|Local Area Place Names|
ADMIRAL WAY - A short street connecting Marine Way with South Franklin Street. Named for "The Admiral Line," the former Pacific Steamship Company which operated to Alaska for many years, before 1933. The company dedicated the area for street purposes.
ALASKA CHIEF FALLS - on Icy Creek or Gulch, a tributary to Gold Creek from the southwest, 2.5 miles east of Juneau. The falls took its name from the Alaska Chief lode claim staked there by Joe Juneau and Richard Harris on October 14, 1880. Juneau and Harris called the canoe in which they came here from Sitka, the "Alaska Chief."
AMALGA - a former settlement and post office at the Eagle River Mine north of Eagle River, approximately four miles from tidewater and 22 miles northwest of Juneau. A miner's name apparently derived from the word amalgam. The mine, discovered in 1902, is in what was called Thane Mountain for Bartlett L. Thane, who was the mine superintendent. The 20-stamp mill and settlement were 900 feet below the mine and connected with it by cable tramway. The post office was established July 29, 1905. A horse tramway ran from the settlement seven miles to the beach at Amalga Landing on what is now known as Amalga Harbor, where the company had a wharf and warehouse. The mine operated for a number of years but in 1923 the stamp mill was moved to the Apex el Nido Mine at Lisianski Inlet. The Post Office may have been moved to Amalga Landing when the mine closed. It was discontinued in 1927.
ANDERSON, MOUNT - the most northerly peak in the chain extending along the eastern side of Douglas Island, 4.3 miles northwest of Juneau. Elevation 2616 feet. Named for Dr. Jacob P. Anderson, Alaska botanist and legislator. Anderson was born at Glenwood, Utah, in 1874 and at the age of two moved to Nebraska. In 1897 he moved to Iowa where he graduated from the State College at Ames. In 1914 he came to Alaska s Special Assistant at the Agricultural Experiment Station at Sitka. He moved to Juneau in 1917 and for many years operated a florist shop and greenhouse. In 1937 and 1939 he served in the House of Representatives of the Alaska Legislature and in 1939 Governor Troy appointed him Director of the Census for Alaska. The University of Alaska honored him with a Doctor of Science degree in 1940. In 1941 Dr. Anderson returned to Iowa state College to become Assistant Curator of the Herbarium. He was Alaska's foremost botanist and wrote extensively on this subject as well as collecting more than 20,000 specimens in the territory. He died at Rochester, Minnesota, February 16, 1953.
AUKE BAY - a sheltered harbor 11 miles northwest of Juneau. This name was first given by Commander Richard W. Meade of the U.S.S. Saginaw in 1868 to a cove in Young's Bay, where the Auk Indians had a village. The cove later became Auke Cove and finally the name was dropped entirely in that location. The name Auk or Auke Bay in the present location came into use in the late 1890's. The name is from the Auk Tlingits who occupied the northern end of Admiralty Island, Douglas Island and the mainland from approximately the present location of Juneau northward to Berners Bay, and they in turn are said to have derived their name from the Tlingit word AK'i, meaning "little lake." This is one of the few Indian names in this are retained by the miners who first knew it both as Auk Country and Taku Country, since it was close to the dividing line between the two tribes. George Pilz, who grubstaked Joe Juneau and Richard Harris, later wrote that the new mining camp was first known as Auk, but the other miners do not appear to have used this name. The miners did name a number of Auk Creeks as well as an Auk Joe Creek and an Auk Chief Creek. They usually spelled the name Auk or Awk. It's first appearance in the present form Auke seems to have been in Dr. Sheldon Jackson's report on education in Alaska in 1886. A cannery was built at Auke Bay, near the outlet of Auke Lake, by John L. Carlson in 1919 but it operated only a few seasons.
AUKE BAY - village, post office and voting precinct at Auke Bay, north of Juneau. The area began to be settled soon after Glacier Highway reached there in 1918. The census Bureau reported a population of 295 in 1950. The post office was opened on December 23, 1946, and the voting precinct was established in 1952.
AUKE CREEK - a short stream carrying the discharge from Auke Lake to Auke Bay, which it enters on the eastern side near the head. The miners called it Aylward Creek (see Auke Lake) and later, Auke River.
AUKE LAKE - on the mainland approximately nine miles northwest of Juneau and near Mile 12 on Glacier Highway. The lake, which has an area of about 170 acres, is within a quarter of a mile of tidewater at Auke Bay, to which it drains via Auke Creek. Early miners called it Aylward Lake for Ed Aylward who located mining claims near it in 1884. The name Auke Lake is first found in the records for 1902 when William Winn and N.A. Needham claimed it for a fish hatchery site.
AUKE VILLAGE - the site of the former village of the Auke Indians on the open bight just east of Point Louisa, 13 miles northwest of Juneau. The site, adjacent to Glacier Highway, has been reserved by the U.S. Forest Service as a recreation area. The 1880 census of Alaska listed the Auk population as 640, of whom 300 were on Admiralty Island, 50 on Douglas Island, and 290 on Stephens Passage, the latter presumably including those at the Point Louisa village. In 1890 the Census Bureau gives the population of "The Auk settlements" as 324 and in 1900 as 261, without specifying the number or location of the settlements. The village at point Louisa was known as Aukan, although in 1904 J. R. Swanton, the anthropologist, reported its name as Antogaltsu, meaning abandoned town. This may have been a recent name, given it after the population had moved to Juneau. Almost immediately after the founding of Juneau, Auk, Taku, and other Indians began moving to the new camp. The Auks were established on the beach just north of town and this became locally known as the Auk Village to distinguish it from the Taku Village, which was on the beach just south of town. Thereafter, the village at Point Louisa was usually called Old Auke Village.
AUKE NU CREEK - discharges into Auke Bay just west of Wadleigh Creek, Nu is the Tlingit word for fort and the name is literally Auk Fort Creek.
BATTLESHIP ISLAND - a small islet on the south side of Auke Bay and east of Spuhn Island. A local name, perhaps intended as descriptive.
BASIN ROAD - forms a street in the northeastern part of Juneau and runs up the valley of Gold Creek. The present automobile road extends from the Juneau city limits approximately .4 mile long, reaches the upper end of this basin, just below the Alaska-Juneau boarding house. The upper fork becomes impassable for automobiles after approximately .3 mile. From that point the old road becomes the Gold Canyon Trail which is approximately 2.5 miles in length to the upper end of Silver Box Basin, with branch trails to the top of Mount Juneau and up Granite Creek. The first portion of the Basin Road was built by the Johnson Mill and Mining Company in 1884-85 to reach its mining property at the upper end of Last Chance Basin. It became known as the Johnson Road. In 1889 the road was extended to Silver Bow Basin and the entire road soon afterward became known as the Basin Road. For many years horse stages and sleds operated over the road to Perseverance and other mining camps and properties in the valley.
BEAR CREEK - a small stream flowing through the city of Douglas. The name first appeared in a water claim for mining purposes in 1882. In early years it was sometimes called Mission Creek, perhaps because of the proximity of the Quaker Mission, then located in Douglas. In 1934 the city of Douglas built a dam on the creek to provide a local water supply.
BEHRENDS AVENUE - a residential street in the Highlands Addition, northwestern part of Juneau, was named for Mr. and Mrs. B.M. Behrends, pioneer residents of Alaska and of Juneau. Bernard M. Behrends was born in Bavaria, Germany, in 1862 and came to the United States with his parents in 1878. They settled at Nebraska City, Nebraska, where he worked on his father's farm and clerked in the country store. In 1884 he moved to California where he prospected, mined, and engaged in merchandising, reaching the position of store manager. In 1887 he came to Alaska, arriving at Sitka on May 22 on the sidewheel steamer Ancon. A few days later he went to work as clerk and bookkeeper at the Sitka Trading Company which was operated by John G. Brady, later Alaska's fifth governor. In December, 1887, Behrends came to Juneau as manager of the Juneau branch of the Sitka Trading Company, then located on the waterfront on the present site of Thomas Hardware Company. On October 25, 1889 at Sitkam he married Miss Virginia M. Pakle, Dr. Sheldon Jackson performing the ceremony. Miss Pakle was born in West Virginia on April 9, 1863, and arrived at Sitka in May 1886, as a teacher and missionary. She taught at the Sitka Training School, now Sheldon Jackson Community College and at the government school in Sitka until her marriage. Behrends continued as manager of the store at Juneau until the Sitka Trading Company closed it in April 1891. After a trip to the States, he rented space in the Dixon Building on the west side of Seward Street next to the present B.M. Behrends Bank Building and opened a small banking business which grew rapidly. In 1892 Behrends purchased the property on the southeast corner of Third and Seward, built his own store building and moved into it in November. For some time the bank had quarters in the store building an later it was moved to the adjoining building on Seward Street. The B.M. Behrends Mercantile Company was incorporated December 1903, and the B.M. Behrends Company on January 20,1904. In 114 a new building was erected for the bank, across the street from the store on the southwest corner of Third and Seward as a member of the first Juneau City Council in 1900 and again on the second Council in 1901. He was president of the Evergreen Cemetery Association and served several terms as City Treasurer. Both he and Mrs. Behrends were active in many civic affairs. In 1936 Mrs. Behrends became ill while on a trip through interior Alaska the following summer, was hospitalized at Cordova and Died there on August 12, 1936. Both were buried at Evergreen Cemetery in Juneau.
BISHOP, POINT - the western point at the entrance to Taku Inlet 12 miles southeast of Juneau. This point was originally named Salisbury by Captain George Vancouver in 1794, for John Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury 1791-1807 (the same man for whom Douglas Island was named). In later map-making, the name Salisbury was accidentally transferred to a point nearly three miles west. To partly rectify the error, the name Bishop was given the original Point Salisbury in the Alaska Coast Pilot of 1883.
BOULDER CREEK - a tributary to Eagle River from the north. The first mention of this name in the mining records seems to have been in a placer claim notice by D.J. Stamp on May 3, 1900. It was officially adopted by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names on November 16, 1929. In 1885 John Olds and other prospectors applied this name to a stream on the east side of Berners Bay, but the stream they named cannot be certainly identified now.
BRADLEY, MOUNT - on Douglas Island, 3.6 miles due south from Juneau. Elevation 337 feet. It is also known as Mount Jumbo, the name given it in early years, perhaps from the Jumbo mining claim located near its base. Early in 1939 the people of Douglas launched a movement to rename the mountain for F.W. Bradley. The Douglas Chamber of Commerce and the Douglas City Council adopted resolutions advocating the change and petition with many local signatures was filed with the Board of Geographic Names. The Board adopted the name Bradley in May 1939. Frederick Worthen Bradley was born in Nevada County, California in 1863. He attended the University of California and was active in mining during his entire adult life, starting as an assayer at the Eagle Bird Mine in Nevada in 1884. He served as superintendent or president of many mining companies in California, Idaho, and Oregon. He was president of the Tacoma Smelting Company from 1898-1905, president of the Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Company from 1900, president of the Treadwell, Mexican and Alaska United Gold Mining Companies on Douglas Island from 1911, and was a San Francisco bank director as well as director of the First National Bank of Juneau. He served one term as president of the American Mining Institute and in 1931 was awarded the Saunder Gold Medal for outstanding achievement in mining. He died at Alta, California July 6, 1933.
BULGER WAY - a stairway alley connecting South Franklin Street and Gastineau Avenue opposite Admiral Way. Named for peter Bulger who owned property there. Bulger arrived in Juneau from Sitka early in 1881 and in March of that year claimed two town lots , one on Main Street and one on the waterfront. Later in the year he located mining claims in Silver Bow Basin and was associated with such well-known early Juneauites as John Olds and Pat McGlinchy in mining operations. He remained in Juneau until 1888 when he went to Wrangell to prospect. The following year he was operating a salmon saltery on Wrangell Narrows and he continued in that business until his death at Wrangell in 1897. Bulger Hill was the miner's name for a knob on the easterly side of Mount Roberts, between Quartz Gulch and Icy Gulch. It was the site of some of Peter Bulger's mining claims.
BULLARD MOUNTAIN - on the mainland east of Mendenhall Glacier and north of Nugget Creek, approximately 10 miles northwest of Juneau. Elevation 4200 feet. Named for Benjamin Bullard who was born in Michigan in 1848, grew up in California and engaged in mining there. He was said to have been a graduate civil and hydraulic engineer. Bullard came north to the Klondike in 1897 and after a few years at Dawson and Circle City moved to Juneau. In 1904 and 1905 he staked a number of placer claims on Mendenhall River, just below the glacier. In 1907 he began mining the hydro-electric power site on Nugget Creek and sold it to the Treadwell Mining Company. About 1916 he moved to Taku River and claimed a 148 acre homestead at what is now known as Bullard's Landing. He died on his homestead on May 22, 1933.
