SaltGSCWG

Ribbons of Blue - Snapshots

   
Home
New Stuff
Groups
Resources
Library
Data
Newsletter
Links
Snapshots

Regional Saltwatch Snapshot pages

South West and South Coast NRM Regions

Contents
Natural Resource Management (NRM) Region
   Avon NRM Region - Avon Region
   Northern Agricultural NRM Region - Mid West Region
   Rangelands NRM Region - Gascoyne Region
   South Coast NRM - South Coast Region
   South West NRM Region - Blackwood Region, Cape to Cape Region/ Geographe Region/ Lower Blackwood sub-region, Leschenault Region, Kwinana-Peel Region, Warren and Gardener
   Swan NRM Region - Swan Region
Further information

South West NRM Region
   Blackwood Region
   Cape to Cape Region/ Geographe Region/ Lower Blackwood sub-Region
   Leschenault Region
   Kwinana-Peel Region
   Warren and Gardener

Blackwood Region
This section is under construction.

Cape to Cape Region/ Geographe Region/ Lower Blackwood sub-region
   View 2004 Geographe, Cape to Cape Saltwater report (pdf)

2003 Geographe, Cape to Cape Saltwater report
   Cape to Cape - background
   Cape to Cape - results
   Cape to Cape - interpretation of results
   Abba River
   Abba River - results
   Abba River - interpretation of results
   Capel River
   Capel River - results
   Capel River - interpretation of results

Saltwatch Snapshot monitoring
Saltwatch Snapshot monitoring

Cape to Cape - Background
Margaret River Primary School year 5's undertook the Saltwatch Snapshot in the Cape to Cape area. The class wasn't able to go on-site so samples were collected by the Ribbons of Blue co-ordinator and the Shire of Augusta-Margaret Rivers Landcare Officer and taken to the classroom. It was decided not to focus on one waterway but to look at six different waterways in the Cape to Cape area.

Details of the waterways from A Systematic Overview of Environmental Values of the Wetlands, Rivers and Estuaries of the Busselton-Walpole Region (Pen, 1997) are provided in the table below.

System

Approx length (km)

Catchment area (km²)

Median rainfall (mm)

Clearing (%)

Mean annual flow (ML)

Gunyulgup

10

47

975

70

11 900

Wilyabrup

15

88

1100

70

30 700

Margaret

60

470

1075

29

120 300

Boodijup

12

60

1105

40

15 200

Calgardup

6

29

1105

35

6 800

Turner

6

54

1175

65

22 400

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region
Return to Cape to Cape/Geographe Regions & Lower Blackwood sub-region

Cape to Cape - results
Table: Electrical conductivity levels measured at various sites for Saltwatch Snapshot

Site

Electrical Conductivity (μS/cm)

Gunyulgup

1,400

Wilyabrup

550

Margaret

800

Boodijup

2,100

Calgardup

1,300

Turner

1,500

Cape to Cape - interpretation of results
The results are as expected with all sites recording fresh to marginal results. The conductivity of these waterways is likely to decrease throughout the wet season. Salinity is highest at the end of the dry season. With the onset of the first rains accumulated salt is 'flushed' from the soil profile increasing conductivity. Electrical conductivity then decreases over the course of the winter as salts are diluted by fresh rainwater.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region
Return to Cape to Cape/Geographe Regions & Lower Blackwood sub-region

Abba River
The Abba River system is found within the Vasse-Wonnerup Land Conservation District in the Geographe Catchment. Extensive modification of the river system has occurred as a result of land clearing and drainage of the plains for settlement and agriculture. The river begins on the Blackwood plateau and flows down to the Swan Coastal Plain. 

The important water quality issues for the Abba and the receiving Vasse-Wonnerup estuarine system are: enrichment of the waterway and wetland with nutrients and organic matter, deoxygenation causing the death of fish and other aquatic animals, sedimentation of the waterway and salinity. The Abba River was part of the Department of Environment's (formerly Water and Rivers Commissions) South-West Water Quality Reference Program from 1996 to 2001. The results show the Abba River ranges from fresh in Winter to brackish in Summer. In May 2000 the conductivity recorded was 7,000 μs/cm, and for this reason we decided to hold a Saltwatch Snapshot event on the Abba.

