men away, / Root of evil, source of displeasure, /Subtle labyrinth, furious passion, /Nest of deception, contagious plague, /Sustained by hope, fear and desire.'

7 `Now as for me . . . who has decided/ To be free for ever of such misery,/ I take leave of Love and his burning fires, /Farewell! Love, Farewell! child full of malice, / Farewell, Idleness, your mother and nurse, /Farewell all these writings in which I have lost my years!'

8 `All that one can learn in your vain schools, / Are treasons, tricks and words. . '.

9 Cf 'Contr'amour', lines 2, 17 (`jeunesse pass&e'), and 67-75. Particularly Raleghan are lines 67-8: `Les fruits qu'on en recoit pour toute recompense, / C'est d'un long temps perdu la vaine repentance' (cf. Ralegh's 'repentance' at line 27.) The meandering, melancholic nature of 'Contr'amour' and of other complaints and 'elegies' by Desportes might well lie behind Ralegh's strikingly disjointed '21th: and last booke of the Ocean to Scinthia'. Ralegh's notion of multiple books of love poetry dedicated to a woman sharing a name with the moon meanwhile presumably derives from Desportes's composition of two books devoted to `Les amours de Diane'.

10 Arrivabene and Dolce may have put Giles's name to 'La'ye l'aurora' because of the poem's thematic links to the Caccia de amore, another poem attributed to Giles, in print since 1523. For more publication details see F. X. Martin, `The Writings of Giles of Viterbo', Augustiniana, 29 (1979), 167, 190-3, and n. 24 below. My text of 'La've l'aurora' is taken from Pietro Bembo, Rime, ed. A.-F. Seghezzi (Bergamo, 1753), 125-49: 137. There are no line numbers.

11 `Love, crafty tyrant, pitiless monarch; / Oracle of lying, inn of anger; / Broad road of error, loaded

with deceits; / Temple in which one only weeps and sighs; / Uncertain port and perilous boat; / Locked labyrinth and grim prison;/ Misleading guide, and sham defence; / Unpleasant and cruel nest of treasons. / He, supreme king of bitter and wicked tears / So much so as to make of sighs a harsh company; / Monster of the world, and knave by nature; / Deadly enemy of whoever follow and serve; / Dishonest in acts, and pattern of all vice; / Unchecked fervour that makes use of lust; / Forbidden pleasure, shame and disgrace / Are the trophies with which his carriage is adorned.'

12 Desportes translates several images from 'La've l'aurora' absent from Ralegh's poem. Meanwhile several images unique to Desportes are found in `Farewell false love'. Desportes echoes 'La've l'aurora', stanza 26 (`Questi ne'nsegna sol nelle sue scuole / Fedeli inganni, e lealta perversa') at lines 61-2 (`Tout ce qu'on peut aprendre en tes vaines escoles, / Ce sont des trahisons, des feintes, des paroles'-in turn echoed by Ralegh (1. 11). Outside this passage and the stanzas already quoted, there are only the faintest of links between 'La've l'aurora' and 'Contr'amour'. Desportes may have worked from an Italian text containing only the relevant section of 'La've l'aurora': see n. 24 below. For a possible unmediated link between Ralegh and the Italian poem, occurring in one manuscript text only, see n. 15 below.

13 Harvard University Library Houghton MS f. Eng. 1285, fo. 72'.

14 William Byrd, Psalmes, Sonets, and Songs (London, 1588), E4; The Arundel-Harington Manuscript of Tudor Poetry, ed. R. Hughey (Columbus, Oh., 1960), i. 274-5 (no. 235); Public Record Office SP46/ 126, fo. 123",