BULLION CREEK - on the eastern side of Douglas Island. Modern maps show this as the creek discharging into Gastineau Channel approximately one mile south of Treadwell and directly opposite Sheep Creek. Early mining records indicate, however, that this was originally Ready Bullion Creek, a name now applied to the next creek to the south, and it is so shown on some of the earlier maps. The name Bullion Creek was first used in a water claim by G.W. Pickett and Stillman Lewis on August 20, 1881.
BUTTE, THE - a steep, rounded hill on the northeastern edge of Juneau at the entrance to Gold Creek Valley. An extension of Mount Roberts, this hill has had many names but apparently no official one. Early miners called it The Butte, and occasionally, Mount Maria. A Juneau newspaper in 1903 referred to it as Round Hill. It was also sometimes known as Mount Davidson, perhaps for Charles E. Davidson, a surveyor, and as Decker Hill, probably for one or the other of the Decker brothers.
CALHOUN AVENUE - a residential street and principal traffic artery running along the edge of the bluff from Fourth Street to Gold Creek. Named for Mrs. Mary V. Calhoun, an early resident of the area. The street was first opened about 1890 to provide access to Evergreen Cemetery, which had then just been established. It was first known as Cemetery Road and this name continued in use at least as late as 1902. It then became Calhoun Road and finally Calhoun Avenue. Mrs. Calhoun and her husband, John J. Calhoun, arrived in Juneau from Wisconsin in 1888 and established a dairy along what is now Calhoun Avenue. They occupied Block 32, now the site of the Governor's House, and part of Block 43, and grazed their cows along Gold Creek, the south bank of which was sometimes called Calhoun Flats. In 1902 they sold the dairy and moved to Seattle where John Calhoun died in 1906. Mrs. Calhoun died at Nanaimo, British Columbia, April 27, 1912.
CAPE HORN - an almost perpendicular protrusion of Mount Juneau around which the Basin Road curves just above Last Chance Basin. The name came into use soon after the road was built in the 1880's.
CARROL WAY - a narrow alleyway between South Franklin Street and Gastineau Avenue opposite the City Float. Named for Captain James Carroll, steam ship captain and early Juneau property owner. Carroll was born in Ireland in 1840 and came to the U.S. with his parents when he was a year old. They settled in Illinois and he began his seafaring career on the Great Lakes. Later he voyaged to many parts of the world in both sail and steam. Joining the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, he got his first command, the steamer Montana, in 1870. Captain Carroll was in command of the enormous sidewheel steamer Great Republic when she was wrecked at the mouth of the Columbia River in 1879 but was held blameless. Shortly after that he began running to Alaska at various times commanded the California, Ancon. Idaho. Mexico, Queen, and other vessels for the Pacific Coast Steamship Company. Joe Juneau and Richard Harris staked two of the first mining claims in the Juneau area in Carroll's name, including one of the first claims ever staked on Douglas Island. For many years he held interests in mining property on both sides of Gastineau Channel. With M.W. Murray, Carrol owned the first wharf at Juneau, near the present City Float, and for many years the entire tract between Carroll Way and Bulger Way was known as the Carroll and Murray Wharf Site. About 1895 Carroll bought Murray's interest in the wharf and donated the stock to the City of Juneau. That same year he built a new wharf on the site now occupied by Alaska Coastal Airlines. Captain Carroll was elected to represent Alaska as an unofficial delegate to the 51st Congress. In Washington he made headlines by offering to buy the Territory for double the price paid Russia. He also succeeded in getting some minor Alaska bill enacted. About 1902 Captain Carroll retired from his long service at sea and for several years acted as Seattle agent for the Tyee Whaling Company, which was operating in Southeastern Alaska. He died at his home in Seattle May 19, 1912.
CHEROKEE FLATS - an early miners name for the flat and beach at the mouth of Grindstone Creek, 12 miles southeast of Juneau. The source of the name is not known.
CHICKEN RIDGE - one of the oldest locality names in the city of Juneau this name persists despite some 60 years of effort to get rid of it. Generally the name has been applied to the ridge along Seventh Street from Gold Street westward to, and sometimes including Gold Belt Avenue. As used by the early residents of Juneau, Chicken Ridge also included what is now known as Court Hill House, extending down to the water at Willoughby Avenue. The origin of the name is obscure but one story ascribes it to the prevalence of ptarmigan along the ridge in Juneau's very early years. Distaste for the name was reported by the Juneau City Mining Record on April 22, 1895: "Residents of Chicken Ridge are agitating the question of changing the name of the `Nob Hill' of Juneau into one a little more euphonious. Chicken Ridge is a most expressive pseudonym which in the palmy mining days of Juneau was particularly appropriate, but now that we are fast assuming metropolitan airs, why not change it to something less suggestive of `wild and wooly'? Why not call that portion of town Gold Hill?" Since one can get colors in every shovelful of dirt in that neighborhood the name seemed to catch on perhaps also being considered "wild and wooly" but the area was referred to in print both as Nob Hill and Knob Hill. About 1913 Observation Heights came into use, and a few years later the ridge was called Gastineau Heights. The western portion, along Gold Belt Avenue, was referred to as Palo Alto Heights and there was some use of Vassar Heights. More recently, since the name would not diem there has been an effort to transfer it to the ridge connecting Mount Roberts with the Butte, above Starr Hill.
CLARK PEAK - four miles and a half east of Juneau, above Silver Bow Basin. Elevation 4050 feet. The origin of this name has not been learned.
COGHLAN ISLAND - at the entrance to Auke Bay, 11.5 miles northwest of Juneau. Named by the Coast Survey in 1885 for Joseph Bullock Coghlan, U.S. Navy, who commanded the U.S.S. Adams in these waters in 1883-1884. Coghlan was born at Frankfort, Kentucky, December 9, 1844. Appointed to the Naval Academy from Illinois in 1860, he became an ensign in 1863 and was in combat service during the last part of the Civil War. In 1883 he had reached the rank of commander and took charge of the Adams at Sitka in September. During the ensuing years he made surveys in Peril Straight, Chatham Straight and Lynn Canal. In 1897, as a captain, he was in command of the U.S. Raleigh on the Asiatic station and he took an active part in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, and in other phases of the Philippines campaign. Commandant of the Puget Sound Navy Yard in 1899-1900 and of the New York Navy Yard in 1901-02. He retired on December 9, 1906 and died in 1908.
COURT HOUSE HILL - just west of Main Street and running from Calhoun Avenue south to Willoughby Avenue. Local usage frequently divides the hill into two parts: Court House Hill lying north of Third Street, and Telephone Hill south of Third The latter name is derived from the location of the offices and exchange of the Juneau and Douglas Telephone Company. In town lot location notices in 1881 this was called Knob Hill and Telegraph Hill. Early Juneau residents sometimes referred to it as Navy Hill from the fact that the Navy built a barracks and maintained a Marine guard on the present Court House site in 1881. It was also known as Government Hill because the Court House area was a government reserve. The miners called it Chicken Ridge and local newspapers used that name for the hill was referred to as Horseshoe Hill, perhaps from the Horseshoe Saloon located at its base on the west side of Main Street. The first Court House, a building 42 by 70 feet was erected there in 1892. This building burned in February 1898, and was replaced by the present structure in 1904.
COWEE CREEK - on Douglas Island, discharging into Gastineau Channel just north of the bridge. Named for Kowee, one of the chiefs of the Auk Tlingits. Kowee may have had a summer house at the mouth of this creek and in some accounts he is credited with having guided Joe Juneau and Richard Harris to their original gold find at Silver Bow Basin. At any rate, Juneau and Richard Harris staked the "Kow-eeh Gold an Silver Quartz Lode" claim on Cowee Creek on October 12, 1880. The early miners usually spelled the name Kowee or Kow-eeh, although occasionally the form Cowee or Cow-eeh was used. The creek is known as Kowee Creek on mineral survey play No. 569, by C.E. Davidson, August 15, 1902, but the following year when W.J. Peters, topographer with the U.S. Geological Survey, mapped the area he showed it as Cowee Creek and this spelling has been followed on subsequent maps. Chief Kowee lived in the Auk village at Juneau right after the whites came here and served as Indian policemen during the days of Navy rule. He died at his home in Juneau on February 27, 1892, at an age estimated as 75, and his body was cremated with the usual ceremonies. A plaque marking the approximate site of the cremation stands at Glacier Avenue and Irwin Street.
CROPLEY LAKE - a pond on the headwaters of Fish Creek, Douglas Island, four miles southwest of Juneau. So called for Isaac Cropley who for many years was employed by the Treadwell Mining Company. For more than 20 years he was in charge of the Treadwell Ditch which has its northern terminus at Fish Creek. Cropley arrived in Juneau in 1887 or earlier and went to work for the Treadwell Company soon afterward. He was a member of the `87 pioneers Association and died at Juneau on August 13, 1913.
CROSS BAY CREEK - flows down the west side of Mount Roberts and crosses the Thane Highway a mile and a half south of Juneau. Apparently it derived its name from the Cross Bay lode claim located there in 1894 across the bay from Treadwell.
DECKER WAY - an alley stairway running from South Franklin Street to Gastineau Avenue. Named for Edward O. `Ned' Decker, early Juneau merchant. Decker was born near Roxbury, New York, in 1857 and spent five years mining the Black Hills before arriving in Juneau early in 1882. He engaged in mining on Gold Creek and elsewhere for five years, then opened a store on the site of the present Decker Building on South Franklin Street in 1887 or 1888. His younger brother, Jay, soon joined him and they operated as Decker Brothers. In 1891 they advertised: "We have knocked the bottom out of the old Cassiar prices--Goods delivered free of charge by canoe or wheelbarrow." In 1894 Decker Brothers built a new store on the water side of Front Street at the foot of Seward. E.O. Decker retired from the business not long afterward and died at Rocksprings, New York, on April 20, 1899. His original building on South Franklin was raised in 1908 and his widow built the present Decker Building on the site in 1935.
DISTIN AVENUE - a short residential street branching of Indian Street in the central part of Juneau. Named for General William Langmead Distin, Surveyor- General of Alaska 1897-1913. The street was first named Farnum Street for Oliver T. Farnum, early Juneau resident who had a placer claim on the flats below Distin Avenue. Farnum died at Juneau on September 26, 1908 and the name of the street was changed to Distin Avenue by resolution of the City Council on September 5, 1913. General Distin was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, February 9, 1843, enlisted at the outbreak of the Civil War and served in many of its major engagements. Later he was in Illinois National Guard and served as aid-de-camp to Governors Hamilton, Olgesby, and Fifer of that state. He also served a term as Grand Commander of the Republic. On August 7, 1897, President McKinley appointed him the first Surveyor-General of Alaska, which office he held until October 18, 1913. In the fall of 1906 he moved the records, papers, and furnishings of the Governor's Office from Sitka to Juneau, thus finally establishing Juneau as the capital. General Distin died at Chicago, November 20, 1914.
DIXON STREET - running from First Street to Ninth Street and traversing the length of Court House Hill. Apparently named for Colonel Richard Dixon, the street name first appeared in the records in 1888. Dixon, who seems to have been a colonel by courtesy , was a pioneer miner in California, the Cariboo, and Cassiar and arrived at Juneau from Wrangell in a dugout canoe early in 1881. The first miners' meeting in the new camp, on February 9, 1881, elected him Recorder for the Jarris Mining District and he was re-elected each year thereafter until the duties were taken over by the U.S. Commissioner in 1884. Dixon had mining property in Silver Bow Basin and was one of the earliest mineral locators on Sheep Creek. He died at Juneau on May 17, 1892.
DOTSON'S LANDING - on a cove of Eagle Harbor, just south of Salt Lake, 19 miles northwest of Juneau. It is also known a Eagle River Landing. A branch road reaches the cove from Glacier Highway. The landing was named for Mr. and Mrs. John Dotson who homesteaded near there in 1914 and lived there for many years. John Dotson was born in West Virginia, November 10, 1862. Mrs. Dotson was born in Wisconsin, May 1, 1866. Mrs. Dotson died at Juneau February 17, 1933. John Dotson died at Juneau November 20, 1937.
