Covalzin®
Treatment for feline chronic renal failure
Veterinary Medical Products

 
 

[Compositions and Properties]
1. Compositions
One packet of Covalzin  contains 400 mg of spherical carbonaceous adsorbent (Kremezin drug substance).


2.Properties
Black spherical particles with no odor.


[Indications and Efficacy]
For cats: Prevention of uremia associated symptoms in cats with chronic renal failure


[Dosage and Administration]
Administer 400 mg in divided doses daily by oral route.

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[General Precautions]
1)Follow the dosage and administration as instructed.
2)Use only for the treatment of diseases specified by the Indications and Efficacy.

[Precautions for Animals]
1. Restrictions
1)Do not use Covalzin® in cats with gastrointestinal obstructions, because it may cause defecation disorders.
2)Use with caution in:

  • cats with gastrointestinal ulcers, because Covalzin® may stimulate the affected lesion as it passes through the GI tract as an insoluble, solid material.
  • cats with constipation tendency, because Covalzin® may worsen constipation.
  • pregnant or lactating cats, because the safety in pregnant or lactating cats has not been established.
  • cats with terminal-stage renal failure (those requiring continuous fluid therapy, with markedly reduced or no appetite), because effective treatments may not be expected with Covalzin® alone. Use with caution in combination with proper, necessary treatments such as fluid therapy.
  • Cats with acute renal failure, because effective treatments may not be expected with Covalzin® alone. Use with caution in combination with proper, necessary treatments such as fluid therapy.

2. Adverse reactions
Diarrhea may occur. In the rare incident of such symptom, take proper actions by reducing doses or terminating the administration.


3. Drug interactions
Do not administer with other drugs, as Covalzin® is an absorbent.


4. Precautions for use
Although no abnormalities have been reported in in vivo studies of homeostasis of vitamins, hormones and amino acids, carefully monitor the cat's physical conditions for long-term administrations, considering the drug's nature as absorbent.

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[Precautions for Handling]
Dispose of used containers properly.


[Precautions for Storage]
1)Keep out of reach of children.
2)Protect from direct sun exposure, high temperature and high humidity.
3)Do not store in different containers to avoid misuse and to maintain the product quality.


[Pharmacology]
1. Effect on chronic renal failure
1)Studies in rats with experimentally induced renal failure showed that Covalzin® suppressed progression of symptoms associated with renal failure (retained feed intake and bodyweight, reduced elevation of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, suppressed deterioration of glomerular filtration, and suppressed histopathological changes in the kidney) and prolonged life span.
2)When administered in cats with experimentally induced renal failure, reduction in the creatinine clearance was suppressed, and symptoms associated with uremia were also suppressed.

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[Drug Distribution]
When labeled Covalzin® was administered orally to mice, almost all the amount was excreted in feces in 24 hours, and it was not absorbed or accumulated in the animal's body.


[Clinical Trial Results]
Cats with chronic renal failure were either untreated or treated with Covalzin® at 400 mg/day or 800 mg/day for eight weeks. As a result, uremic symptoms were significantly improved in the cats treated with Covalzin® compared to the control animals. The rate of disease progression was also significantly reduced in the Covalzin®-treated cats.

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Overall improvement    
Group Marked
improvement
Improvement Slight
improvement
No change Deterioration N.D.
Control 0.0% 3.8% 11.5% 50.0% 34.6% 0.0%
3.8%
15.4%
400 mg/day 13.5% 30.8% 21.2% 25.0% 7.7%* 1.9%
44.2%*
65.4%*
800 mg/day 12.5% 33.3% 25.0% 25.0% 4.2%* 0.0%
45.8%
70.8%*
* with a statistically significant difference from the control group (p<0.01)
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[Safety]
When 200 mg/kg or 2000 mg/kg of Covalzin® were given daily to healthy cats for 12 weeks, no abnormalities related to drug administration were found in all parameters examined.


[Chemical Properties of Active Ingredient]
Chemical name: Carbon
Properties: Black spherical granules with no odor. Insoluble in water, ethanol and ether.


[Packaging]
Covalzin® 90 Packets (Divided powders)

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