15 Folger MS V. a. 89, fos. 7-7'; British Library Harleian MS 7392, fos. 37-37'; Bodleian Library Rawlinson Poet. MS 85, fos. 48-48'.
These are the earliest extant manuscripts. See May, `Companion Poems', 265-7, and P. Beal, Index of English Literary Mansucripts, vol. i: 145F1625, part 2: Douglas to Wyatt (London, 1980), 387-8 (RaW 124-32) and 632 (RaW 124.5). There are fragmentary texts in British Library Additional MS 36484, fo. 53 and British Library Harleian MS 7392, fo. 28. May, `Companion Poems', 266 and 267 n. 15, lists three later texts: Thomas Deloney, The Garland of Goodwill (London, 1631), H7'-8 (five stanzas); Be prince d'amour (London, 1660), K1'-2 (five stanzas); National Library of Wales MS 473 B, fos. 9`-10 (a copy of Byrd's text; four stanzas). There is an early 17th-cent. copy of Byrd's setting in the Bibliotheque Royale, Brussels (Beal, Index, RaW 124.5). Between them, Hughey, Arundel-Harington Manuscript, ii. 3845, and May, `Companion Poems, 267-8, provide collations for the Houghton, Byrd, Public Record Office, Folger, Arundel-Harington, Harleian, and Rawlinson texts. One variant is significantly affected by the discovery of the Desportes source. At line 11, the reading given by the Folger, Houghton, and Rawlinson texts, 'a neaste of deepe deceipte', translates Desportes's 'Nid de deception' (1, 41), and thus seems preferable to the 'nett' which appears in the Arundel-Harington, Byrd, Harleian, and Public Record Office texts. (Hughey's apparatus records the Houghton reading wrongly here.) In the same line, the Folger text's reading of 'porte' (the Harleian text has 'poole') could at a pinch be taken to suggest an unmediated link between `Farewell false love' and the Italian poem's `Porto inquieto' (stanza 23,1. 5), an image not translated by Desportes. The alternative reading here, 'schoole', found in all other early texts, picks up on Desportes's lines 61-3. Sir Thomas Heneage's reply to Ralegh in the Houghton manuscript, printed later in this article, was framed in response to a text with the readings 'neast' and 'school'.

16 Printed in May, `Companion Poems', 268-9.

17 The priority of Ralegh's text is argued for on internal evidence by L. G. Black, `Studies in Some Related Manuscript Poetic Miscellanies of the 1580s' (D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, 1970), 215, and May, `Companion Poems', 269-70. See also A. Freeman, `The Argument of Mcleager', English Literary Renaissance, 1 (Winter 1971), 123 and 125 n.; Bajetta, Sir Walter Ralegh, 1334.

18 P. Lefranc, 'A Miscellany of Ralegh Material', Notes and Queries, 202 dan. 1957), 24-6; Black, 'Studies', 215; M. Rudick, `The Poems of Sir Walter Raleigh: An Edition' (Ph.D. thesis, University of Chicago, 1970), 26, 192; May, `Companion Poems', 266-7.

19 May, `Companion Poems', 269.

20 Ralegh's fifth stanza has a rhetorical and grammatical structure different from that of stanzas 1-4. Black, 'Studies', 215, plausibly suggests that Byrd, in setting the poem, decided to drop the fifth stanza for musical reasons, and that the four-stanza version of the 'Farewell' derives from Byrd's text.

21 Desportes, Les Amours, 170-2: `You who taste the soft contentment of Love, / Sing that there is nothing finer than a lover's state; / You who have taken liberty for your goddess, / Sing that there is nothing finer than keeping one's freedom.'

22 The fun and games might not have ended there. A poem by Ralegh's friend Arthur Gorges (Gorges, Poems, no. 22) translates Desportes's `Rymes tierces' ('Si jamais plus ma liberte j'engage': Desportes, Les Amours, 184-6), a piece immediately following 'Contr'amour' and developing its argument in ad hominem terms. French and English poems both spurn the `false love' (1. 2) or `faux amour' (1. 2) of a discarded mistress. It is interesting that Gorges follows Ralegh's practice in `Farewell false love' in altering his source to address his antagonist in the second person. Cf Sandison's note in Gorges, Poems, 189. Gorges was part of the Oxford circle recently linked by Carlo M. Bajetta to the composition of `Farewell false love': see n. 2 above

23 In adapting Desportes in this way, Ralegh was following the practice of his friend Arthur Gorges, whose translations of French poems tend likewise to simplify argumentation and personalize modes of address; see e.g. Gorges, Poems, nos. 1, 10, and 32 (adapted from poems by Desportes), and 36 and 42 (adapted from poems by Du Bellay). It is interesting that Ralegh tends to omit from his adaptation images in his source associated with sovereignty and imprisonment (`tyran plein de rage', 1. 1; `tyran cruel, monarque de martyre', 1. 25; `Roi des sanglots, prison cruelle et dure', 1. 31; `Capitaine des cris, des regrets, et des pleurs', 1. 36; `n'avons pour logis qu'un obscure prison', 1. 48; 'ennemy de ma gloire', 1. 74; `Le Forcat enchaisne quelquefois se repose; / Le pauvre prisonnier, dedans sa prison close, /

Clost quelques fois les yeux et soulage ses maux', II. 103-5; 'ce bourreau cruel', 1. 164). This tactic tends to play down the power that Love (together with Queen Elizabeth?) has over Ralegh's narrator, and thus empowers the poem's voice.

