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Bird species observed in or from the territory of Gibraltar

Compiled from GONHS records by Dr Ernest Garcia

Last revised; July 2006


This list gives all the 311 species known to have occurred in Gibraltar, with the exception of those represented only in the fossil record.

The status of each species is summarised briefly. Fuller details are given in "The Birds of Gibraltar" (by J E Cortes, J.C Finlayson, E.F.J Garcia & M.A.J. Mosquera, 1980, The Gibraltar Bookshop) and subsequent GONHS publications. The terms used here, and in the annual Gibraltar Bird Reports, have the following definitions;

Vagrant: Exceptional at any time in southern Iberia (including Gibraltar), e.g. Allen’s Gallinule.

Local Vagrant: Exceptional in Gibraltar but not unusual in southern Spain, e.g. Woodpigeon, Moorhen.

Rare: Seldom recorded in Gibraltar or anywhere in southern Spain, e.g. Alpine Chough and Fieldfare.

Occasional: Seen infrequently and not annually e.g. Rufous Bush Chat.

Regular: Annual in small numbers. e.g. Red-necked Nightjar.

Common: Annual and sometimes numerous, e.g.Black Redstart.


The Status Categories (Codes) are those used for the British and other national lists.

A Recorded in an apparently natural state at least once since 1st January 1950.

B Recorded in an apparently natural state but not since 31st December 1949.

C Introduced by man or derived from introduced populations elsewhere.

D As A or B but possibly ship-assisted, escaped or released.




ANATIDAE  Geese & Ducks

Anser anser Greylag Goose Local vagrant, migrant A
Tadorna tadorna Common Shelduck Local vagrant, migrant A
Anas penelope Wigeon Local vagrant, migrant A
Anas strepera Gadwall Local vagrant, migrant A
Anas crecca Common Teal Local vagrant, migrant A
Anas platyrhynchos Mallard Local vagrant, migrant A
Anas acuta Pintail Local vagrant, migrant A
Anas querquedula Garganey Local vagrant, migrant A
Aythya fuligula Tufted Duck Rare, winter B
Aythya marila Greater Scaup Vagrant B
Melanitta nigra Common Scoter Occasional: winter A
Mergus serrator Red-breasted Merganser Local vagrant: winter A


Alectoris barbara Barbary Partridge Resident A
Coturnix coturnix Common Quail Occasional migrant A
Phasianus colchicus Common Pheasant Local vagrant C


Gavia stellata Red-throated Diver Local vagrant, winter B
Gavia arctica Black-throated Diver Local vagrant, winter B
Gavia immer Great Northern Diver Local vagrant, winter A


Tachybaptus ruficollis Little Grebe Local vagrant A
Podiceps nigricollis Black-necked Grebe Occasional. Winter A

PROCELLARIIDAE  Petrels & Shearwaters

Daption capense Cape Petrel Vagrant A
Calonectris diomedea Cory’s Shearwater All year, esp. summer & on passage. A
Puffinus gravis Great Shearwater Very rare autumn migrant A
Puffinus griseus Sooty Shearwater Rare autumn migrant A
Puffinus mauretanicus Balearic Shearwater All year, esp. summer. Migrant A
Puffinus yelkouan Levantine Shearwater Regular, mainly on passage. A
Puffinus baroli Macaronesian Shearwater Vagrant A


Hydrobates pelagicus European Storm-petrel Offshore, mainly summer A
Oceanodroma leucorhoa Leach’s Storm Petrel Rare, late autumn & winter A

SULIDAE  Gannets

Morus bassanus Northern Gannet All year, esp. winter & passage A


Phalacrocorax carbo Great Cormorant Regular in small numbers, mainly winter A
Phalacrocorax aristotelis Shag Several pairs resident A


Ixobrychus minutus Little Bittern Local vagrant, migrant A
Nycticorax nycticorax Night Heron Occasional migrant A
Ardeola ralloides Squacco Heron Local vagrant, migrant A
Bubulcus ibis Cattle Egret Occasional: migrant & in winter A
Egretta garzetta Little Egret Occasional: migrant & in winter A
Ardea cinerea Grey Heron Occasional: migrant & in winter A
Ardea purpurea Purple Heron Occasional migrant A


Ciconia nigra Black Stork Common migrant A
Ciconia ciconia White Stork Common migrant A