DOUGLAS - an incorporated city on Douglas Island, from which it took its name, two miles south of Juneau. The town was established as a result of mining activity which commenced on the island early in 1881 and grew with the development of the Treadwell mines on its southeastern boundary. The first house in Douglas, a log cabin, was reported to have been built by William Newcomer in 1881. The community was for some time called Edwardsville, perhaps for H. J. Edwards, an early miner and resident. This name was in use at least as late as 1886. The post office, Douglas, was established on September 28, 1887, but the town was frequently called Douglas City. By 1890 the population was 402 and in 1900 it had reached 825. Douglas became an incorporated city on March 29, 1902. By 1910 the population had grown to 1722, but after that the town was struck by a series of disasters. A fire on March 9, 1911 destroyed 16 business buildings, including two hotels. On April 2, 1917, the Treadwell and Mexican mine workings were flooded when a portion under Gastineau Channel caved in and hundreds of men were out of work. By 1920 the population had dwindled to 919. Fire struck again on October 10, 1926, burning the entire eastern part of the town including the Indian village and most of adjoining Treadwell. In 1929 the population was 593. Another fire, on February 23, 1937, leveled a great deal of the remaining part of Douglas, including the school, post office, city hall and fire hall. The population by 1939 had dropped to 522. After that year it began to increase and in 1950 had reached 699. Douglas is currently part of the Juneau City and Borough.
DOUGLAS BRIDGE (ORIGINAL) - Crossed Gastineau Channel to Douglas Island at West Tenth Street, Juneau. Proposals to bridge the channel at Mendenhall Bar in connection with a railroad began at least as early as 1900. The Juneau, Douglas, and Treadwell Railroad Company, to connect the three towns, was incorporated in 1902 but construction was never started. By 1913 there was talk of a suspension bridge near the Ball Park and in 1915 Delegate Wickersham sought an appropriation for this purpose. The bridge began to become a reality on December 28, 1933, when the Public Works Administration allotted $250,000 to the Alaska Road Commission for construction. Test pilings were driven in January 1934, and construction began in May. The first automobile crossed the bridge from Douglas to Juneau on Labor Day, September 2, 1935. With a total length of half a mile the bridge includes a central span 516 feet long and 73 feet above the water at the center, and two anchor spans each 302 feet long. Construction material included 40,000 cubic yards of rock fill, 2000 cubic yards of concrete, 100 tons of reinforcing steel, 805 tons of fabricated steel, and 12,500 linear feet of timber piling.
DOUGLAS ISLAND - is separated by Gastineau Channel from the mainland and by Stephens Passage from Admiralty Island. It is the 17th island in area in Southeast Alaska with an area of 78 miles in length and eight miles wide at its widest point with a shoreline measuring 42 miles. The island was named by the English explorer, Captain George Vancouver, in 1794 for John Douglas, then Bishop of Salisbury. Douglas was born at Fife, Scotland, in 1721. An author and ecclesiastic, he became Dean of Windsor in 1888 and Bishop of Salisbury in 1791 and held the latter office until his death in 1807. Point Salisbury on the mainland opposite the lower end of Douglas Island was also named for him.
DUCK CREEK - enters Gastineau Channel just north of the Juneau Airport and parallels Mendenhall River. The creek has had a succession of names. On June 9, 1885, Daniel Foster, claiming a 160 acre homestead, called it Duck Creek. The following year, Frederick Barney, in another homestead claim, called it Sand Bar Creek. For many years the creek was locally known as Knudson Creek, for Thomas Knudson who came to Alaska in 1893 and in 1896 staked a 320 acre homestead at its mouth, Foster having moved away. In 1905 when Knudson was granted patent he was said to have been the first Alaskan homesteader to secure title to his ground. He farmed there for many years, then sold the homestead. He was a member of the Juneau City Council in 1920 and died at Juneau on February 27, 1931, age 65. The name Duck Creek again made its appearance on a Geological Survey 1912 and is now used on all maps of the area.
DU PONT CREEK - discharges into Gastineau Channel from the mainland 3.5 miles south of Thane. It was named for the DuPont Powder Company which built a powder magazine and wharf near the mouth of the creek in the summer of 1914 and stored powder there for the local mines until they closed. The miners called this Mission Creek for many years. E.W. Weisner of the Friend's Mission at Douglas claimed 640 acres along the beach, including the creek, for a mission in May 1889. It is not definitely known that a mission was established there, but some evidence indicates that there was.
EAGLE CREEK - on Douglas Island, flowing into Gastineau Channel about two miles northwest of Juneau. The early miners called this Auk Creek and Fall Creek and the latter name has remained in use until recent years. It first appeared as Eagle Creek in the mining records of 1884.
EAGLE HARBOR - a protected anchorage at the outlet of Salt Lake, 20 miles northwest of Juneau. Dotson's Landing, also known as Eagle River Landing, is located on this harbor, on the first bight south of the outlet of Salt Lake. The next bight to the south is known as Huffman Harbor. The larger of the two islands protecting the harbor was called Kishbrook Island in a location notice of 1902 but the derivation is not known.
EAGLE GLACIER - on the mainland 24 miles northwest of Juneau. The face of the glacier is now approximately five miles from Tidewater and it is receding. According to Baker's "Geographic Dictionary of Alaska" it was apparently named by Commander Richard W. Meade of the U.S.S. Saginaw in 1869, from which its fancied resemblance to an eagle with outstretched wings. Early miners called it Auk Glacier, a name they also used for Mendenhall Glacier. A trail from the end of the Glacier Highway reaches nearly to Eagle Glacier.
EAGLE RIVER - flows into Favorite Channel at the end of the Glacier Highway, 22 miles northwest of Juneau. The river drains Eagle Glacier, from which it takes its name, and the lake in front of the Glacier. Early miners called it Glacier River. A 1902 mining records calls the lake Uskeshikie Lake and the outlet Sitk Creek, but it was usually known as Glacier Lake. Boulder Creek is the only tributary to Eagle River on present maps, but the miners named three others, all flowing from the north: Sandstone Creek, Mallory Creek, and Ward Creek, in that order eastward from Boulder Creek. O.L. Sandstone and Neil Ward discovered the Eagle River Mine and C.D. Mallory was president of the mining company. (See Amalga)
EBNER FALLS - the first large falls of Gold Creek, just above last Chance Basin. Named for William Ebner, a mining operator on Gold Creek. The early miners called it Big Falls and the present name did not come into use until about 1900. William Ebner was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, November 17, 1853. He grew up in Illinois, then returned to Wisconsin and was employed in the mercantile business at Eau Claire. In 1890 he was sent to Juneau to take charge of the books of the Eastern Alaska Mining and Milling Company, which was largely owned by Wisconsin men and was operating the Perseverance and other lode mines above Silver Bow Basin. Ebner remained with the company until its mill was destroyed by a snowslide in 1896, then took a lease on the Taku union and other lode claims and organized the Ebner Gold Mining Company. His company had a 15-stamp mill near Shady Bend. About 1908 Ebner sold the property and left Juneau. The buyers got into financial difficulties and several successors failed to operate the property successfully and it was eventually sold to the Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Company. Ebner died at Los Angeles, California, May 18, 1938.
ENTRANCE POINT - on the northern shore of Douglas Island at the western entrance to Gastineau Channel. It was named in 1880 by Lieutenant Frederick M. Symonds of the U.S..S. Jamestown, who made surveys in the area.
EVERGREEN BOWL - an amphitheater out the southeast bank of Gold Creek just inside the city limits, reached by stairway from Seventh Street or by road from Calhoun Avenue. The bowl was the scene of some early placer mining. For many years a part of its area was occupied by a pond which was used for skating in the winters and was known as Wagner's Pond, probably for Wick Wagner who operated a dairy in that vicinity. In 1934 the bowl was improved for recreation purposes under the direction of the U.S. Forest Service. it contains tennis courts, swimming and wading pools and picnic grounds.
EVERGREEN CEMETERY - Juneau's municipal cemetery in the northwestern part of the city. Juneau's first burying ground was on Chicken Ridge in the vicinity of Main Street. Nearly 100 graves occupied that part of the ridge in 1887 when it was staked as a mining claim. A cemetery association was then organized which selected the present site, named it Evergreen Cemetery and improved it, with local residents contributing either money or labor. Between 1889 and 1892 all except 39 of the graves were moved from Chicken Ridge and the last of the old graves were moved to the new cemetery about 1915. Evergreen Cemetery Association deeded the grounds to the City of Juneau on May 23, 1907.
EWING WAY - runs from South Franklin Street to Gastineau Avenue opposite the Juneau Cold Storage. The area was dedicated for street purposes by the Pacific Coast Steamship Company on February 28, 1913, and the street was probably named for S. Howard Ewing who was then Juneau agent for the company. Ewing was on the company's vessels as freight clerk and purser for several years before 1910 when he became resident agent in Juneau first for the Pacific Coast Steamship Company and then for its successor, the Pacific Steamship Company. He left Juneau in 1918 and joined the John D. Spreckles Company at San Francisco in connection with its oriental steamship service.
FATHER BROWN'S TRAIL - the early name for the trail up Mount Roberts. Named for Father Edward Howard Brown, S.J., who was active in its original construction. In the summer of 1906 Thomas P. Wickes, who had been active in the promotion of trails in the Adironak Mountains, proposed the formation of a Trail Association at Juneau and the development of a local system of trails. Father Brown took up the idea and with volunteer help began work on the Mount Robert's trail. It was finished to the top of the mountain in June 1908. In 1922 the lower part of the trail was relocated and the entire trail was rehabilitated by the Forest Service. The trail starts from the east end of Sixth Street and old-timers still call it the Father Brown Trail. Father Brown was born in Baltimore, Maryland, May 15, 1860. He attended Loyola College and Georgetown University, taught for three years at Georgetown and two at Fordham, and studied theology at Holy Cross. He then volunteered for the Rocky Mountain Mission. Ordained at Spokane, Washington, in 1894, he was minister and Prefect of Discipline at Gonzaga College during the next three years. He also spent four years at Seattle College as Prefect of Studies and Discipline. Father Brown arrived at Juneau on August 12, 1904, to assume charge of the parish, and remained here until September 25, 1913. Skilled in carpentry, he supervised the construction of an addition to St. Ann's Hospital and built the church and pastor's residence. In 1913 he was appointed Chaplain of the First Territorial Senate. After leaving Juneau he was at Tacoma and Spokane, Washington and Pendleton, Oregon. He died at Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital at Pasco, Washington, June 21, 1925, and was buried in the Cemetery of the Scholasticate at Hillyard near Spokane.
FAVORITE CHANNEL - connects Stephens Passage with Lynn Canal eastward of Shelter and Lincoln Islands and fronts the mainland from Point Louisa to Sentinel Island. Named in 1880 by U.S. naval officers for the 80-foot steamboat Favorite. The Favorite was built at Portland, Oregon, in 1874 and was brought north by the Northwest Trading Company in 1880. She was several times chartered by the Navy for survey work and was a frequent early visitor in Juneau. Serving her owners as a trading vessel and later as a fishing vessel for the herring reduction plant at Killisnoo, she continued in operation until about 1900.
FERRY WAY - a narrow street now running from South Franklin Street to Marine Way and the waterfront. Originally this was the approach to the wharf and float of the Juneau Ferry and Navigation Company and today it is the principal reminder of the passenger ferry service operated for many years between Juneau, Douglas, Treadwell, and Thane. Ferry service across the channel began soon after the opening of the Treadwell mines and was first conducted with rowboats and sailing sloops. By 1887 there was a steam ferry making three scheduled trips a day. At sailing time, however, the ferryman went around town blowing a horn and if too few customers showed up to make a trip pay, he postponed the sailing until the number increased sufficiently. Although there were several rival ferry companies at different times, the longest lived was the Juneau Ferry and Navigation Company which operated an number of vessels including the Lone Fisherman, Flosie, Teddy, Amy, and Alma. The last ferry trip was made on October 31, 1935, following the opening of the Douglas Bridge.
FISH CREEK - flows into Fritz Cove and drains a sizable valley on the northern end of Douglas Island. The name first appeared in the mining records on August 25, 1885, when the water of Fish Creek was claimed for use at the Treadwell Mines. It subsequently became the northern terminus of the great Treadwell Ditch. Homestead claims at the mouth of the creek were filed as early as 1800 and in later years a settlement, known as Fish Creek, grew up there. A school was established in 1937.