24 Bembo, Rime,123. I do not know what Seghezzi's authority is for this remark. His statement (p. 282) that he has taken the headnote for his printing of the poem from an early edition of Bembo's Rime applies only to the first part of the note, and does not include the reference to 'La've l'aurora'. For a modern text of 'Stanze' see Pietro Bembo, Prose e rime, ed. C. Dionisotti (Turin, 1960), 651-71. According to Martin, 'Writings', 192, two manuscript copies of stanza 25 of 'La've l'aurora' are accompanied by the note that this stanza was composed by Giles of Viterbo `in reply to what his friend, Pietro Bembo, had expressed in verse about love'. Malherbe's 17th-cent. commentary on lines 2542 of 'Contr'Amour' (printed in Graham's edition) complains that `Toutes ces trois stances sont une pure drolerie prise de l'italien de Bembo', so presumably complete or partial texts of 'L'i've l'aurora' circulated in France under Bembo's name. In his edition of Desportes, Graham identifies as source for the relevant lines `Bembo, Amor tiranno accorto, empio monarca et seq., Rime de Dolce (Giolito II, 1563, p. 76)'. Graham is citing here, in a rather confused way, the first volume of Dolce's Stanze di diversi illustri poeti (1553), one of the three earliest printed books to include 'La've l'aurora'. The lines adapted by Desportes occur, as part of 'La've l'aurora', on page 76 of this anthology, attributed to Giles of Viterbo. Like Joseph Vianey in his list of Desportes's sources (`Une rencontre des muses de France et d'Italie demeuree in/dite', Rev se d'histoire litteraire de la France,13 (1906), 96), Graham must have used one of the post-1553 editions of Stanze I in which 'La've l'aurora' was anonymous. Graham's attribution to Bembo presumably derives from Malherbe. For bibliographical details about Dolce's anthologies, see Annali di Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari ed. S. Bongi, 2 vols. (Rome, 1889 and 1895). I should like to thank Carlo Bajetta for his help in providing information about Italian copies of Dolce's anthologies.

25 Bembo, Prose e rime, 651: `Stanzas of M. Pietro Bembo, performed as a joke by him and by S. Ottaviano Fregoso, masked in the guise of two ambassadors from the goddess Venus, sent to Mad. Lisabetta Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino and Mad. Emilia Pia sitting among many noble ladies and gentlemen who were celebrating the eve of Carnival 1507 by dancing in the beautiful palace of that city.' As Dionisotti points out (Bembo, Prose e rime, 651), the text was not actually spoken by Fregoso and Bembo in their guise as Venerean ambassadors, but by an 'interpreter'.

26 On the whole, the parallels between the poems do not descend to matters of verbal detail. The exception to this rule is the very close parallel between stanza 22 of 'La've l'aurora' and stanza 15 of 'Stanze'. It is not clear whether 'La've l'aurora' was actually performed at Siena, or merely presented to Laura Piccolomini in written form.

27 Baldassar Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier, trans. Sir Thomas Hoby (repr. London, 1974), 303-24.

28 Ibid. 259-302. The parallel is commented upon briefly by R. B. Gottfried in the introduction to the English translation of Pietro Bembo, Cli Asolani (Bloomington, Ind., 1954), p. xvi. Like the texts considered here, Gli Asolani stages a competition between speakers who praise and speakers who dispraise love. The contest in Gli Asolani differs, though, in being tripartite (arguably quadripartite). Perottino, a melancholic lover, attacks love for its bad treatment of him while Gismondo, a happy lover, takes an opposite view. Lavinello praises virtuous sexual love, and quotes the words of a hermit who praises love of God alone. Perottino's speech shares themes-if not verbal detail-with both 'La've I'aurora' and 'Contr'amour', though the latter is truer to Perottino's stress on personal experience. It is notable that the speakers of both `Farewell false love' and 'Contr'amour' are presented as having overcome Love's tyranny, while Perottino is not. Desportes's and Ralegh's personae, then, are situated midway between the positions taken up by Perottino and the hermit-eschewing carnal love, but failing to advocate love of God.

29 Ralegh's tendency to constitute himself in opposition to other people is perhaps the defining feature of the Ralegh legend. See May, 'Companion Poems', passim.

30 The full communicative context of Ralegh's and Heneage's poems is by definition irrecoverable. May situates it within Ralegh's and Heneage's rivalry as royal favourites c. 1582-S: 'Companion Poems', 265-6, 270-1. Bajetta argues convincingly that Ralegh's poem was originally written in about 1579 within a literary coterie led by the earl of Oxford's circle (see nn. 2 and 22 above).