Common Prefixes, Suffixes, and Root Words:

Roots

 

 

Root

Meaning

Examples

acer, acid, acri

bitter, sour, sharp

acerbic, acidity, acrid, acrimony

acu

sharp

acute, acupuncture, accurate

ag, agi, ig, act

do, move, go

agent, agenda, agitate, navigate, ambiguous, action

ali, allo, alter

other

alias, alibi, alien, alloy, alter, alter ego, altruism

alt(us)

high, deep

altimeter, altitude

am, amor

love, liking

amiable, amorous, enamoured

Anni, annu, enni

year

anniversary, annually, centennial

anthrop

man

anthropology, misanthrope, philanthropy

anti(co)

old

antique, antiquated, antiquity

arch

chief, first, rule

archangel, architect, archaic, monarchy, matriarchy, patriarchy, Archeozoic era

aster, astr

star

aster, asterisk, asteroid, astronomy, astronaut

aud, aus

hear, listen

audiology, auditorium, audio, audition, ausculate

aug, auc

increase

augur, augment, auction

auto, aut

self

automobile, autograph, automatic

belli

war

rebellion, belligerent, casus belli, bellicose

bibl

book

Bible, bibliography, bibliomania

bio

life

biology, biometrics, biome, biosphere

brev

short

abbreviate, brief

cad, cas

to fall

cadaver, cadence, cascade

calor

heat

calorie, caloric, calorimeter

cap, cip, cept

take

capable, intercept, forceps, capture, except, reciprocate

capit, capt

head

decapitate, capital, captain, caption

carn

flesh

carnivorous, incarnate, reincarnation, carnal

caus, caut

burn, heat

caustic, cauldron, cauterize

cause, cuse, cus

cause, motive

because, excuse, accusation

ced, ceed, cede, cess

move, yield, go, surrender

procedure, proceed, cede, concede, recede, precede, accede, success

cenetri

center

concentric, centrifugal, centripetal, eccentric

chrom

color

chrome, chromosome, polychrome, chromatic

chron

time

chronology, chronometer, synchronize

cide, cise

cut down, kill

homicide, exorcise, germicide, incision, scissors

cit

call, start

incite, citation, cite

civ

citizen

civic, civil, civilian, civilization

clam, claim

cry out

exclamation, clamor, proclamation, reclamation, acclaim

clud, clus, claus

shut

include, conclude, recluse, claustrophobia, occlusion, occult

cognoac, gnosi

know

recognize, prognosis, cognoscenti, incognito, agnostic

cord, cor, cardi

heart

cordial, concord, discord, courage, encourage

corp

body

corporation, corporal punishment, corpse, corpulent, corpus luteum

cosm

universe, world

cosmos, microcosm, cosmopolitan, cosmonaut

crat, cracy

rule

autocrat, aristocrat, theocracy, technocracy

crea

create

creature, recreation, creation

cred

believe

creed, credo, credence, credit, credulous, incredulous, incredible

cresc, cret, crease, cru

rise, grow

crescendo, concrete, increase, decrease, accrue

crit

separate, choose

critical, criterion, hypocrite

cur, curs

run

current, concurrent, concur, incur, recur, occur, courier, precursor, cursive

cura

care

curator, curative, manicure

cycl, cyclo

wheel, circular

Cyclops, unicycle, bicycle, cyclone, cyclic

deca

ten

decade, decalogue, decathlon, decahedron

dem

people

democracy, demography, epidemic

dent, dont

tooth

dental, denture, orthodontist, periodontal

derm

skin

hypodermic, dermatology, epidermis, taxidermy

dict

say, speak

dictation, dictionary, dictate, dictator, Dictaphone, edict, predict, verdict, contradict, benediction

doc, dokein

teach

doctrine, indoctrinate, document, dogma, dogmatic

domin

master

dominate, dominion, predominant, domain

don

give

donate, condone

dorm

sleep

dormant, dormitory

dox

opinion, praise

orthodox, heterodox, paradox, doxology

drome

run, step

syndrome (run together), hippodrome (place where horses run)

duc, duct

lead

induce, seduce (lead aside), produce, reduce

dura

hard, lasting

durable, duration, endure

dynam

power

dynamo, dynamic, dynamite, hydrodynamics

endo

within

endorse, endocardial, endoskeletal, endoskeleton, endosperm

equi

equal

equinox, equilibrium, equipoise

erg

work

energy, erg, allergy, ergometer, ergograph, ergophobia

fac, fact, fic, fect

do, make

factory, fact, manufacture, amplification, confection

fall, fals

deceive

fallacy, falsify, fallacious

fer

bear, carry

ferry, coniferous, fertile, defer, infer, refer, transfer

fid, fide, feder(is)