FRANKLIN STREET - a principal street in downtown Juneau, extends from Sixth Street down the hill to Front Street, where it becomes South Franklin. Named for Howard Franklin who was chairman of a committee a appointed at a miner's meeting on March 31, 1881, to lay out the city streets and lots. The street name first appeared in the local records on April 4, 1881. Franklin Street was not cut through to the waterfront until 1895, the section between First and Front Streets being occupied by a private dwelling until that year. South Franklin Street was known first simply as "waterfront" and later as Lower Front Street. It was sometimes called Johnson Boulevard, perhaps from the fact that Yosh-Noosh, a Taku chief who was known as Chief Johnson built a large house on it opposite the present City Dock. The City Council in 1913 designated the portion of the street above First Street as Franklin Street, the section between First and Front Streets as Franklin Place, and the entire waterfront street as Front Street, but in doing so failed to overcome local usage. Howard Franklin, who came to Juneau from the Cassiar, engaged in mining in Silver Bow Basin for several years. He then went to the Interior. There he was reported to have been the first man to discover gold in the Fortymile country, where Franklin Gulch was named for him.
FRITZ COVE - a shallow cove in the northern end of Douglas Island, eight miles northwest of Juneau. It is reported to have been named in 1880 by Lt. Frederick M. Symonds of the U.S.S. Jamestown for his son, Fritz.
GASTINEAU - separates Douglas Island from the mainland and extends northwestward 14 miles from Stephens Passage, then westward for three miles to Fritz Cove. Juneau, on its northeastern shore, is nine miles from the southern entrance. The channel varies in width from a mile at its lower end to approximately a mile at the Douglas Bridge. Depths are 90 feet or greater up to the bridge but it shoals rapidly above the bridge and the northern end is nearly closed by the Mendenhall Bar except at high tides. The origin of the name is somewhat obscure. Vancouver, who named other waterways and places in this vicinity, did not name the channel, perhaps because it was choked with icebergs and his survey party was unable to traverse it in 1794. It has been called Icy Channel and Carrol Straight, the latter probably for Captain James Carrol. (See Carroll Way). Baker's "Geographic Dictionary of Alaska" says of Gastineau Channel: "So named on Homfray's manuscript map of 1867, furnished to the Western Bay Company's Steamers, which in turn took its name from the Gastineau or Gatineau River of Quebec, a branch of the Ottawa." This explanation is unsatisfactory. For one thing, the Quebec River has apparently always been the Gatineau, not the Gastineau. For another, the Hudson's Bay Company did not have a steamer, or other vessels, on this coast named either Gatineau or Gastineau. It seems probably that the channel was named by Homfray, who drew the map mentioned by Baker. Homfray drew a number of maps of Southeastern Alaska and named a number of geographic features. It is also probable that he named the channel for John Gastineau, a civil engineer. Gastineau was born in London in 1820, the son of a noted English water color artist. He came out to Victoria in 1858 and did engineering work, including surveying and mapping, for the British Columbia Government and for private firms. Gastineau died at Victoria, British Columbia, March 14, 1885. Gastineau Mountains, on Toba Inlet, B.C., are named for him, and Captain John Walbran, who made an exhaustive study of place names along the British Columbia coast more than half a century ago, wrote that "Gastineau Channel, Alaska, was probably named for John Gastineau."
GASTINEAU CITY - a short-lived realty development at the mouth of Nevada Creek on Douglas Island. In 1905 Mike Hudson, who had mining property on the creek, staked a 320 acre homestead at its mouth. In 1910 he subdivided this into lots, called it Gastineau City and offered free boat trips to the site so prospective buyers could make there selections. It is not reported that there were many buyers.
GASTINEAU PEAK - on Mount Roberts, 2.3 miles southeast of Juneau. the peak has an elevation of 3666 feet and apparently took its name from the channel.
GLACIER HIGHWAY - runs north from Juneau along the shores of Gastineau Channel, Auke Bay, and Favorite Channel to Eagle River, with branches to Mendenhall Glacier, Mendenhall Peninsula, Point Lena and spur roads to Tee Harbor and Dotson's Landing. In early years homesteaders and mining operators developed foot trails along the beach to their properties and in places these were widened to pack trails and wagon roads. In 1903 the Mansfield Gold Mining Company, operating on Montana Creek, attempted to promote a wagon road from Juneau to its mines, offering to subscribe 10 percent of the cost. About the same time Tom Knutson, who had a ranch near the present Juneau Airport, hewed out a road from the landing to Mendenhall Glacier to haul supplies to the miners on Nugget Creek. The Road Commission spent $15,000 on a trail to Berner's Bay, via Montana Creek, Windfall Creek, and Eagle River. This was locally known as the Richardson Trail for Major Wildes P. Richardson, then head of the Alaska Road Commission. It was also announced in 1909 that the ARC would build bridges across Salmon Creek and Lemon Creek "to run excursion parties over the government road to the glacier next summer." It is not certain that he was able to start his service in 1912, however, it was announced in June that "the road is finished past Salmon Creek, with something of a road as far as the bar." By 1917 the road had been finished as far as the Knutson ranch and work was started on an extension to Auke Bay, which was reached in 1918. Completion of the branch road from Glacier Highway to Mendenhall Glacier was announced in 1921. The main highway was gradually extended and reached Eagle River, its present terminus, in November, 1925.
GOLD CREEK - rises in the icefields southeast of Juneau and flows approximately five miles north and west through a narrow valley and through the city of Juneau to Gastineau Channel. The name first appeared in the records of the Harris Mining District on October 4, 1880. Richard Harris says in one of his manuscripts that he and Joe Juneau named the creek on August 17, 1880, when they found gold to the value of 10 cents to the pan in the lower part of the creek. It was well named, for the greater part of the millions of dollars worth of gold that has been extracted from the Juneau side of Gastineau Channel came from its drainage area. The creek provides both power and domestic water for the city of Juneau. The early miners used dozens of name for places where they mined along Gold Creek, but only a few of those names are in use today, and many cannot now be identified as to location. Some of the places they named have since been obliterated by mining operations. The names include: Prospect Gulch, Arctic Gulch, Specimen Gulch, Black Bear Creek, Geary Gulch, Hardscrabble Gulch, Ophir Creek, Spring Gulch, Grouse Gulch, and many others.
GOLDSTEIN GULCH - on the headwaters of Grindstone Creek, eight miles southeast of Juneau. Probably named for Robert Goldstein, early Juneau merchant. He arrived in Juneau in June, 1885, and opened a store "on the waterfront" on what is now South Franklin Street. In addition to his merchandising business, he had numbers of mining interests in and around Juneau. Goldstein died at Juneau, age 69.
GRANITE CREEK - a principal tributary to Gold Creek, flowing from the east. The name first appeared in the mining records On April 4, 1884, when Michael Powers claimed water rights there.
GRANT CREEK - a small stream on Douglas Island, flowing into the Gastineau Channel opposite Norway Point. The name was first used in a water claim by John McLaughlin and Matt McMahon, December 29, 1884, and appears on mineral survey plats of 1887. Alaska Union Mining Company was located near Grant Creek, as was the short-lived town of New Boston or Union City. What the miners called Impregnable Basin is located on the upper part of Grant Creek.
GRINDSTONE CREEK - on the mainland, discharging into Stephens Passage just east of Point Salisbury, 10 miles southeast of Juneau. The name is first used in a mining location notice by JAG. Peterson and Chris Fur on August 31, 1890. The source of the name is not known. The falls of the creek visible from Stephens Passage have been called Grindstone Falls and Granite Falls.
GULL CITY - an early name for the area on the flats below Glacier Avenue from the mouth of Gold Creek north to Tenth Street. In common use in earlier years, it is now seldom heard. It is said to have been derived from the number of seagulls which frequented the area.
HARRIS STREET - a residential street in the northeastern part of Juneau named for Richard T. Harris, one of the discoverers of gold in this area and a founder of the town of Juneau. Harris was born near Cleveland, Ohio, on October 31, 1833, graduated from Girard College in Philadelphia, then went to Mexico in search of gold. He prospected and mined in Colorado and Montana and perhaps in other parts of the west. He came north during the Cassiar excitement and prospected both in the Cassiar and along the coast. In 1879 Harris went to Sitka and worked for George Pilz, a mining engineer, at Silver Bay. The following summer he and Joe Juneau were grubstaked by Pilz and N.A. Fuller and left Sitka on July 19 to prospect. After working along the mainland coast from Windham Bay to Eagle River, Harris and Juneau landed at the mouth of Gold Creek on August 17, 1880. They found gold, running ten cents to the pan in the lower part of the creek and returned to Sitka. Arriving back on Gold Creek on September 29, they staked the first claims in Silver Bow Basin on October 4. Harris was elected Recorder of the Harris Mining District that same day and served until February 9, 1881. Harris mined successfully in Silver Bow Basin for a number of years but lost his claims through litigation after the courts were established. He subsequently worked for several mining companies in various capacities. About 1905 he became blind and through the Masonic organizations to which he belonged he was sent to a sanitarium near Portland, Oregon, where he died on October 11, 1907. He was buried in the Evergreen Cemetery at Juneau on December 28, 1907. A monument to Harris and Juneau was erected near their first landing place, just off Willoughby Avenue, and dedicated on Memorial Day, 1940.
HAWTHORNE PEAK - on the mainland seven miles southeast of Juneau. Elevation 4210 feet. Named by Lieutenant Commander Henry B. Mansfield in 1890 when he commanded the Coast Survey steamer Patterson in these waters. The source of the named is not known, but Mansfield sometimes honored members of his crew by placing their names on the map.
HENDRICKSON CREEK - on Douglas Island, discharging into Gastineau Channel five miles northwest of Juneau and almost due west of Vanderbilt Hill. Named for Henry H. Hendrickson who homesteaded there. Hendrickson was born in Finland on November 8, 1862, came to the United States in 1879 and to Juneau in 1894. He followed mining and fishing and homesteaded first on the creek named for him and later at Sunny Point on Glacier Highway. He died at Juneau on August 11, 1945.
HERBERT GLACIER - a tongue of the Juneau ice cap, on the mainland 20 miles northwest of Juneau. The glacier drains through Herbert River which joins Eagle River at its mouth. It may be reached by trail from the end of Glacier Highway. Named in 1890 by Lieutenant Commander H.P. Mansfield for Hilary Abner Herbert who was born at Laurens, South Carolina, March 12, 1834. He studied law at the Universities of Alabama and Virginia and served in the Confederate Army holding the rank of colonel when he was disabled at the Battle of the Wilderness in 1864. He served seven terms in Congress as Representative from Alabama, 1877-1893, and was Secretary of the Navy in the Cabinet of President Cleveland, 1893-97. He then practiced law in Washington, D.C. until his death on March 5, 1919.
HUFFMAN HARBOR - the more southerly of the two bights on the east side of Eagle Harbor, 20 miles northwest of Juneau. Named for James Huffman, who claimed a homestead near there in 1887. Huffman was born February 21, 1868 at Chandlersville, Ohio, and came to Alaska in 1887. For many years he owned a cabin in Douglas, but he spent most of his time around Eagle River where he worked some mining claims. In 1911 he filed a homestead claim on the north side of Eagle River near its mouth and built a cabin there. In October, 1934, he was drowned at the mouth of the river while returning from Douglas in his motor boat.
HUT POINT - at the northern end of Douglas Island on the east side of the mouth of Fish Creek. It was so named by Lieutenant F.M. Symonds of the U.S.S. Jamestown in 1880 from the fact that there were some Indian huts or houses on the point. A homestead claim filed there by Captain Vanderbilt of the Favorite the same year mentions the huts and the remains of log stockage or fort nearby.
ICY GULCH - a tributary to Gold Creek from the southwest in Silver Bow Basin. It was so called by W.M. Bennett in a mining claim on December 4, 1880. The early miners frequently called it Ice Gulch or Ice Creek and sometimes referred to it as the Southwest Fork of Gold Creek. Some of the earliest placer workings in the Juneau area were in this gulch.
INDIAN POINT - A peninsula jutting into Auke Bay from the mainland at Mile 15 on the Glacier Highway. The origin of the name has not been learned. The outer point of the peninsula is Auke Cape.
INSPIRATION POINT - in Tee Harbor, at Mile 20 on Glacier Highway. There is a magnificent view across Favorite Channel and Lynn Canal to the Chilkat Range from this point, resulting in this local name.