THRESKIORNITHIDAE  Ibises & Spoonbills

Plegadis falcinellus Glossy Ibis Local vagrant A
Platalea leucorodia Eurasian Spoonbill Local vagrant A


Phoenicopterus roseus Greater Flamingo Irregular migrant, usually annual A

ACCIPITRIDAE Broad-winged raptors

Pernis apivorus Honey Buzzard Abundant migrant A
Elanus caeruleus Black-shouldered Kite Local vagrant, migrant A
Milvus migrans Black Kite Abundant migrant A
Milvus milvus Red Kite Annual but very scarce migrant A
Gypaetus barbatus Lammergeier Vagrant A
Neophron percnopterus Egyptian Vulture Regular migrant A
Gyps fulvus Griffon Vulture Common migrant A
Gyps ruppellii Rüppell's Vulture Vagrant A
Aegypius monachus Black Vulture Occasional, migrant A
Circaetus gallicus Short-toed Eagle Common migrant. Occasional winter A
Circus aeruginosus Marsh Harrier Common migrant A
Circus cyaneus Hen Harrier Annual but scarce migrant A
Circus macrourus Pallid Harrier Vagrant A
Circus pygargus Montagu’s Harrier Common migrant A
Accipiter gentilis Goshawk Occasional, migrant A
Accipiter nisus Sparrowhawk Common migrant A
Buteo buteo Common Buzzard Annual but scarce migrant. Occasional winter A
Buteo rufinus Long-legged Buzzard Vagrant A
Aquila clanga Spotted Eagle Vagrant A
Aquila pomarina Lesser Spotted Eagle Vagrant A
Aquila pennata Booted Eagle Common migrant. Occasional winter A
Aquila chrysaetos Golden Eagle Local vagrant A
Aquila fasciata Bonelli’s Eagle Occasional A
Aquila adalberti Spanish Imperial Eagle Local vagrant A


Pandion haliaetus Osprey Regular migrant. Occasional winter A


Falco naumanni Lesser Kestrel Regular migrant. Few breed. Occasional winter A
Falco tinnunculus Common Kestrel Resident & common migrant A
Falco vespertinus Red-footed Falcon Vagrant A
Falco columbarius Merlin Occasional migrant A
Falco subbuteo Hobby Regular but scarce migrant A
Falco eleonorae Eleonora’s Falcon Regular but scarce in late summer A
Falco biarmicus Lanner Rare migrant A
Falco peregrinus Peregrine Resident. Some migrants may occur. A


Gallinula chloropus Moorhen Local vagrant A
Porphyrula alleni Allen’s Gallinule Vagrant A
Porphyrio porphyrio Purple Gallinule Local vagrant
Fulica atra Common Coot Formerly in winter B


Grus grus Common Crane Occasional & irregular migrant A

OTIDIDAE  Bustards

Otis tarda Great Bustard Local vagrant A


Haematopus ostralegus Oystercatcher Occasional migrant A


Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt Local vagrant, migrant A
Recurvirostra avosetta Avocet Occasional migrant A


Burhinus oedicnemus Stone Curlew Occasional migrant A


Glareola pratincola Collared Pratincole Local vagrant A


Charadrius hiaticula Ringed Plover Local vagrant A
Charadrius alexandrinus Kentish Plover Occasional migrant & winter A
Pluvialis apricaria European Golden Plover Local vagrant A
Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover Local vagrant A
Vanellus vanellus Northern Lapwing Irregular: in winter A


Calidris canutus Red Knot Local vagrant A
Calidris alba Sanderling Local vagrant A
Calidris minuta Little Stint Local vagrant A
Calidris ferruginea Curlew Sandpiper Local vagrant A
Calidris alpina Dunlin Local vagrant A
Lymnocryptes minimus Jack Snipe Local vagrant A
Gallinago gallinago Common Snipe Local vagrant A
Scolopax rusticola Eurasian Woodcock Local vagrant: winter A
Limosa limosa Black-tailed Godwit Local vagrant A
Limosa lapponica Bar-tailed Godwit Local vagrant A
Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel Occasional migrant A
Numenius arquata Eurasian Curlew Local vagrant  A
Tringa totanus Common Redshank Local vagrant A
Tringa ochropus Green Sandpiper Local vagrant A
Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper Regular but scarce migrant. Occasional winter A
Arenaria interpres Turnstone Occasional migrant & winter A