The season has been slow to commence and we found water in only three sites. The first site was at the top of the catchment where the river comes out of State Forest, the second site was in farmland and the third site was at the CALM demonstration site near Bussell highway.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region
Return to Cape to Cape/Geographe Regions & Lower Blackwood sub-region

Abba River - results
Table: Electrical conductivity measurements recorded from various sites on Abba River

Site

Electrical conductivity (μS/cm)

Scott Rd

409

Wonnerup South Rd

6,800

Bussell Highway

1,800

Abba River - interpretation of results
The results are as expected with the sites recording fresh to very brackish results. The river has began to flow only in the upper catchment, with a fresh water result and the water tested at the last two sites was from very concentrated pools that had survived over the Summer, hence the high readings. This is quite common in rivers in agricultural areas, and may in part be due to naturally saline soils in part of the catchment. The conductivity of these waterways is likely to decrease throughout the winter months. With the onset of the first rains accumulated salt is 'flushed' from the soil profile increasing conductivity. Electrical conductivity then decreases over the course of the winter as salts are diluted by fresh rainwater.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region
Return to Cape to Cape/Geographe Regions & Lower Blackwood sub-region

Capel River
The Capel River is the largest river in the Geographe Bay catchment and has a catchment area of approximately 653km2. The Capel River rises on the edge of the Darling scarp, and flows across the northern part of the Blackwood Plateau and the Swan Coastal Plain before discharging into the Indian Ocean. The mouth of the river was once connected to the Stirling wetland system and water flowing down the Capel River eventually passed into the Vasse-Wonnerup estuary through the chain of connected wetlands. In 1880 an artificial river mouth was cut through the coastal sand dunes allowing the river water to flow through into Geographe Bay. 

The average rainfall is 881mm, normally received between April and November. Rainfall varies from the coast (Capel 840mm) to the headwaters (Kirup 990mm). Historically the river valley was used for grazing horses and cattle. Land use in the Capel River catchment today is predominantly horticultural and agricultural, including dairy and beef farming, fruit orchards and viticulture.

The Capel LCDC instigated water quality monitoring in 1993 in response to concern over water quality problems, particularly in the lower Capel River. Two monitoring stations were installed, one at Yate’s farm (site CAP006) and one at the Railway Bridge (site CAP002). The monitoring revealed an organic growth referred to as "sewerage fungus" downstream from the local industry and algal blooms have been recorded at several sites along the river.

Daily measurements of conductivity for the Capel River were taken from the railway ridge between 1995 and 1998. For much of each year sampled, the Capel River at the railway bridge was moderately brackish, although at the end of each winter when the dilution from seasonal rainfall tends to be at its peak, the water was fresh. We also added an extra site on Tren Brook that runs into the lower Capel River.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region
Return to Cape to Cape/Geographe Regions & Lower Blackwood sub-region

Capel River - results
Table: Electrical conductivity measurements recorded from various sites on the Capel River

Site

Conductivity (μS/cm)

Site number

Mallocup Bridge

3,230

CAP 005

Gynudup Brook

1,856

GYN 001

Capel Bridge

1,068

CAP 003

Lot 52 Halls Rd

852

CAP 004

Lexden Park

1,072

CAP 009

Huttons

1,202

CAP 008

Yates

982

CAP 006

Berry Delightful

2,640

DON 001

Reserve 19217

837

DON 002

Loc. 972

1,271

DON 003

Loc. 1289

852

DON 004

Tren Creek

1,984

TREN001

Capel River - interpretation of results
The sample values taken from the eleven sites for Saltwatch  Snapshot week are in line with patterns observed in many south west waterways. At the start of the year the water is moderately brackish; this becomes increasingly brackish with the onset of the first winter rains which ‘flush’ accumulated salt from the soil profile. Conductivity then decreases over the course of the winter as salts are diluted by fresh rainwater. The result for Mallocup Bridge would have been influenced by the tidal action at the mouth of the river and the salt water leakage through the floodgates. The result at Berry Delightful is affected by the activity upstream.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region
Return to Cape to Cape/Geographe Regions & Lower Blackwood sub-region

Leschenault Region
The Leschenault Regional Coordinator, Brendan Kelly, was on annual leave during the 2003 Saltwatch event. For information on monitoring and other events held in the Leschenault Region, contact Brendan Kelly (e-mail) or phone: (08) 9726 4194.