IRWIN STREET - in the northwestern part of Juneau, forming an extension of Calhoun Avenue from the Upper Gold Creek bridge, traversing Evergreen Cemetery and reaching the beach at the Boat Harbor. It was first known as a part of Calhoun Road and in a 1908 plat was labeled "wagon road to the Bar." It appears to have been named for either the Rev. George M. Irwin or for his wife, Dr. Lillian C. Irwin, who owned property in that area and deeded a portion o it to the city for cemetery and street purposes. The Irwins arrived in Juneau in 1900 from Oregon, where he was said to have been Superintendent of Public Instruction. He was to take charge of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Juneau but he also conducted services in the Congregational and Presbyterian Churches. Early in 1901 he purchased the weekly Alaska Record Miner, edited it for several months, then sold it to John W. Frame. In 1902 the Rev. Irwin was appointed U.S. Commissioner at Douglas. His wife, Dr. Irwin, practiced medicine in Juneau. They acquired a tract of land adjacent to Gold Street and above Irwin Street and in 1913 this was platted and became a part of the city as the Irwin Addition. In the meanwhile, the Irwins had moved to Seattle where the Rev. Irwin died on August 23, 1911. In 1915 Dr. Irwin was a candidate for the School Board in Seattle. In 1916 she sold a part of the Irwin Addition to the Marconi Wireless Company which built a station there. The station was subsequently taken over by the Navy and then by the Army Signal Corps.
JORDAN CREEK - flows into Gastineau Channel at Mendenhall Bar, crossing glacier Highway just south of Duck Creek. It was called Jordan Creek by Daniel Foster and M.Y. Hurst, who filed homestead claims adjoining the creek on June 9, 1895. The mining and other records of that time do not disclose anyone named either Jordon or Jordan for whom it might have been named. Later the creek became known as Livingston Creek, probably for Arthur Livingston who located a mining claim near its headwaters on May 23, 1887. Livingston apparently lived for some time on or near the creek, raised a garden there and cut wood for sale in Juneau. When Thomas Knudson filed for patent on his homestead claim on Mendenhall Flats in 1903 he called the creek Jordan Creek. About that time Harry Jordan was doing some placer mining near Mendenhall Glacier and it cannot be determined whether Knudson picked up the old name from Foster and Hurst or renamed the creek for Harry Jordan. The name Jordan Creek appeared on a Geological Survey map in 1912. Harry Jordan was born in Pennsylvania about 1845, came to Juneau in 1896, went to Dawson during the Klondike Rush, and returned to Juneau in 1902. For many years he operated the Glory Hole Saloon in Douglas and engaged in mining. In 1912 it was reported that "he has probably grubstaked more men than anyone in this part of Alaska." Evidently the grubstaked did not pay off for Jordan and he died at the Pioneer's Home in Sitka on December 15, 1929.
JUNEAU - Alaska's capital and currently its third city in population, is located on Gastineau Channel at Latitude 58 degrees 18 feet North, Longitude 134 degrees 24 feet west. The townsite was staked October 18, 1880, and settled in December of that year. The town had two names, Harrisburg and Rockwell, before December 1881, when it was named for Joseph Juneau. In the original record of the townsite location the name is spelled Harrisburgh. It is generally believed that Richard Harris, one of the two locators, named it for himself. In 1900 he wrote, however, that he named it for the capital of Pennsylvania. (See Harris Street.) On February 10, 1881, the miners at the new camp held a meeting "for the purpose of renaming Harrisburg." The name "Rockwell" received 18 votes, "Juneau received 15, and "Harrisburg" only one. In the meanwhile, two applications for a post office had been filed in Washington. One was sent by Wm. Gouveneur Morris, Special Customs Agent for Alaska, who asked that the post office be named Pilzburg for George Pilz, the mining engineer who had helped grubstake Joe Juneau and Richard Harris. The Post Office Department granted the second application which asked for the post office of Harrisburg and the office was established on April 8, 1881, with Edward DeGroff as postmaster. The town was scarcely five months old and already it had two names. The miners, to be safe, used both in their mining records, usually calling it "Rockwell" also known as "Harrisburg." Charles Henry Rockwell, for whom it received one of its names, was born at Chatam, Massachusetts, April 29, 1840. He entered the Navy in 1862 and took part in numerous engagements during the Civil War, receiving several promotions. In 1879 he was a lieutenant commander when he came to Alaska on the U.S.S. Jamestown. Early in 1881 he was sent to the new mining camp on Gastineau Channel with a detachment of 22 men to keep order and was active in establishing the town. The downtown area was laid out and platted by one of the Navy men, Master Gustave C. Hanus. In addition, Rockwell took up several mining claims and retained mining interests here for several years. He left Alaska in 1882, reached the rank of captain in 1899, and retired as a rear admiral in 1902. He died at his home in Chatham, Mass., in 1908. A brief biography of Richard T. Harris, the other man for which the town was first named, can be found under Harris Street. The town continued with its dual name until December 14, 1881, when, at another miners' meeting, it was moved that those present ballot on a new name. There were 72 ballots cast, of which 47 went to "Juneau City," 21 to "Harrisburg" and 4 to "Rockwell." Richard Harris moved to call another meeting for the express purpose of naming the town but lost on a vote of 23-43. The postmaster was requested to notify the Department of the action of the meeting and must have done so promptly for on January 10, 1882, the post office was officially designated Juneau. The Department dropped the "City" but local usage retained it for many years and one of the early newspapers was the Juneau City Mining Record. As the center of a mining district that extended to Windham Bay on the South, Berners Bay on the north, and Admiralty Island on the west, Juneau had a steady growth, reaching a population of 1253 in 1890 and 1864 in 1900. In 1910 it slumped to 1644 but it climbed back to 3058 in 1920, 4043 in 1929, 5729 in 1936, and 5956 in 1950. Joseph Juneau, for whom the town was finally named, was born in Canada near the city of Quebec in 1826. His family soon afterward moved to Wisconsin where an uncle, Solomon Juneau, had established himself in the fur trade. This uncle built the first log cabin on the site of Milwaukee. A park in Milwaukee was named for him and so was the city of Juneau, Wisconsin. Young Juneau grew up hunting and trapping in Wisconsin and in 1849 followed the gold trail to California. He engaged in mining and later acquired a ranch near Oakland where he raised horses. He gave that up to go prospecting again in Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, and is said to have moved north to the Omineca in 1870 and the Cassiar in 1875. In 1879 Joe Juneau was working in a store at Wrangell when Richard Harris arrived there from the Cassiar. The two acquired a canoe and prospected along the coast. One account says they first visited Gastineau Channel that year. They eventually reached Sitka, where Juneau staked a number of claims at Silver Bay and both men worked for George Pilz, who was attempting to develop a mine. Pilz and others grubstaked Juneau and Harris and sent them on a prospecting trip in the summer of 1880. They found gold at Silver Bow Basin and staked the beach as a townsite. Joe Juneau mined on Gold Creek for several years, getting rid of his gold dust about as fast as he took it from the ground. In the spring 1895 he went to Circle City and made a few thousands of dollars there. He went to San Francisco in the fall of 1896 and returned north to Juneau early in 1897, but soon left for the Klondike. In March, 1899, he died of pneumonia at Dawson. His remains were later returned to Juneau and he was buried in the Evergreen Cemetery on August 16, 1903.
JUNEAU ISLE - about three acres in area, in Gastineau Channel two miles southeast of Juneau and close to Douglas Island, with which it is now connected by causeway. It is the site of a U.S. Bureau of Mines Laboratory. The first appearance of the name was on June 13, 1881, when N.B. Lazard located a mining claim there and called it Juneau Island. On June 31, 1890, the island was reserved by executive Order as government coaling station and wharf site, but was never put to that use. After 1900 it was frequently called Mayflower Island, particularly in Douglas, but the origin of this name has not been discovered. In 1910 a 10-foot walk was built to connect the island with the Douglas wharf, and in 1912 a hexagonal dancing pavilion was erected on the island, which was landscaped as a park. Several deer were kept there and perhaps other animals. In the first session of the Alaska Legislature Representative William Stubbins of Douglas introduced a memorial to Congress praying "that a grant be made of the said island to the Town of Douglas Alaska, for and to be used by the general public as a park and that the name of said island be changed to Mayflower Island." The memorial was passed by the Legislature but ignored by Congress. It is believed to be the only Alaska Legislative memorial concerning an Alaska place name. The present causeway to the island was built in 1948-49 and the Bureau of Mines building was started in 1949 and occupied in February, 1950.
JUNEAU, MOUNT - on the northerly side of the city of Juneau and extending from Salmon Creek northward to Granite Creek. The summit, due north of the Federal Building, has an elevation of 3576 feet and is most easily reached by a trail from Basin Road. In 1881 the miners called this Gold Mountain, which was also their name for Mount Roberts. For many years, and as late as 1896 the name Bald Mountain was in use and it is so called in the report of the Eleventh Census, 1890. The name Juneau Mountain was first used in the mining records by Pierre "French Pete" Erussard when he located the Napoleon and Ney lode claims on the mountain on October 12, 1888.
KENNEDY STREET - a short residential street in the Starr Hill section of Juneau. Named for Daniel Kennedy, who was one of the early land claimants in that area. Kennedy was born in Ireland on July, 4 1832, and went to sea at age 11. Later he settled in Philadelphia for a time and about 1853 moved to the gold fields of California. After prospecting and mining in many parts of the West he joined the rush to the Cassiar in 1874. In 1876 he moved to Sitka on Thanksgiving day, 1878, married Katherine Kasnikoff, daughter of a Russian missionary. Early in 1881 Kennedy came to Juneau and soon afterward sent for his family. A son, James, was said to have been the first white child born in Juneau, and another son, Dan served in the Alaska Legislature in 1937. In 1883 Kennedy became night watchman for the town, being compensated by private subscription. The family home was then on the present sight of the Baranof Hotel, but Kennedy also claimed a large tract on the upperside of what is now Kennedy Street and raised a garden there. In 1892 he moved with his family to Cook Inlet, where he took up a coal claim on Kachemak Bay. He returned to Juneau the following year and resumed the job of night watchman, holding it until 1911 when he retired. Kennedy died at Juneau on January 28, 1913.
LAKE CREEK - flows into the northside of Auke Lake, 10.5 miles northwest of Juneau. The date of naming and origin of the name have not been learned.
LAST CHANCE BASIN - the first or lower basin on Gold Creek, three quarters of a mile east of Juneau and reached by the Basin Road. The name apparently originated in June 1881, when William Stewart, Squire Howe, and Oscar Cooper located a group of placer claims in the basin and called them the Last Chance group. In 1898, 22 placer claims in the basin were consolidated as the Last Chance Hydraulic Mining Company, which drove 2000 feet of tunnel to tap the basin at bedrock and did other development work. In 1903 the company was reorganized as the Jualpa Mining Company, which was established in 1922, the Juneau baseball park was located in Last Chance Basin.
LAWSON CREEK - on Douglas Island, draining into Gastineau Channel opposite Juneau. Named for William Lawson, an early resident of Juneau and Douglas. In 1881 the miners called this Lazard Creek, probably for N.B. Lazard who located mining claims near it. It was also known as Big Creek and Falls Creek. The name Lawson first appeared in the mining records of 1894. William Lawson was born at St. Johns, New Brunswick, December 27, 1843. He moved west at an early age, came to Juneau late 1881 or early 1882. A skilled carpenter and boatbuilder, he erected a number of Juneau's early business buildings and, like nearly everyone else in the country at that time, engaged in mining on the side. About 1904 he settled with others near Cape Fanshaw an the community there was known for a time as Lawson. Returning to Juneau, he served as Street Commissioner during one of the administrations of Mayor Emery Valentine. In 1922 Lawson became blind and entered the Pioneer's Home at Sitka. In 1930 he was sent to Morningside Hospital near Portland and died there on January 29, 1932.
LEMON CREEK - flows into Gastineau Channel near Mile 6 on Glacier Highway north of Juneau and drains a sizable valley. Lemon Creek Glacier lies at the head of the valley. It is said to have been named for John Lemon who was reported to have prospected and done some placer mining on this creek with James Hollywood in 1879, a year before Harris and Juneau made their discovery on Gold Creek. John Lemon was in the Cassiar and went to Sitka in 1880. There he joined the Edmond Bean party of prospectors which blazed the trail over Chilkoot Pass to the headwater of the Yukon in the summer of 1880. Nothing has been learned of Lemon following the return of that expedition. James C. Pullen claimed a homestead at the mouth of Lemon Creek in 1881 and other homesteaders followed. Placer claims were recorded there in 1884 and mining operations were carried on for many years although the creek was apparently not highly productive. Principal mining operations were at One Mile Bar and Bear Gulch and on the tributary Sawmill Creek, also known as Mill Creek and Wiborg Creek. The latter was named for Peter Wiborg, early Juneau miner who was later drowned in the Yukon River.