Phalaropus lobatus Red-necked Phalarope Vagrant B
Phalaropus fulicarius Grey Phalarope Rare, winter A


Stercorarius pomarinus Pomarine Skua Occasional migrant A
Stercorarius parasiticus Arctic Skua Present all year. A
Stercorarius skua Great Skua Present all year. Common migrant A


Larus melanocephalus Mediterranean Gull Common: migrant & winter A
Larus atricilla Laughing Gull Vagrant A
Larus minutus Little Gull Common some winters. Occasional migrant A
Larus sabini Sabine’s Gull Vagrant A
Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull Common: migrant & winter A
Larus cirrocephalus Grey-headed Gull Vagrant A
Larus genei Slender-billed Gull Local vagrant A
Larus audouinii Audouin’s Gull Common migrant. Some remain in winter A
Larus delawarensis Ring-billed Gull Vagrant A
Larus canus Common Gull Vagrant in winter A
Larus fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull Regular migrant & winter A
Larus argentatus Herring Gull Vagrant in winter A
Larus michahellis Yellow-legged Gull Abundant resident A
Larus glaucoides Iceland Gull Vagrant A
Larus marinus Great Black-backed Gull Vagrant in winter A
Rissa tridactyla Kittiwake Regular but scarce in winter A


Sternula albifrons Little Tern Occasional migrant A
Gelochelidon nilotica Gull-billed Tern Occasional migrant A
Hydroprogne caspia Caspian Tern Occasional migrant A
Chlidonias hybrida Whiskered Tern Local vagrant A
Chlidonias niger Black Tern Common migrant A
Chlidonias leucopterus White-winged Black Tern Vagrant A
Sterna sandvicensis Sandwich Tern Common: migrant & winter A
Sterna maxima Royal Tern Vagrant A
Sterna bengalensis Lesser Crested Tern Occasional migrant A
Sterna hirundo Common Tern Common migrant A
Sterna dougallii Roseate Tern Local Vagrant A
Sterna paradisea Arctic Tern Local vagrant A


Uria aalge Common Guillemot Rare, winter A
Alca torda Razorbill Common: winter & migrant A
Fratercula arctica Puffin Common migrant A


Pterocles alchata Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Local vagrant A


Columba livia Rock Dove Rare (feral population common.) A
Columba oenas Stock Dove Local vagrant A
Columba palumbus Wood Pigeon Local vagrant A
Streptopelia decaocto Collared Dove Common resident A
Streptopelia turtur Turtle Dove Regular but scarce migrant A


Clamator glandarius Great Spotted Cuckoo Occasional migrant A
Cuculus canorus Grey Cuckoo Occasional migrant A


Tyto alba Barn Owl Occasional. May breed A


Otus scops Scops Owl Common migrant. Has bred A
Bubo bubo Eagle Owl Recently re-established resident A
Athene noctua Little Owl Scarce resident A
Strix aluco Tawny Owl Occasional. May breed A
Asio otus Long-eared Owl Local vagrant A
Asio flammeus Short-eared Owl Local vagrant A


Caprimulgus europaeus European Nightjar Occasional migrant A
Caprimulgus ruficollis Red-necked Nightjar Regular migrant A


Apus apus Common Swift Abundant migrant & summer resident A
Apus pallidus Pallid Swift Abundant migrant & summer resident A
Apus melba Alpine Swift Regular but scarce migrant. Scarce summer resident A
Apus caffer White-rumped Swift Local vagrant A
Apus affinis Little Swift Local vagrant A

ALCEDINIDAE  Kingfishers

Alcedo atthis River Kingfisher Regular but scarce migrant & winter. A

MEROPIDAE  Bee-eaters

Merops persicus Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Vagrant A
Merops apiaster European Bee-eater Common migrant A


Coracias garrulus European Roller Occasional migrant A


Upupa epops Hoopoe Common migrant A

PICIDAE  Woodpeckers

Jynx torquilla Wryneck Regular but scarce migrant. Occasional winter A
Picus viridis Green Woodpecker Local vagrant A
Dendrocopos major Great Spotted Woodpecker Local vagrant A


Melanocorypha calandra Calandra Lark Local vagrant A
Calandrella brachydactyla Short-toed Lark Regular but scarce migrant A
Calandrella rufescens Lesser Short-toed Lark Local vagrant A
Galerida cristata Crested Lark Occasional winter A
Galerida theklae Thekla Lark Regular but scarce in winter A
Lullula arborea Woodlark Occasional migrant A
Alauda arvensis Skylark Regular but scarce migrant. Occasional winter A