View the Leschenault Saltwatch Snapshot 2006 (pdf)

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region

Kwinana-Peel Region
Saltwatch 2004
View the Kwinana-Peel 'The Magnificient Murray' report (pdf)

Saltwatch 2003
   Background
   Results

KWINANA-PEEL: 'THE MAGNIFICENT MURRAY'

Background
What a fortnight - from some of the finest autumn weather to one of the worst storm events since cyclone Alby!

This is the second Saltwatch Snapshot in the Kwinana-Peel Region. To tell the Murray River salt story, students and community members from Wandering in the east to Pinjarra and Nth Dandalup in the west collected samples from the River and its tributaries to record their readings for the National Saltwatch Snapshot 2003. The Murray River Basin covers an area of 8300km2 and is the largest river in this region.

Wandering Primary School, Boddington District High School, Boddington Friends of the Reserve, Pinjarra Senior High School science and society and the environment students, a Peel Preservation member and students from North Dandalup and Calista Primary Schools were all involved in the fortnight Snapshot.

Pumpheries Bridge, the first monitoring site, is situated close to the top of the catchment. The Hotham River then runs into the Murray River continuing through the Darling scarp, along the coastal plain and into the Peel Inlet. Sites were identified along tributaries and the River. Salinity is an enormous issue for all landowners, particularly at the top of this catchment.

Early April rains and wet weather over the weekend of the 16th of May appear to have influenced salt levels for 2003. As can be seen by the graph, each site registered a slightly lower reading than this time last year. 2002 was one of the worst droughts on record with the first major rainfall events not occurring until June.

Tributaries entering the Hotham are generally far saltier than those entering the Murray River along the scarp. Thus salt levels in the Hotham are usually significantly higher than those further down the catchment.

Fresh water streams entering the Murray through the scarp and further down the catchment dilutes salt levels. By the time the Murray reaches the Pinjarra Bridge weir, salt levels are much lower than those throughout the wheat belt. West of the weir and further down the catchment to Peel Inlet, the Murray River is influenced by estuarine tides.

A direct result of Saltwatch Snapshot monitoring is the formation of a Snapshot to be held at Boddington on the 19th of July 2003 encouraging landowners from across the catchment to sample their water. The community’s intention is that this will become a bi-annual event, providing information to individual landowners as well as producing a set of data to aid and encourage on-ground action.

Everyone had a great time over the fortnight, lots of laughs and lots of learning opportunities, both in-class and out in the field. Wandering PS students took part in the Salinity Liquorice game. It’s such a shame that many of our local trees haven’t the same tolerance to salt levels as some of these students!

Thank you to all participants.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region
Return to Kwinana-Peel Region

Results
Figure: A comparison of electrical conductivity (EC) recorded during Saltwatch Snapshot between May 2003 and May 2003 on the Murray River (purple or left-barlines indicate May 2003 measurements; red or right-barlines indicate May 2002 measurements)

graph - Muaary River

Figure: A comparison of electrical conductivity (EC) recorded during Saltwatch Snapshot between May 2002 and May 2003 on the Hotham River (purple or left-barlines indicate EC measurements recorded in May 2003; red or right-barlines indicate EC measurements recorded in May 2002).

graph - Hotham River

Table: A comparison of Saltwatch Snapshot data monitored from Kwinana-Peel locations in May 2002 and May 2003

LOCATION

Electrical conductivity (uS/cm)