LENA, POINT - the end of a prominent peninsula on the mainland 16 miles northwest of Juneau. A loop road reaches the peninsula from Glacier Highway. Lena Cove is just north of the peninsula and Lena Creek discharges into the eastern side of the cove. Lena Point was named in 1880 by Commander L.A. Beardslee of the U.S.S. Jamestown. At the same time he named Favorite Channel of the little steamer Favorite and named Vanderbilt Reef for the steamer's master, Captain J.M. Vanderbilt. It may be that he named Point Lena for the captain's wife, Mrs. Lena Vanderbilt. Mrs. Vanderbilt came to Alaska with her husband about 1875 and lived at Wrangell, Killisnoo, and Sitka. Following Captain Vanderbilt's death in 1890, she taught school for several years, then married Edward de Groff who had been Captain Vanderbilt's business partner. One of the principal owners of the Chichagoff Gold Mine for many years, she died at Los Angeles, California, February 2, 1929.
LOUISA, POINT - on the mainland just west of Auke Bay and 13 miles northwest of Juneau. The old Auke Village was located on the cove just east of the point. Point Louisa was named by Commander L.A. Beardslee of the U.S.S. Jamestown in 1880, but the source of the name is not recorded.
LURVEY CREEK - a tributary to Gold Creek near its head, flows from one of the glaciers on Sheep Mountain. Named for W.L. Lurvey, who mined there. The miners first called this Dix Gulch or Creek for John Dix, one of the first of the Cassiar miners to reach Juneau, early in 1881. Lurvey Basin, near the head of the creek, was known as Dix Bow Basin and as Little or Upper Silver Bow Basin. W.L. Lurvey apparently arrived in Juneau in 1883. He mined for a few years with E.O. Decker and then disappeared from the records.
McGINNIS CREEK - a tributary to Montana Creek from the east, 13 miles northwest of Juneau. Named McInnis River by John McInnis and Edward J. Brennan, who staked a placer claim there on July 26, 1881. Later miners wrote this name McKinnis Creek and then McGinnis Creek. John McInnis apparently did not remain long in this vicinity. Miners were active on McGinnis Creek for many years and on Idaho Gulch on the east side of the creek and Quartz Creek on the west. They called the upper part of the valley of McGinnis Creek Buckeye Basin. McGinnis Mountain, elevation 4118 feet, evidently took its name from the creek and is located about midway between the creek and Mendenhall Glacier.
MARMION ISLAND - a small highwater island at the south end of Douglas Island, marking the western side of the entrance to Gastineau Channel. Named by Dr. William Healy Dall of the United States Coast Survey in the Alaska Coast Pilot of 1883. Dr. Call took the name from the title of the long narrative poem "Marmion" by Sir Walter Scoot. (See Point Tantallon)
MENDENHALL GLACIER - a tongue of the Juneau icecap, the face of which is 10 miles northwesterly from Juneau an is reached by Glacier Highway and the Mendenhall Loop Road. Named in 1892 by the U.S. Coast Survey for its superintendent, Professor Thomas Corwin Mendenhall. John Muir called this Auk Glacier when he visited the area in 1879 and this name was used by Richard Harris in 1880 and by other early miners. Mendenhall was born in October 4, 1841, near Hanoverton, Ohio. He became professor of physics and mechanics at Ohio State University in 1873 and in 1878 accepted the chair of physics at the Imperial University in Tokyo, Japan, where he was one of the founders of the Tokyo Seismological Society. In 1881 he returned to Ohio and perfected the state weather service and in 1884 was called to the U.S. Signal Service in Washington, D.C., as a consultant on weather observation and recording. In 1886 he became president of Rose Polytechnic Institute at Terre Hayte, Indiana, and three years later was appointed superintendent of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. In 1894 he left the Survey to become president of the Polytechnic Institute at Worcester, Massachusetts, serving there until 1901. Mendenhall spent the next 11 years in Europe. Upon his return he wrote books and articles on scientific subjects, making his home at Ravenna, Ohio, where he died in 1924.
MENDENHALL LAKE - at the face of Mendenhall Glacier, from which it takes its name. The lake is constantly increasing in size as the glacier recedes. In 1909 the miners of the area called this McCush Lake for Neil McCush who had mineral property near there.
MENDENHALL PENINSULA - on the mainland 10 miles northwest of Juneau, separates the upper end of Gastineau Channel from Auke Bay and reaches to Fritz Cove. Named for Professor T.C. Mendenhall (see Mendenhall Glacier), the name was adopted by the Board of Geographic Names on November 16, 1929. A spur road from Glacier Highway, known a the Fritz Cove Road, was built in 1928 and an extension to form a loop from the highway was added in 1940.
MENDENHALL RIVER - enters Gastineau Channel just north of the Juneau Airport, eight miles northwest of Juneau. The river drains Mendenhall Lake and Mendenhall Glacier, from which it takes its name. The early miners called it Glacier River. It presented a considerable impediment to their travel to mining properties to the north. The name Mendenhall River came into use about 1903. In that year the river was first bridged by the Mansfield Gold Mining Company which built a wagon road from tidewater to its property on Montana Creek.
MOLLER SKI TRAIL - on Douglas Island, from the Douglas Highway just south of the bridge to the Douglas Ski Bowl in the valley of Cowee Creek. The trail is approximately 2.7 miles in length to the Upper Ski Cabin at elevation 1750 feet. The trail was named for Daniel H. Moller, who laid it out. Moller was born at Wilmar, MInnesota, June 6, 1901, and came to Juneau in 1934. He was with the U.S. Forest Service here and during the next four years laid out and supervised construction of a number of trails that took an active part in skiing and other winter sports events. From Juneau he went to Sitka as superintendent of a sawmill and during World War II he served with the Mountain Infantry. He died at Sitka on September 19, 1950.
MONTANA CREEK - a tributary to Mendenhall River from the north. The origin of the name is not known but it was in use among the miners by the middle of the 1880's. In 1881 it was called Brennan River by Edward J. Brennan and John McInnis, who located placer claims there. Considerable placer and some lode mining took place on the creek in the 1890's, particularly on a tributary known as Arastra Creek from the fact that one group of miners built an arastra nearby. About 1903 the Mansfield Gold Mining Company began extensive hydraulic placer operations and built a wagon road from tidewater part way up the creek. The present Montana Creek Road, a spur from the Mendenhall Loop Road reaching the junction of Montana Creek with McGinnis Creek, was built by the Bureau of Public Roads in 1928 when there was again placer mining activity in that area.
NELSON STREET - a residential street at the top of Starr Hill in the north-eastern part of Juneau. Named for R.P. Nelson, a Juneau businessman who developed the upper Starr Hill area. Nelson came to Juneau in 1887 and the following year engaged in the general merchandise business a member of the firm of Hammell & Nelson, which in 1889 became Nelson Brothers. In 1894 Nelson opened his own store on the waterfront and in October, 1896, was appointed Juneau postmaster. He held this office until August 1900, when he was succeeded by J.J.C. Barber. For many years Nelson operated a stationary store at the corner of Second and Seward streets. In 1908 he began the development of the upper Starr Hill are which became known as Nelson's Park and was annexed to the city in 1915. He also developed a system of springs on Mount Roberts as the Nelson Water Company. Nelson died at Los Angeles, California, where he had gone for his health, on December 25, 1928, at age 67.
NEW BOSTON - a short-lived mining camp on the Douglas Island shore of Gastineau Channel at the mouth of Grant Creek, a mile and a half northwest of Juneau. It was also known as Union City. In 1887 the Alaska Union Mining Company, largely financed by Boston capital, began development of group of lode claims and built a wharf, bunkhouse and other buildings, an 80-stamp mill and a tramway to the mine which was some 1800 feet from the beach. In the neighborhood of $300,000 was reported to have been expended before it was discovered that there was no ore worth milling. The first and only clean-up was said to have yielded $40, after which the company went out of business.
NORWAY POINT - on Glacier Highway, just beyond the Juneau city limits. The origin of the name is not precisely known, but it is said to have been derived from a settlement of Norwegian fishermen in the area. One of them, Nels Pearson, had his homestead directly on the point. The name appeared in print as early as 1917 and was no doubt in local use for some time before that.
NUGGET CREEK - a tributary to Mendenhall River, on the eastern side of Mendenhall Glacier. The creek drains from Nugget Creek Glacier and other glaciers which form a part of the Juneau ice cap. The name Nugget Creek seems to have been first used in the records by Sam E. Butts who located the "Lucky Sam" placer claim there on July 4, 1900. It was also called Goat Creek, now the name of one of its tributaries. Other tributaries are Steep Creek, Fall Creek, and Vista Creek. The original gold discovery on Nugget Creek was on what is now called Middle Basin but was known to the miners as Sunrise Basin. The Treadwell Mining Company built a hydro-electric plant, utilizing the waters of Nugget Creek, in 1913 and 1914. The plant, which has been closed since 1944, is reached by a spur from the Mendenhall Loop Road and a trail leads from the end of this spur to Middle Basin on Nugget Creek.
OLDS MOUNTAIN - on the mainland 4.5 miles east of Juneau. Elevation 4453 feet. Named for John Olds, pioneer Juneau miner and hotel man. Olds was born in Cornwall, England, in 1850. He began work in the mines there at the age of 13 and in 1867 came to the United States and worked in the copper mines in Michigan. In 1871 he moved west and mined in Nevada and California and on Vancouver Island. Coming north to Wrangell in 1877, Olds went into the Cassiar and prospected and mined on McDame Creek. He moved to Sitka in 1879 and worked at the Silver Bay mines. In December, 1880, he came to Juneau on the little steamer Favorite with the first party of miners from Sitka and for the next six years was engaged in mining in Silver Bow Basin. In 1886 Olds married Miss Lila Prior, daughter of another pioneer miner, and the same year entered the hotel business. His first establishment was the Franklin Hotel, on the upper side of Front Street, near Main. This was replaced in 1892 by a much larger Occidental Hotel on the same site. Olds was active in many civic affairs and was instrumental in organizing the '87 Pioneer's Association in 1907. He died at Olympia Washington, on August 29, 1910, and was buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Juneau.
PARIS CREEK - on Douglas Island, now flows into the Glory Hole of the old Treadwell Mine. It was called "Parris" Creek in a placer mining claim by Pierre Erussard, M.A. Hayes, and Henry Borien on April 24, 1881, and probably was so named by Erussard, who was born in France. The early miners called it Hayes Creek, for Michael Angelo Hayes, one of the locators; French Pete's Creek, for Erussard, and Paris Creek. On May 1, 1881, Erussard staked the "Parris" lode claim on the creek and later sold it to John Treadwell, who developed it as the Treadwell Mine.
PEARL HARBOR - on the eastern side of Favorite Channel, 19 miles northwest of Juneau and at Mile 24 on Glacier Highway. The source of the name is not known. In 1903 it was known as Lake Harbor and it was first called Pearl Harbor in 1905 in a mining claim by John G. Peterson. Peterson had his home at Pearl Harbor, operated a small sawmill there and built a wagon road from the beach to his mine. (See Peterson Lake). The Shrine of St. Terese is on the southern side of Pearl Harbor.
PEDERSON HILL - on the northern part of Mendenhall Peninsula, 9.5 miles northwest of Juneau. Elevation 450 feet. Presumably named for Albert Pederson who operated a dairy nearby. Pederson was born in Norway on August 18, 1859. He came to United States in 1900 and to Juneau in 1902 and was caretaker at Evergreen Cemetery from 1902 until 1910. He then took up a dairy ranch near Mendenhall Peninsula and operated it until his death on September 8, 1929.
PERSEVERANCE - a former mining camp on the southeast side of Silver Bow Basin, 2.7 miles east of Juneau. The camp took its name fro the Perseverance lode claim and mine. The claim was located under the name Perseverance in 1885 and development began at once. In 1889 a 10-stamp mill was built and it operated until December 28, 1895, when the mill and other buildings of the camp were destroyed by a snowslide. The Alaska Perseverance Gold Mining Company began work there in 1901 and built a 100-stamp mill. This mill was destroyed by fire on December 4, 1912. In 1911 the property was taken over by the Alaska Gastineau Mining Company (see Thane), and in 1914 the Perseverance was a voting precinct for some years and there was a Territorial school at the camp from 1916 until 1921 when the mine was closed.