Riparia riparia Sand Martin Regular but scarce migrant A
Ptyonoprogne rupestris Crag Martin Common migrant & winter. Has bred. A
Hirundo rustica Barn Swallow Abundant migrant. Formerly bred. A
Delichon urbicum House Martin Abundant migrant. Scarcel summer resident A
Cecropis daurica Red-rumped Swallow Common migrant. Has bred. A

MOTACILLIDAE  Pipits & Wagtails

Anthus richardi Richard’s Pipit Vagrant A
Anthus campestris Tawny Pipit Common migrant A
Anthus trivialis Tree Pipit Common migrant A
Anthus pratensis Meadow Pipit Common: migrant & winter A
Anthus cervinus Red-throated Pipit Local vagrant. Migrant A
Anthus spinoletta Water Pipit Local vagrant. Migrant A
Anthus petrosus Rock Pipit Vagrant A
Motacilla flava Yellow Wagtail Regular but scarce migrant A
Motacilla cinerea Grey Wagtail Regular but scarce: migrant & winter A
Motacilla alba White Wagtail Regular but scarce migrant. Regular winter. Has bred A


Troglodytes troglodytes Wren Common resident A


Prunella modularis Dunnock Occasional: migrant &winter A
Prunella collaris Alpine Accentor Occasional: migrant & winter A

TURDIDAE  Chats & Thrushes

Cercotrichas galactotes Rufous Bush Chat Occasional migrant A
Erithacus rubecula Robin Common: migrant & winter. Has bred. A
Luscinia megarhynchos Nightingale Common migrant. Has bred A
Luscinia svecica Bluethroat Occasional migrant A
Phoenicurus ochruros Black Redstart Common: migrant & winter A
Phoenicurus phoenicurus Common Redstart Common migrant A
Saxicola rubetra Whinchat Common migrant A
Saxicola torquatus Stonechat Common: migrant & winter A
Oenanthe oenanthe Northern Wheatear Common migrant A
Oenanthe hispanica Black-eared Wheatear Common migrant A
Oenanthe deserti Desert Wheatear Vagrant A
Oenanthe leucura Black Wheatear Former resident B
Monticola saxatilis Rock Thrush Occasional migrant A
Monticola solitarius Blue Rock Thrush Scarce resident A
Turdus torquatus Ring Ouzel Occasional migrant A
Turdus merula Blackbird Common resident A
Turdus pilaris Fieldfare Rare migrant A
Turdus philomelos Song Thrush Common: migrant & winter A
Turdus iliacus Redwing Occasional migrant A
Turdus viscivorus Mistle Thrush Local vagrant A


Cettia cetti Cetti’s Warbler Local vagrant A
Cisticola juncidis Zitting Cisticola Common: migrant & winter. Some breed. A
Locustella naevia Grasshopper Warbler Occasional migrant A
Locustella luscinoides Savi’s Warbler Local vagrant A
Acrocephalus melanopogon Moustached Warbler Local vagrant
Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Sedge Warbler Local vagrant A
Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth’s Reed Warbler Vagrant A
Acrocephalus scirpaceus Reed Warbler Common migrant A
Acrocephalus arundinaceus Great Reed Warbler Local vagrant A
Hippolais opaca Western Olivaceous Warbler Occasional migrant A
Hippolais icterina Icterine Warbler Vagrant A
Hippolais polyglotta Melodious Warbler Common migrant A
Sylvia atricapilla Blackcap Common: resident, migrant & winter A
Sylvia borin Garden Warbler Common migrant A
Sylvia curruca Lesser Whitethroat Vagrant A
Sylvia hortensis Orphean Warbler Common migrant A
Sylvia communis Common Whitethroat Common migrant A
Sylvia conspicillata Spectacled Warbler Occasional migrant. Has bred A
Sylvia undata Dartford Warbler Common migrant. Occasional winter. Has bred A
Sylvia sarda Marmora's Warbler Vagrant A
Sylvia deserticola Tristram’s Warbler Vagrant A
Sylvia cantillans Subalpine Warbler Common migrant A
Sylvia melanocephala Sardinian Warbler Common resident A
Phylloscopus borealis Arctic Warbler Vagrant A
Phylloscopus proregulus Pallas’s Warbler Vagrant A
Phylloscopus inornatus Yellow-browed Warbler Vagrant A
Phylloscopus bonelli Western Bonelli’s Warbler Common migrant A
Phylloscopus sibilatrix Wood Warbler Occasional migrant A
Phylloscopus collybita Common Chiffchaff Common: migrant & winter A
Phylloscopus ibericus Iberian Chiffchaff Common migrant A
Phylloscopus sindianus Mountain Chiffchaff Vagrant A
Phylloscopus trochilus Willow Warbler Common migrant A
Regulus regulus Goldcrest Rare: migrant A
Regulus ignicapilla Firecrest Regular but scarce migrant. Occasional winter A