faith, trust

confidante, fidelity, confident, infidelity, infidel, federal, confederacy, semper fi

fila, fili

thread

filigree, filament, filter, filet, filibuster

fin

end, ended, finished

final, finite, finish, confine, fine, refine, define, finale

fix

fix

fix, fixation, fixture, affix, prefix, suffix

flex, flect

bend

flex, reflex, flexible, flexor, inflexibility, reflect, deflect

flu, fluc, fluv

flowing

influence, fluid, flue, flush, fluently, fluctuate

form

form, shape

form, uniform, conform, formulary, perform, formal, formula

fort, forc

strong

fort, fortress, fortify, forte, fortitude

fract, frag

break

fracture, infraction, fragile, fraction, refract

gam

marriage

bigamy, monogamy, polygamy

gastr (o)

stomach

gastric, gastronomic, gastritis, gastropod

gen

birth, race, produce

genesis, genetics, eugenics, genealogy, generate, genetic, antigen, pathogen

geo

earth

geometry, geography, geocentric, geology

germ

vital part

germination, germ, germane

gest

carry, bear

congest, gestation

gloss, glot

tongue

glossary, polyglot, epiglottis

glu, glo

lump, bond, glue

glue, agglutinate, conglomerate

grad, gress

step, go

grade, gradual, graduate, progress, graduated, egress

graph, gram

write, written

graph, graphic, autograph, photography, graphite, telegram

grat

pleasing

congratulate, gratuity, grateful, ingrate

grav

heavy, weighty

grave, gravity, aggravate, gravitate

greg

herd

gregarious, congregation, segregate, gregarian

hypn

sleep

hypnosis, hypnotherapy

helio

sun

heliograph, heliotrope, heliocentric

hema, hemo

blood

hemorrhage, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hemostat

here, hes

stick

adhere, cohere, cohesion, inherent, hereditary

hetero

different

heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterodox

homo

same

homogeneous, homonym, homogenize

hum, human

earth, ground, man

humus, exhume, humane

hydr, hydra, hydro

water

dehydrate, hydrant, hydraulic, hydraulics, hydrogen, hydrophobia

ignis

fire

ignite, igneous, ignition

ject

throw

deject, inject, project, eject, interject

join, junct

join

adjoining, enjoin, juncture, conjunction, injunction, conjunction

juven

young

juvenile, rejuvenate

lau, lav, lot, lut

wash

launder, lavatory, lotion, ablution, dilute

leg

law

legal, legislate, legislature, legitimize

levi

light

alleviate, levitate, levity

liber, liver

free

liberty, liberal, liberalize, deliverance

liter

letters

literary, literature, literal, alliteration, obliterate

loc, loco

place

locality, allocate, locomotion

log, logo, ology

word, study, speech

catalog, prologue, dialogue, logogram (symbol representing a word), zoology

loqu, locut

talk, speak

eloquent, loquacious, colloquial, circumlocution

luc, lum, lus, lun

light

translucent, luminary, luster, luna (moon goddess)

macr-, macer

lean

emaciated, meager

magn

great

magnify, magnificent, magnanimous, magnate, magnitude, magnum

man

hand

manual, manage, manufacture, manacle, manicure, manifest, maneuver, emancipate

mand

command

mandatory, remand, mandate

mania

madness

mania, maniac, kleptomania, pyromania

mar, mari, mer

sea, pool

marine, marsh, maritime, mermaid

matri

mother

matrimony, maternal, matriarchate, matron

medi

half, middle, between, halfway

mediate, medieval, Mediterranean, mediocre, medium

mega

great

megaphone, megalopolis, megacycle (a million cycles), megaton

mem

remember

memo, commemoration, memento, memoir, memorable

meter

measure

meter, voltammeter, barometer, thermometer

micro

small

microscope, microfilm, microcard, microwave, micrometer

migra

wander

migrate, emigrant, immigrate

mit, miss

send

emit, remit, submit, admit, commit, permit, transmit, omit, intermittent, mission, missile