PETERSON LAKE - on the mainland 16 miles northwest of Juneau and a mile from tidewater at Tee Harbor. The lake has an area of about 80 acres northwestward to Salt Lake. Named for John G. Peterson, early Juneau businessman and miner. Born near Hamburg, Germany, October 7, 1861, Peterson was educated in German schools and learned the tinsmith trade. He came to the United States in 1881, worked at his trade in New York, Chicago and St. Louis, then enlisted in the Army where he served for five years, mostly in Indian Territory. Peterson arrived in Juneau in April, 1888, and bought a small shop here. For the next 13 years he operated a tin, stove, and hardware store and devoted his spare time to prospecting. In 1893 he returned to Hamburg and married Miss Marie Jensen. In April 1899, Peterson staked a placer claim on the creek which now bears his name. He called it Cheechako Creek and one of its tributaries Goose Creek, and named the valley Prairie Basin. Later in the same year the lake was called Reservoir Lake in the mining records. By 1905 it had become known as Peterson Lake. In 1901 Peterson sold his store to devote all of his time to mining. His principal lode claim was half a mile east of the lake and was first reached by trail from Tee Harbor. Later Peterson built his home at Pearl Harbor and hewed out a wagon road from there to the mine, where he installed a three-stamp mill. He operated the mine until shortly before his death which occurred on August 20, 1916. It was afterward operated for several years by Mrs. Peterson and her daughters Irma and Margaret. The present Peterson Lake Trail follows the old wagon road, leaving Glacier Highway at Mile 24.
QUARTZ GULCH - on the eastern side of Mount Roberts, above and running into Silver Bow Basin. Joe Juneau and Richard Harris made their discovery of gold in this gulch on Sunday, October 3, 1880. Harris later wrote: "The gulch I named from the fact that it contained the most gold bearing quartz I had ever seen in one gulch."
RAWN WAY - an alley stairway running from South Franklin Street to Gastineau Avenue opposite the junction of Franklin and Front Streets. It was apparently named for J.M. Rawn who in 1888 was associated with Alaska Candy Factory in Juneau. In December of that year he purchased the business from R.S. Belknap and advertised it as being located "on the waterfront, next door to the Post Office." In 1891 the post office was moved and the building it has occupied became the Court House. In October 1891, Rawn purchased "the building formerly used as the court house" and occupied it as a candy factory and general merchandise store. He continued in business there until May, 1896, when he disposed of his stock and left for Puget Sound. In July of the same year he stopped at Juneau en route to the Yukon and nothing further is known of him.
READY BULLION CREEK - on Douglas Island, discharging into Gastineau Channel south of Treadwell. Recent maps have transposed the name Bullion and Ready Bullion on two Douglas Island creeks. As originally named Ready Bullion Creek was the more northerly of the two and it is so shown on early miners' maps and on Sheet No. 8 of the International Boundary Commission Map. On December 1, 1880, John Prior, Antone Marks, William Meehan, Frank Berry, and James Rosewall left Sitka in an Indian dugout canoe for the new gold strike. About 20 days later they reached Gastineau Channel and camped for the night at the mouth of the creek on Douglas Island. In the morning, while the others were loading the canoe, Billy Meehan took a gold pan and tested the gravel at the creek. "Boys, we've got it," he shouted a few minutes later. "Look at this! Why it's almost the ready bullion." So they named the creek Ready Bullion and the shore at its mouth Ready Bullion Beach and staked claims there. That winter, while the claims at Quartz Gulch and in Silver Bow Basin were deeply buried in snow, the five men were able to work their placers at the mouth of Bullion Creek. Consequently, the first shipment of gold from Gastineau Channel came from Ready Bullion Creek.
RHINE CREEK - on the mainland, flowing into Stephens Passage just west of Point Bishop and 10 miles southeast of Juneau. On July 7, 1890, John G. Peterson and Chris Fuhr located a lode claim "situated on Reihn Creek." In subsequent locations it was spelled both "Reihn" and "Rehin" but many of the miners called it Ryan Creek. Both Peterson and Fuhr were born and educated in Germany and would presumably have spelled Rhine correctly had they intended to name the creek for the Rhine River. It is conjectured that "Reihn" may have been their attempt to spell "Ryan" and that they intended to name the creek for John J. Ryan, a prospector and miner who had located claims near the creek. In 1903 a claim notice referred to this as Rhinestone Creek, no doubt derived from adjoining Grindstone Creek, and this form is sometimes heard today. A number of early mining locations were made on Lost Lunch Gulch on the upper part of the Rhine Creek.
ROBERTS, MOUNT - in present local usage this name refers to the entire mountain lying between Juneau and Sheep Creek and between Gastineau and Gold Creek, some four miles in length and two miles in greatest width. Baker's "Geographic Dictionary of Alaska" (1906) reports: "Roberts Mountain, about three miles southeast of Juneau." Most modern maps follow this description, showing the more southerly of the two peaks on the mountain, elevation 3810 feet, either as "Mt. Roberts" or "Roberts Peak." The source of the name is not certainly known. In October, 1880, Joe Juneau and Richard Harris staked mining claims on "Juneau Hill, adjoining Quartz Gulch." The northeasterly side of the mountain is irregular, with many small knobs or hills. Early miners' names include Mineral Hill, Bulger Hill, Taku Hill, Groundhog Hill, and Jamestown Hill, but these names are believed to have referred to small knobs rather than to the entire mountain. In 1881, however, there were numerous references to the mountain as Gold Hill, a name which was also used for what is now Mount Juneau. In 1883 Henry Roberts located a number of claims on what was called Roberts Gulch, below the present Roberts Peak, and this may be the source of the name. In 1902, on the other hand, the Juneau Record-Miner twice in one article referred to the mountain as Mount Juneau, and in the same article mentioned "Roberts, the California mining expert" who had been surveying the mines in the mountain. Between 1902 and about 1913 the mountain was frequently called Swede Hill. This name seems to have particularly applied to the part of the mountain adjacent to Juneau, especially the section above Gastineau Avenue. In 1913, however, there was a newspaper story about "the Alaska Juneau tunnel in Mount Roberts, or Swede Hill." In 1906 there was mention of the Father Brown Trail "to the top of Little Mount Juneau" and in a 1907 newspaper story an article told oaf a party which "climbed Mount Silver Bow Basin by the Father Brown Trail." Since 1913 the name Mount Roberts appears to have been almost universally used.
SALMON CREEK - flows into Gastineau Channel from the mainland 2.5 miles northwest of Juneau. According to Richard Harris, he and Joe Juneau gave the creek this name on August 16, 1880. The Indian name, Tilhini, said to mean dog salmon, appears on some early maps. There was mining on Salmon Creek in early years. In 1914 and 1915 the Alaska Gastineau Mining Company built a concrete dam 2.6 miles upstream from the mouth of the creek. The dam is 170 feet high with a crest 648 feet long and it impounds a reservoir with an area of 210 acres at an elevation of 1177 feet. Water from the reservoir is utilized by two hydro-electric power plants, one near the dam and one on the beach, which supply electricity to Juneau and the Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Company, which owns and operates them.
SALT LAKE - a small lagoon at Eagle Harbor, 20 miles northwest of Juneau. The name first appeared in the records on June 13, 1902, when W.N. Lazier claimed a trade and manufacturing site there. Peterson Creek flows into Salt Lake and two smaller streams which also enter it were called Tenk Creek and Tusta Creek in early records.
SEATTER STREET - a residential street in the northwestern part of Juneau, adjoining Evergreen Cemetery. Named for John S. Seatter, who staked a placer mining claim in that area in 1895. The claim, which included a part of the present cemetery, was found by the land office to be non-mineral in character and Seatter homesteaded and farmed a portion of his original claim. Born in England in 1845, Seatter was said to have started prospecting in 1878. His name does not appear in local mining records before 1895, however, and it is probable that he arrived in Juneau not long before that year. He died at Juneau on July 14, 1913.
SEWARD STREET - one of the principal business streets of Juneau, running from Marine Way to Fifth Street and then, as a stairway to Seventh Street. The name is first mentioned in the town records for March 9, 1881, and the street was undoubtedly named for William Henry Seward, Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, who was instrumental in negotiating the purchase of Alaska from Russia. Seward was born at Florida, New York, on May 16, 1801. He graduated from Union College, taught school, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1823. He served in the New York State Senate 1830-34, as Governor of New York 1838-42, as United States Senator 1849-61, and as Secretary of State in the cabinets of Presidents Lincoln and Johnson, 1861-69. Seward visited Southeastern Alaska in 1869, going as far north as the Chilkat River. He died at Auburn, New York, October 16, 1872.
SHAMAN ISLAND - a small island off the northwestern end of Douglas Island and at the entrance to Fritz Cove. Named by Lieutenant Commander Henry B. Mansfield of the Coast Survey steamer Patterson in 1890. A shaman is an Indian medicine man or doctor, but reason for Mansfield's choice of name is not known.
SHATTUCK WAY - runs from Front Street to Marine Way in downtown Juneau and was named for Henry Shattuck, Juneau businessman, who in 1914 donated to the city a strip of property for the street right-of-way. Henry Shattuck was born at East Portland, Oregon, April 27, 1870, and came to Juneau in 1897 as bookkeeper for the C.W. Young Company. The following year he organized Shattuck and Company, engaging in the insurance and brokerage business and acting as agent for the Alaska Steamship Company. In 1904 he organized the Juneau Steamship Company which operated small steamers on the mail run to Sitka and Skagway. In 1909 Shattuck was appointed Clerk of the District Court by Judge Thomas R. Lyons and served in that capacity until 1911. In that year he purchased the hardware business of J.P. Jorgenson on the present site of Thomas Hardware Company and organized the Alaska Supply Company in Juneau Lumber Company. During the first World War Shattuck operated a sawmill at Craig, producing airplane spruce. Later he returned to Juneau where he died on July 25, 1925.
SHEEP CREEK - on the mainland, discharging into Gastineau Channel near Thane, 4.2 miles southeast of Juneau. Richard Harris, in an account of the Juneau gold discovery, wrote that he and Joe Juneau named the creek on October 25, 1880: "We went about four miles further south to another nice looking creek we named Sheep Creek as we killed several mountain sheep, hence the name." Had Harris and Juneau been better biologists, the name would no doubt be Goat Creek. The first mining claims were located on Sheep Creek as we killed several mountain sheep, hence the name." Had Harris and Juneau been better biologists, the name would no doubt be Goat Creek. The first mining claims were located on Sheep Creek in April, 1881, and while there were many subsequent locations, it was some time before there was much active mining. Miners' names for places along the creek include Glacier Basin, Lost Rocker Falls, Crooked Gulch, and Timber Gulch. Sheep Creek Basin is approximately three-quarters of a mile from the beach and a mile in length along the creek. In 1883 E.H. Boggs and D.H. Murphy built a sawmill at the mouth of Sheep Creek and it continued in operation for several years. In 1889 the Silver Queen Mining Company built a 10-stamp mill about half a mile from the beach and milled ore from the Silver Queen and Glacier Mines. The property was taken over by the Nowell Company in 1896. This company added 20 stamps to the mill and built a wharf near the mouth of the creek. A hydro-electric power plant was built on Sheep Creek by the Oxford Mining Company in 1910 and enlarged by the Treadwell Mining Company in 1914. The settlement which grew up near the mouth of the creek was called Sheep Creek until 1914, when it became Thane. The voting precinct is still Sheep Creek. (See Thane)
SHEEP MOUNTAIN - on the mainland 2.3 miles northeast of Thane and four miles east of Juneau. Elevation 4238 feet. Mountain goats, frequently called sheep by the miners, were found there in early times.
SHRINE OF ST. TERESE - on an island at Pearl Harbor, 19 miles northwest of Juneau, at Mile 23 on Glacier Highway. The site for the Shrine was selected in 1931 and a causeway 400 feet long and 16 feet wide, connecting the island with the mainland, was completed in September, 1933. The retreat house was started the same year. Construction of the stone chapel was begun in 1937 and the cornerstone was laid on Sunday, October 30, 1938. The first mass was celebrated in the new chapel on Sunday, October 26, 1941. A post office, Saint Terese, was established at the Shrine on July 19, 1938, but discontinued in the fall of 1946.
SILVER BOW BASIN - near the headwaters of Gold Creek, 2.5 miles east of Juneau. According to Richard Harris, he named it on October 3, 1880, "for the Silver Bow Mine in Montana." The basin, which may be reached from Juneau by the Basin Road and Gold Canyon Trail, was the site of some of the earliest gold discoveries and much of the early mining activity in the Juneau area.
SMUGGLERS COVE - a small cove on the north side of Mendenhall Peninsula and inside Spuhn Island. It is the teminus of the Fritz Cove Road on the peninsula. The name first appeared in the records on April 15, 1896, when Louis Levy and William Murphy located a lode claim there, but the derivation is not known.
SNOWSLIDE GULCH - a prominent gulch on the Gold Creek side of Mount Roberts just east of the Alaska Juneau Mine camp and the end of the Basin Road. There are heavy snow slides down this gulch each spring. The name first appeared in the mining records on July 12, 1881, when Charles B. Sherry, James E. Woods and Richard Dailey claimed the water in the gulch for mining purposes.