SITE

Site Code

Eastings

Northings

May 2003

May 2003

Pumphries

HSW001

491066

6386151

27,900

20,700

Codjatotine-Mooterdine Rd Ford

HSW002

483658

6386234

25,100

17,840

Wandering Brook

HSW003

469831

6384430

16,300

17,180

Twin Bridges Boddington

HSW004

458437

6371863

13,010

Days Rd Crossing

HSW005

455181

6372073

16,120

13,190

Halfway Gully

HSW006

453226

6371574

10,920

Ranford Pool

HSW007

452814

6371942

15,700

12,680

Upstream Bannister Junction

HSW008

451612

6371870

15,990

10,050

Bannister Bridge

HSW009

451457

6374447

11,090

Fletchers Rd

HSW010

450867

6346467

9,450

Up Williams Crossing

HSW007

450023

6370879

15,680

Downstream Williams Rd Crossing

HSW011

449977

6370930

15,630

Boggy Brook

HSW012

449525

6372199

8,940

Farmers Crossing

HSW013

447415

6370364

15,860

11,810

Broombush Gully

HSW014

447273

6369730

4,330

Lower Hotham Rd

HSW015

445248

6356624

13,600

12,800

Marradong Rd

HSW016

443683

6363452

14,200

12,100

Harvey/Quindanning RD

MSW017

443381

6350796

13,000

10,700

34 Mile Brook

HSW018

442189

6369805

6,980

Matchbox Rd

MSW019

435190

6349978

13,320

9,790

Yarragil

MSW020

418006

6369983

10,590

8,760

Island Pool

MSW021

416679

6371325

10,320

8,650

Baden Powell Rapids

MSW022

414315

6373610

9,590

8,240

Coolup East Rd Bridge

MSW023

396919

6377526

7,230

6,620

Pinjarra Suspension Bridge

MSW024

394570

6389237

7,120

6,490

Pinjarra Road Bridge Upstream Weir

MSW025

394689

6389539

6,500

Pinjarra Road Bridge Downstream Weir

MSW026

394711

6389537

6,500

Pinjarra Boat Ramp

MSW027

394418

6389736

7,250

6,510

Ravenswood Hotel

MSW028

390294

6394769

9,480

Nth Dandalup River

MSW029

403710

6402238

476

Peel Inlet

ESW001

384043

6394834

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region
Return to Kwinana-Peel Region

Warren and Gardner Region
Saltwatch 2004
View the Warren Saltwatch Snapshot 2004 Report (pdf)

Saltwatch 2003
This years Saltwatch Snapshot corresponded with the May full moon which is the traditional break in the season for this region. Good rainfalls where recorded in all of the catchment.

This year’s Saltwatch Snapshot program started with the Quinninup Primary School who assessed salinity levels in the Warren River at four river sites and a town tributary. Electrical conductivity (EC) measurements recorded by the primary school are in the table below:

Monitoring Site

Electrical Conductivity (m S/cm)

Site Location (Northings & Eastings)

Cutting Rd

7,000

6196057 N, 433461 E

Rooneys Bridge

1,600

61911050 N, 428352 E

Warren tributary (in town)

1,120

6189753 N, 431340 E

Warren Bridge

1,224

6181225 N, 407574 E

Heartbreak Trail Ford

400

6180919 N, 402550 E

Electrical conductivity readings at the sites sampled by the Quinninup Primary School were influenced by low flows. The Warren River did not flow past Cutting Road and the upper catchment (Tone, Perup and Wilgarup Rivers) which is influenced by high salinity increases in the Warren River. After this site (at Cutting Road), the Smith Brook contributes fresh water to the river system, resulting in a decrease in salt levels at the two bridge sites. Salt levels also drop after the Warren Bridge as fresh water enters from Treen Brook and other forest tributaries before the Heartbreak Trail ford monitoring point.

Manjimup Primary School, Wilgarup Catchment Group and the Manjimup LCDC measured salt levels at a Wilgarup River restoration project site. Students had developed the restoration site over the last 18 months on Dr. Paddy Pemberton’s property. Students helped construct a rock riffle stock crossing, erect riparian zone electric fencing and plant trees on the confluence of the Wilgarup and the farm land tributary. The electrical conductivity level at the Wilgarup site was recorded as 4,400 m S/cm.