mob, mot, mov

move

mobile, motionless, motor

mon

warn, remind

monument, admonition, monitor, premonition

mor, mort

mortal, death

mortal, immortal, mortality, mortician, mortuary

morph

form

amorphous, dimorphic, metamorphosis, morphology

multi

many, much

multifold, multilingual, multiped, multiply

nat, nasc

to be from, to spring forth

innate, natal, native, renaissance

neo

new

Neolithic, nuveau riche, neologism, neophyte, neonate

neur

nerve

neuritis, neuropathic, neurologist, neural, neurotic

nom

law, order

autonomy, astronomy, gastronomy, economy

nomen, nomin

name

nomenclature, nominate, ignominious

nov

new

novel, renovate, novice, nova, innovate

nox, noc

night

nocturnal, equinox, noctilucent

numer

number

numeral, numeration, enumerate, innumerable

numisma

coin

numismatics

oligo

few, little

Oligocene, oligosaccharide, oligotrophic, oligarchy

omni

all, every

omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, omnivorous

onym

name

anonymous, pseudonym, antonym, synonym

oper

work

operate, cooperate, opus

ortho

straight, correct

orthodox, orthodontist, orthopedic, unorthodox

pac

peace

pacifist, pacify, pacific ocean

paleo

old

Paleozoic, Paleolithic, paleomagnetism, paleopsychology

pan

all

Pan-American, pan-African, panacea, pandemonium (place of all the demons),

pater, patr

father

paternity, patriarch, patriot, patron, patronize

path, pathy

feeling, suffering

pathos, sympathy, antipathy, apathy, telepathy

ped, pod

foot

pedal, impede (get feet in a trap), pedestrian, centipede, tripod, podiatry, antipode

pedo

child

orthopedic, pedagogue, pediatrics

pel, puls

drive, urge

compel, dispel, expel, repel, propel, pulse, impulse, pulsate, compulsory, expulsion, repulsive

pend, pens, pond

hang, weigh

pendant, pendulum, suspend, appendage, pensive

phage

eat

macrophage, bacteriophage

phil

love

philosophy, philanthropy, philharmonic, bibliophile

phlegma

inflammation

phlegm, phlegmatic

phobia, phobos

fear

phobia, claustrophobia, acrophobia, aquaphobia, ergophobia, homophobia

phon

sound

phonograph, phonetic, symphony, homophone, euphonious

photo

light

photograph, photoelectric, photogenic, photosynthesis

plac, plais

please

placid, placebo, placate, complacent

plu, plur, plus

more

plural, pluralist, plus

pneuma, pneumon

breath

pneumatic, pneumonia,

pod (see ped)

poli

city

metropolis, police, politics, Indianapolis, megalopolis, acropolis

poly

many

polysaccharide, polyandrous, polytheistic

pon, pos, pound

place, put

postpone, component, opponent, proponent, expose, impose, deposit, posture, position, expound, impound

pop

people

population, populous, popular

port

carry

porter, portable, transport, report, export, import, support, transportation

portion

part, share

portion, proportion

pot

power

potential, potentate, impotent

prehendere

seize, grasp

apprehend, comprehend, comprehensive, prehensile

prim, prime

first

primacy, prima donna, primitive, primary, primal, primeval

proto

first

prototype, protocol, protagonist, protozoan, Proterozoic, protoindustrial

psych

mind, soul

psyche, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis

punct

point, dot

punctual, punctuation, puncture, acupuncture, punctuation

reg, recti

straighten

regiment, regular, rectify, correct, direct, rectangle

ri, ridi, risi

laughter

deride, ridicule, ridiculous, derision, risible

rog, roga

ask

prerogative, interrogation, derogatory

rupt

break

rupture, interrupt, abrupt, disrupt, ruptible

sacr, sanc, secr

sacred

sacred, sacrosanct, sanction, consecrate, desecrate

salv, salu

safe, healthy

salvation, salvage, salutation

sat, satis

enough

satient (giving pleasure, satisfying), saturate, satisfy

sci, scientia

know

science, conscious, omniscient, cognocienti

scope

see, watch

telescope, microscope, kaleidoscope, periscope, stethoscope

scrib, script

write

scribe, scribble, inscribe, describe, subscribe, prescribe, manuscript

sed, sess, sid

sit

sediment, session, obsession, possess, preside, president, reside, subside

sen

old

senior, senator, senile

senescere

to grow old

senescence, evanescent

sent, sens

feel

sentiment, consent, resent, dissent, sentimental, sense, sensation, sensitive, sensory, dissension

sequ, secu, sue

follow

sequence, consequence, sequel, subsequent, prosecute, consecutive, second, ensue, pursue

serv

save, serve

servant, service, subservient, servitude, preserve, conserve, reservation, deserve, conservation, observe