Muscicapa striata Spotted Flycatcher Common migrant A
Ficedula parva Red-breasted Flycatcher Vagrant A
Ficedula hypoleuca Pied Flycatcher Common migrant A

AEGITHALIDAE  Long-tailed Tits

Aegithalos caudatus Long-tailed Tit Local vagrant A


Cyanistes caeruleus Blue Tit Common resident A
Parus major Great Tit Scarce resident A
Lophophanes cristatus Crested Tit Local vagrant A
Periparus ater Coal Tit Local vagrant A


Tichodroma muraria Wallcreeper Rare: winter A


Certhia brachydactyla Short-toed Tree Creeper Occasional: migrant & winter A


Oriolus oriolus Golden Oriole Occasional migrant A


Lanius collurio Red-backed Shrike Vagrant A
Lanius meridionalis Southern Grey Shrike Local vagrant A
Lanius senator Woodchat Shrike Common migrant. Has bred A
Lanius nubicus Masked Shrike Vagrant B


Garrulus glandarius Jay Rare A
Pica pica Black-billed Magpie Rare A
Pyrrhocorax graculus Alpine Chough Rare: migrant A
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax Red-billed Chough Local vagrant A
Corvus monedula Jackdaw Occasional. Has bred A
Corvus corone Carrion Crow Vagrant A
Corvus corax Raven One resident pair. A
Corvus splendens House Crow Vagrant D

STURNIDAE  Starlings

Sturnus vulgaris Common Starling Common in some winters A
Sturnus unicolor Spotless Starling Common resident A


Ploceus cucullatus Village Weaver Vagrant C
Quelea quelea Red-billed Quelea Vagrant C
Quelea erythrops Red-headed Quelea Vagrant C
Euplectes hordeacea Black-winged Bishop Vagrant C


Passer domesticus House Sparrow Common resident A
Passer hispaniolensis Spanish Sparrow Occasional migrant A
Passer montanus Tree Sparrow Occasional migrant A


Estrilda troglodytes Black-rumped Waxbill Local vagrant C
Estrilda astrild Common Waxbill Local vagrant C


Fringilla coelebs Chaffinch Common: migrant & winter A
Fringilla montifringilla Brambling Occasional migrant A
Serinus serinus European Serin Common migrant & winter. Some resident A
Carduelis chloris Greenfinch Common migrant & winter. Some resident A
Carduelis carduelis Goldfinch Common migrant & winter. Has bred A
Carduelis spinus Siskin Regular but scarce migrant. Occasional winter A
Carduelis cannabina Linnet Common migrant A
Loxia curvirostra Red Crossbill Occasional A
Bucanetes githagineus Trumpeter Finch Local vagrant A
Carpodacus erythrinus Common Rosefinch Vagrant A
Pyrrhula pyrrhula Bullfinch Rare A
Coccothraustes coccothraustes Hawfinch Local vagrant A


Zonotrichia albicollis White-throated Sparrow Vagrant D
Junco hyemalis Dark-eyed Junco Vagrant D
Emberiza leucocephalos Pine Bunting Vagrant A
Emberiza citrinella Yellowhammer Rare: migrant A
Emberiza cirlus Cirl Bunting Occasional migrant A
Emberiza cia Rock Bunting Occasional mainly in winter. Has bred A
Emberiza hortulana Ortolan Bunting Occasional migrant A
Emberiza schoeniclus Reed Bunting Local vagrant A
Emberiza calandra Corn Bunting Occasional: migrant & winter A
Passerina cyanea Indigo Bunting Vagrant D


Dolichonyx oryzivorus Bobolink Vagrant A