SPAULDING POINT - in Auke Bay at the mouth of Waydelich Creek, near Mile 13 on Glacier Highway. Named for Victor Clar Spaulding, who made his home in that vicinity for many years. Born at Amherst, Massachusetts, November 18, 1867, Spaulding came north in 1897 and spent some time at Dawson and Atlin. In 1906 he was mining at Yankee Basin, north of Juneau. In June, 1908, Spaulding and Charles Wylie located several lode claims on what they called Treasury Hill, some four miles north of Auke Bay. They built a trail, now known as the Spaulding Trail, to the claims and did development work there. The Spaulding Trail leaves the highway at Mile 13. In 1916 Spaulding married Miss Dora Waydelich at Juneau and thereafter made his home on the old Waydelich homestead at Auke Bay. (See Waydelich Creek) He died at Juneau on August 13, 1937.
SPUHN ISLAND - at the western entrance to Gastineau Channel and on the southerly side of the entrance to Auke Bay, 10 miles northwest of Juneau. It was named in 1880 by Commander L.A. Beardslee of the U.S.S. Jamestown for Carl Spuhn of the Northwest Trading Company. It was sometimes called Mineral Island by miners who staked lode claims on it in later years. A chicken ranch was located there for some years and later it became a fox farm. Carl Spuhn was born October 12, 1855, at Godesburg on the Rhine, Germany. He came to the United States and to the Pacific Coast with the Henry Villard railroad and shipping interests and made his home at Portland, Oregon. In 1880 he was made co-manager with Captain John M. Vanderbilt of the Northwest Trading Company, in which Villard had an interest. The company established a number of trading posts and stores in Southeast Alaska, including one at Juneau, built a whaling station and reduction plant at Killisnoo and a salmon cannery at Chilkat. Spuhn spent some time in the company's store at Juneau soon after the founding of the town, staked a mining claim or two on Gold Creek and acted as secretary at one of the miners' meetings in August 1881. Later he made his home at Killisnoo where he managed the herring fishery and reduction plant and served as postmaster and United States Commissioner. He retired about 1916 when the herring plant changed ownership and died at Portland, Oregon, on February 17, 1927.
STARR HILL - a residential area on the northeastern part of Juneau, was named for Frank Starr, an early resident of the area. Starr was born in Maine about 1849, served in the Civil War and came north to the Cassiar in 1874. In 1879 he moved to Sitka where the census of 1880 listed him as a carpenter and builder. Early in 1881 Starr moved to Juneau and staked claims at Silver Bow Basin and worked them. He built the first wharf at Juneau, near the present Juneau Cold Storage, and the first wharf at Treadwell. About 1883 he went to Killisnoo to do construction work for the Northwest Trading Company, and the following year he staked a coal claim on Admiralty Island. In 1888 he was operating a salmon saltery at Whitewater Bay on Chicagof Island. He returned to Juneau and in 1896 claimed a number of lots on Starr Hill. Starr was described as a man with great physical strength but he took ill and died at Juneau on November 5, 1898.
STEPHENS, POINT - on the mainland 16 miles northwest of Juneau and forming the southwesterly side of Tee Harbor. It was apparently named by Commander L.A. Beardslee of the U.S.S. Jamestown in 1880, and he probably took the name from nearby Stephens Passage which was named by Captain George Vancouver in 1794. A spur road at Mile 19 on Glacier Highway runs to the point.
TREADWELL - a former mining town and post office on Douglas Island, just south of Douglas. It was the site of the Treadwell and other mines, now closed, and was named for John Treadwell who developed the mines. Gold was discovered on the beaches of Douglas Island in December, 1880, and both lode and placer claims were staked there the following spring. John Treadwell purchased a number of the lode claims in the fall of 1881 and interested California capital in them. A five-stamp test mill was erected in 1882 and thereafter development was rapid. The principal mines were the Treadwell, the 700, the Mexican, and the Ready Bullion and at the height of the operation five-stamp mills were dropping 880 stamps. Mining was carried on by open pit, resulting in the enormous "Glory Hole" visible on the hillside and now filled with water, and by underground workings, some of which extended under Gastineau Channel. Treadwell was largely a "company" town and in 1900 had a population of 522. It was incorporated on March 26, 1901, and until 1906 elected city councils and conducted a municipal government. After 1906 no city elections were held and in 1912 the town was disincorporated. The post office was established on April 21, 1902. In 1910 the population of Treadwell was 1222 and the Treadwell Gold Mining Company, which operated all of the mines, was employing 1900 men, many of whom lived in Douglas. On Sunday, April 22, 1917, some of the mine workings under the channel caved in and all of the mines except Ready Bullion Mine were flooded. Nearly seventy million dollars worth of gold had been mined since the properties were opened in 1882. The Ready Bullion Mine continued to operate until December, 1922, when it too closed, although the stamp mill was again operated under lease in 1929 and 1930. By 1920 the population of Treadwell had dropped to 325. The post office was discontinued on May 31, 1926. On August 1, 1928, the entire property of the Treadwell Company was purchased by the Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Company. Little is known of the early life of John Treadwell. He arrived in Juneau early in 1881 and staked a number of mining claims in the Gold Creek area but his operations were not successful. He was about to leave when Pierre Erussard showed him samples from his Paris claim on Douglas Island. Treadwell investigated and bought Erussard's claim and several others. He continued with the company he organized until 1889 when he sold his interests and left Alaska. It was reported that he was interested in a coal property in western Alaska, but apparently nothing came of it. Treadwell was later associated with his brother, James Treadwell, in a trust company in California. This company went bankrupt and in New York in 1914 Treadwell filed a voluntary petition of bankruptcy, listing liabilities of $2,931,000 and no assets. He died in his room in the Great Northern Hotel in New York, where he had lived since 1914, on November 6, 1927, at age 85.
TREADWELL DITCH - a water ditch which followed the contours of the mountain slopes along the eastern side of Douglas Island at an elevation of 550 to 1000 feet. The ditch was built by the Treadwell Gold Mining Company to deliver water to the mines for power purposes and was started in 1882 and completed about 1890. The northern branch of the ditch, some 12 miles in length, starts at the 1000-foot elevation on Fish Creek and carried the waters of Fish, Eagle, Cowee, Lawson, and Paris Creeks to a point above Treadwell at the 522-foot elevation. Two branches from the south conveyed the waters of Ready Bullion and Bullion Creeks to Treadwell. Much of the ditch is now in poor repair but water still flows in portions of it.
TROY, MOUNT - on Douglas Island, just west of the headwaters of Cowee Creek and 3.3 miles southwesterly from Juneau. Elevation 2998 feet. Named for John W. Troy, former Juneau newspaper publisher and Governor of Alaska. John Troy was born on a farm near Dungeness, Clallam County, Washington Territory, on October 31, 1868. In 1886 he became a reporter on the Port Townsend Argus and from 1891 until 1897 he was publisher and editor of the Weekly Democrat Leader at Port Angeles, Washington. Attracted north by the Klondike Rush, he landed at Skagway on August 19, 1897, and engaged in newspaper work there. He also served as City Clerk when the municipal government was organized. From 1899 until 1907 he was editor of the Skagway Alaskan, a daily paper. Returning to Seattle in 1907, Troy was associated with the Alaska Club, became editor of the Alaska Yukon Magazine in 1911, and was secretary of the Washington State Democratic Club in 1912. In 1913 Troy came to Juneau as editor of the Daily Alaska Empire, which had been founded the previous year by J.F.A. Strong. In 1914 he bought the paper from Strong, who was then Governor of Alaska. In 1919 Troy was appointed Collector of Customs for Alaska and continued in that office until February 1, 1922. President Roosevelt nominated him as Governor of Alaska on March 23, 1933, and he was inaugurated at Juneau on April 19. Reappointed in 1937, he served until December 5, 1939. He died at Juneau on May 2, 1942.
VANDERBILT HILL - the end of the ridge of the unnamed mountain north of Salmon Creek, which makes a hill on Glacier Highway approximately 4.3 miles northwest of Juneau. It was apparently named for John W. Vanderbilt, who lived for some time in that vicinity. Vanderbilt, the son of Captain J.M. Vanderbilt of the Northwest Trading Company, grew up in Wrangell, Killisnoo, and Sitka. In 1896 he went to Fortymile as storekeeper for the Alaska Commercial Company and spent some time in the Interior. In 1906 and 1907 he lived near Vanderbilt Hill as watchman for one of the mining properties at Lemon Creek. Later he spent some years at Chichagof were his mother, Mrs. Lena Vanderbilt DeGroff, owned a principal interest in the Chichagof Mine. During the first World War he served with the Tank Corps in France. No further information about him has been attained.
WAYDELICH CREEK - on the mainland, discharging into Auke Bay 11 miles northwest of Juneau. The name is incorrectly spelled "Wadleigh" on some maps. The creek was named for John W. Waydelich, one of the first white settlers in the Auke Bay area. Waydelich's birthplace is not recorded but he was reported to have been a graduate of Yale University. He came west to Montana and then to Cariboo and the Omineca and finally into the Cassiar. Waydelich had a farm on one of the islands at the mouth of the Stikine River in 1874 and later moved to Windham Bay and mined on Shuck River. In 1881 he moved to Juneau and in 1892 claimed a homestead of 160 acres "on Auk Bay, about two miles east of Old Auk Town" and on the creek which now bears his name. He cleared a part of the homestead and raised produce which he sold in Juneau. Waydelich was a member of the '87 Pioneers Association and his signature appears on the original charter of the organization in the Territorial Museum. Usually known as "Wes" or "West" he died at Juneau on August 17, 1914, at which time his age was reported as both 74 and 80.
WILLOUGHBY AVENUE - one of Juneau's principal north-south thoroughfares, runs from Main Street to Glacier Avenue. It was named for Richard G. Willoughby, one of the best known and most colorful of the early miners. Willoughby Avenue was constructed on piling in 1913 and 1914, following the line of hightide along the beach. Later it was filled with waste rock from the Alaska Juneau Mine. "Uncle Dick" Willoughby, as he was commonly known, was reported to have been born in North Carolina or Tennessee and to have first gone to California in 1849. A few years after that he was in Kansas and was married in Missouri in 1854, leaving at once with his bride for California. In 1857 he returned with his wife and a son, William, left them with her parents and again headed west. His wife died during the Civil War and Willoughby apparently never returned there or communicated with his son or other members of his family. In 1859 or 1860 he went to the Fraser River and from there to Cariboo, where he was reported to have "cleaned up" more than $100,000 in a few weeks and to have "blowed" it almost as rapidly. He moved o to the Omineca and the Cassiar and was in Wrangell in 1875, running a dance hall. From there he went to Sitka, prospecting in the summers and running a saloon in town during the winters. In the summer of 1880 Willoughby was prospecting in Glacier Bay, where an island is named for him, at the time Juneau and Harris made their strike in SIlver Bow Basin. He reached the new camp in December, 1880. He mined around Gold Creek, engaged briefly in the hotel business and spent most of his time in the later years around Funter Bay. In Juneau he owned a cabin near the present corner of Main and Willoughby Avenue. Known as a practical joker and a free-wheeling story teller and entertainer, Willoughby was also said to have been a pretty fair fiddle player and to have been much in demand at miners' dances. In the 1890's he perpetrated a hoax known as the Silent City which gained nation-wide attention. Apparently he never talked of his early days and even his age was something of a mystery. When he made a will in 1900 his age was given as 65, but when he died at Monod Hospital in Seattle on May 13, 1902, it was reported as 75.
WINDFALL LAKE - on the mainland 19 miles northwest of Juneau and a mile and a quarter east of Glacier Highway. The lake may be reached by trail from the end of the Montana Creek spur road (approximately six miles) or from the end of Glacier Highway (approximately three miles). Windfall Creek rises near the headwaters of Montana Creek but flows northward to Windfall Lake and fro the lake to Herbert River. An upper fork of the creek is named Slate Creek, "Windfall" was the name frequently used by the early miners for creeks in this part of the country and seems to have been in the mining records on July 31, 1894. There was some mining activity along the creek and in the vicinity of the lake during the 1890's.
**SOME NAMES AROUND JUNEAU, by Robert DeArmond; Published by the Sitka Press in 1957. The original plates were destroyed in a Sitka fire and has since been out of print. Several errors were noted in the manuscript from which this was re-typed. Corrections were made where possible.
Keyboarded by: Erin Wahrenbrock