East Manjimup Primary School continued monitoring their school’s seasonal stream. The recent digging of two new ponds along the waterway gave the students the chance to evaluate their design, check on recent weed irradication, test for salinity and discuss future planned tree plantings and the construction of walkways. As expected salt levels where low at this site. The EC levels recorded at the East Manjimup site were 300 mS/cm [6210561 N, 422064 E], [6210545 N, 422131 E]

Northcliffe District High School students celebrated Saltwatch Snapshot 2003 with the official handover from year 8 (who have worked and monitored the site for three years) to the new class. The year 5’s will continue managing the project, which involves the rehabilitation of a tributary from the Gardner River on Bob John’s farm. Photos and historical data where placed on the display boards Bob John’s. The EC level recorded at the site for Saltwatch Snapshot 2003 was 400 m S/cm [6166500 N, 416824 E]

Green Corp participants monitored salt levels in the upper catchment of the Warren River. Measuring salt levels at the Tone River, Wilgarup River ,Perup River and other tributaries and wetlands. The tour was a 150km circuit that also visited Calm’s Perup Ecology Centre and its associated wetlands.

Monitoring Site

Electrical Conductivity (m S/cm)

Site Location (Northings & Eastings)

Wilgarup River Bridge, Perup Road

2,400

6213686 N, 407528 E

Perup River Bridge, Perup Road

8,600

6213725 N, 426949 E

Tone River Bridge, Perup Road

15,700

6213801 N, 426949 E

Tone Bridge Picnic site

13,400

6212580 N, 472786 E

Perup Ecology Centre Wetlands

1,200

6212585 N, 472785 E

The Tone’s salinity levels were very high due to its large catchment area (1,500km2), the majority of which is cleared and producing large volumes of run off with fresh salt deposits. This areas is under an intensive recovery program instigated by the Warren Recovery Team and the Waters and Rivers Commission which include long term sawlog plantings, short term woodchip plantations, deep rooted perennial grass plantings, contour bank diversion drain construction, riparian zone fencing and tree planting.

Manjimup Senior High School also travelled the Upper Warren Salt tour and had results that where very similar but higher. Although the tour was 1-day later, results reflect the large volumes of water and salt that are entering the drainage system at this time of year - as a direct result of the beginning of the winter rains (refer to table below).

Monitoring Site

Electrical Conductivity 
(
mS/cm)

Site Location (Northings & Eastings)

Wilgarup River Bridge, Perup Road

2,400

6213686 N, 407528 E

Perup River Bridge- Perup Road

8,800

6213725 N, 426949 E

Tone River Bridge- Perup Road

18,000

6213801 N, 426949 E

Tone Bridge Picnic site

15,000

6212580 N, 472786 E

Perup Ecology Centre Wetlands

1,200

6212585 N, 472785 E

The Perup Ecology centres wetlands have a lower salinity level due to its small catchment size and its intact forest/ vegetation system.

The difference in the salinity at the two sites monitored on the Wilgarup River is probably due to greater areas of cleared land in the lower catchment and an increase in stream systems generated in the eastern landforms, which are the more saline.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South West NRM Region

South Coast NRM Region - South Coast Region, Community monitoring
   Jerdicuttup River - background
   Jerdicuttup River - results
   Sleeman River - background
   Sleeman River - results
   Hay River - background
   Hay River - results

Jerdicuttup River - background
The Jerdicuttup was the first of three rivers chosen for this year’s snapshot. It was chosen because the area until this year has been in drought. Goods rains in early April (up to 100mm) resulted in strong stream flows, which slowed substantially until reasonable falls occurred during Saltwatch week.

The Jerdicuttup river catchment covers an area of 232,00 ha on the central south coast of Western Australia. The town of Ravensthorpe is in the catchment and the river terminates in the Jerdicuttup lakes. The lakes are a coastal lagoon and are permanently closed to the Southern Ocean. The last 8 kilometres of the river is navigable by boat and this section retains water all year round. The river itself is 105km long and has many pools some over a kilometre long and up to 5 metres deep.

Foreshore surveys show that the majority of the river is in excellent condition as only 54% of its length boundaries agricultural land.

The main landuses in the area are grazing, broadacre cropping and mining.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South Coast NRM Region

Jerdicuttup River - results
The Jerdicuttup River is a naturally saline system that can also experience very high summer rainfall; this explains the very differing salinities that have been recorded.

Woodenup Road crossing for example has recorded a high of 117,300 uS/cm and a low of 39,000 uS/cm, which is still very high. The snapshot results are possibly a little higher than expected this may be explained by the low rainfall period between April and June.