sign, signi

sign, mark, seal

signal, signature, design, insignia, significant

simil, simul

like, resembling

similar, assimilate, simulate, simulacrum, simultaneous

sist, sta, stit

stand

assist, persist, circumstance, stamina, status, state, static, stable, stationary, substitute

solus

alone

solo, soliloquy, solitaire, solitude

solv, solu

loosen

solvent, solve, absolve, resolve, soluble, solution, resolution, resolute, dissolute

somnus

sleep

insomnia, somnambulist

soph

wise

sophomore (wise fool), philosophy, sophisticated

spec, spect, spic

look

specimen, specific, spectator, spectacle, aspect, speculate, inspect, respect, prospect, retrospective, introspective, expect, conspicuous

sphere

ball, sphere

sphere, stratosphere, hemisphere, spheroid

spir

breath

spirit, conspire, inspire, aspire, expire, perspire, respiration

string, strict

draw tight

stringent, strict, restrict, constrict, boa constrictor

stru, struct

build

construe (build in the mind, interpret), structure, construct, instruct, obstruct, destruction, destroy

sume, sump

take, use, waste

consume, assume (to take, to use), sump pump presumption (to take or use before knowing all the facts

tact, tang, tag, tig, ting

touch

tactile, contact, intact, intangible, tangible, contagious, contiguous

tele

far

telephone, telegraph, telegram, telescope, television, telephoto, telecast, telepathy

tempo

time

tempo, temporary, extemporaneously, contemporary, pro tem, temporal

ten, tin, tain

hold

tenacious, tenant, tenure, untenable, detention, retentive, content, pertinent, continent, obstinate, contain, abstain, pertain, detain

tend, tent, tens

stretch, strain

tendency, extend, intend, contend, pretend, superintend, tender, extent, tension, pretense

terra

earth

terrain, terrarium, territory, terrestrial

test

to bear witness

testament, detest, testimony, attest

the, theo

God, a god

monotheism, polytheism, atheism, theology

therm

heat

thermometer, theorem, thermal, thermos bottle, thermostat, hypothermia

thesis, thet

place, put

antithesis, hypothesis, synthesis, epithet

tom

cut

atom (not cuttable), appendectomy, tonsillectomy, dichotomy, anatomy

tort, tors

twist

torture (twisting to inflict pain) retort, extort, distort, contort, torsion, tortuous, torturous

tox

poison

toxic, intoxicate, antitoxin

tract, tra

draw, pull

tractor, attract, subtract, tractable, abstract, subtrahend

tom

cut

atom (not cutable, smallest particle of matter), appendectomy, tonsillectomy, dichotomy, anatomy

tort, tors

twist

torture (twisting to inflict pain), retort, extort (twist out), distort, contort, torsion

tox

poison

toxic, intoxicate, antitoxin

tract, tra

draw, pull

tractor, attract, traction, subtract, tractable, abstract (to draw away), subtrahend (the number to be drawn away from another).

trib

pay, bestow

tribute, contribute, attribute, retribution, tributary

turbo

disturb

turbulent, disturb, turbid, turmoil

typ

print

type, prototype, typical, typography, typewriter, typology, typify

ultima

last

ultimate, ultimatum

umber, umbraticum

shadow

umbra, penumbra, (take) umbrage, adumbrate

uni

one

unicorn, unify, university, unanimous, universal

vac

empty

vacate, vacuum, evacuate, vacation, vacant, vacuous

vale, vali, valu

strength, worth

equivalent, valiant, validity, evaluate, value, valor

ven, vent

come

convene, intervene, venue, convenient, avenue, circumvent, invent, convent, venture, event, advent, prevent

ver, veri

true

very, aver, verdict, verity, verify, verisimilitude

vert, vers

turn

avert, divert, invert, introvert, convertible, reverse, controversy, versatile

vic, vicis

change, substitute

vicarious, vicar, vicissitude

vict, vinc

conquer

victor, evict, convict, convince, invincible

vid, vis

see

video, evident, provide, providence, visible, revise, supervise, vista, visit, vision

viv, vita, vivi

alive, life

revive, survive, vivid, vivacious, vitality, vivisection

voc

call

vocation, avocation, convocation, invocation, evoke, provoke, revoke, advocate, provocative, vocal

vol

will

malevolent, benevolent, volunteer, volition

volcan

fire

volcano, vulcanize, Vulcan

volvo

turn about, roll

revolve, voluble (easily turned about or around or talkative), voluminous, convolution

vor

eat greedily

voracious, carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous, devour

zo

animal

zoo (short for zoological garden), zoology, zoomorphism (attributing animal form to god), zodiac (circle of animal constellations), protozoan


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