Site name

Easting

Northing

Electrical conductivity (uS/cm)

Woodenup road

228154

6294264

69,100

South Coast Highway

241092

6278663

30,050

North Jerdicuttup road

248712

6262873

13,440

Springdale road

242820

6247697

29,080

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South Coast NRM Region

Sleeman River - background
The Sleeman River is a small catchment of 94 square kilometres, is 22 kilometres long and flows into Wilson Inlet (Denmark). The average rainfall is between 900 and 1,000mm.

The catchment was heavily modified in the 1950’s when an extensive drainage system was put in place to open up land for grazing and horticulture. This heavy human pressure has resulted in a deterioration of the riparian zone and compromised water quality with marginal salinity and high nutrient concentrations. Landusers and others (including Ribbons of Blue) are currently involved in projects to help rectify some of these problems.

Grazing, horticulture, forestry and dairying are the current land uses.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South Coast NRM Region

Sleeman River - results
The Sleeman River E.C. results are as expected for this time of the year.
The dry spell leading up to Saltwatch week resulted in a lower than normal river flow with the Cuppup Creek (which flows into the River) recording no flow at all.

Site name

Easting

Northing

Electrical conductivity (uS/cm)

Barker

544772

6131377

1,340

Mostert

550074

6131577

1,290

Sweetman

553875

6132332

1,272

Hunwick

557250

6133450

1,282

Trib

555750

6133700

1,065

Redhen

555370

6133363

1,087

loc 6644

551800

6133085

1,192

Loc 6645

548945

6133115

1,208

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South Coast NRM Region

Hay River - background
This Saltwatch snapshot covers the whole Hay River catchment and includes Ribbons of Blue groups Pioneer/Hay, Springs subcatchment and Bluegum Creek. Two previous snapshots have occurred with this Saltwatch snapshot being the third. A final snapshot will be conducted to give a seasonal view of the catchment.

The Hay River has a catchment area of 1301 square kilometres, is approx 80 kilometres long and also flows into the Wilson Inlet. The mean annual rainfall varies from 750mm near Mount Barker to 1000mm at Wilson Inlet.

The middle and lower sections of the river are very scenic with the foreshores being generally in good condition although there are sections of degradation. The upper section is more saline.

The areas of fringing vegetation along the river valleys are ecologically significant as they provide a corridor connecting areas of remnant bush.

Landuse was traditionally grazing and cropping however this is changing to include viticulture, aquaculture and forestry.

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South Coast NRM Region

Hay River - results
As with the Sleeman River the prolonged dry spell leading up to Saltwatch week has meant there are very low discharge rates with some sites recording no flow.

Salinity readings are a little higher than expected but this could be explained by the low flow rates.

Site name

Easting

Northing

Electrical conductivity (uS/cm)

Pugh Road

563881

6155407

9,200

Sleeman creek

562882

6162312

7,200

Lake Eyrie

558087

6151545

29,900

Pass Road

554774

6148449

7,600

Tognetti

555561

7647325

7,300

Briscoe

555032

6148449

6,200

Webb

551412

6147066

6,400

Walitj

553061

6145837

7,900

Webb crossing

552662

6148009

10,900

Stoney

559432

6142207

No flow

James rd

561672

6163079

6,600

Bandicoot

561996

6161849

7,100

Denmoore

548705

6160907

16,930

Sounness

551706

6158181

8,640

Fisher

551620

6155738

13,550

Ford

553325

6156717

8,600

Revett

547058

6152676

3,060

Cuss Creek

551672

6155114

10,930

Cuss River

551283

6155037

12,900

Mullally

556583

6143736

5,360

Male

554137

6143791

5,410

Mostert Creek

549124

6143078

1,660

Mostert River

548971

6142918

9,520

Return to NRM Region Contents
Return to South Coast NRM Region

Further information
To find out more about State salinity issues, contact the Department of Environment's Salinity Branch or visit the Department's salinity website (http://www.wrc.wa.gov.au/protect/Salinity/index.htm), or click here.

For further information on Snapshots and other monitoring activities, contact your Regional Coordinators.

                     

HOME
  

NEW STUFF
  

GROUPS
  

RESOURCES
  

LIBRARY
  

DATA

NEWSLETTER
LINKS

SNAPSHOT


Graphic design ©1998 Digital Wizards