- Diplomatic relations:
- Established in November 1895 with the signing of the Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation.
- Immigration from Japan:
- Commenced with the 1908 voyage of the Kasato Maru.
- Japanese and ethnic Japanese:
- Number of Japanese residing in Brazil: 83,803 (October 1998)
- Population of Japanese descent: 1.3 million (estimated)
- Number of Japanese-Brazilians working in Japan, 222,217 (December 1998).
- Population of Japanese descent: 1.3 million (estimated)
- Trade with Japan (1998):
- Exports: $2,903 million (iron ore, metal products, steel, coffee, chicken, soy beans)
- Imports: $2,610 million (machinery and equipment, chemical products, metal products).
- Direct investment from Japan:
- Cumulative total as of December 31, 1998, $8,704 million
- Japan's economic cooperation:
- List of Exchange of Notes
- Loans: 287,431 million yen
- Grants: 131 million yen
- Technical cooperation: 67,901 million yen (top-ranking country in Latin America, sixth-ranking in the world)
- Loans: 287,431 million yen
Recent Visits by Eminent Persons
- Japan to Brazil
Year Name 1988 Prince Fumihito (eightieth anniversary of Japanese migration) 1990 Former Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita (special envoy to the presidential inauguration) 1992 Former Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita (U.N. Conference on Environment and Development)
Former Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu (U.N. Conference on Environment and Development)
1994 Foreign Minister Yohei Kono 1995 Liberal Democratic Party Vice-President Keizo Obuchi (special envoy to the presidential inauguration) 1995 November Princess Sayako (centennial of Japan-Brazil relations) 1996 August Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto 1997 May-June Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress 1997 July Labor Minister Yutaka Okano 1998 June Foreign Minister Keizo Obuchi 1998 November Director General of Environment Agency Kenji Manabe (State Minister) 2004 September Prime Miniser Junichiro Koizumi
- Brazil to Japan:
Year Name 1989 President Jose Sarney (Showa emperor's funeral) 1990 President-Elect Fernando Collor de Mello
Foreign Minister Francisco Rezek
President Fernando Collor de Mello (imperial accession ceremonies);
1991 & 1992 Economic Minister Marcilio Marques Moreira (eminent persons conferences) 1993 Foreign Minister Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Planning Minister Alexis Stepanenko
1995 May Foreign Minister Luiz Felipe Lampreia, Senator Jose Sarney (Inter Action Council) 1995 July Finance Minister Pedro Malan 1995 November Vice-President Marco Maciel
Agriculture Minister Jose Eduardo de Andrade Vieira
1996 March President Fernando Henrique Cardoso,
Foreign Minister Luiz Felipe Lampreia,
Industry and Commerce Minister Dorothea Woerneck,
Planning Minister Jose Serra,
Communications Minister Sergio Motta
1996 April Chamber of Deputies President Luiz Eduardo Magalhães 1997 May Planning Minister Antonio Kandir 1997 November Social Security Minister Reinhold Stephanes 1998 November Agriculture and Supply Minister Francisco Sérgio Turra 1998 November Foreign Minister Luiz Felipe Lampreia 2002 May Foreign Minister Celso Lafer 2005 May President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva
Traditional friendly relations, active role of Japanese-Brazilians, favorable image of Japan
- (1) Largest ethnic Japanese community overseas:
- In the 90 years since the arrival of the first group of migrants, immigrants from Japan and their progeny have played an active role in agriculture and a broad range of other fields in Brazilian society. Three ethnic Japanese have become cabinet ministers; Until February, 1999, four members of the chamber of Deputies (lower house of the National Congress) were Japanese ethnic and now one newly elected member from São Paulo State. In the general local election in October 1996 Mr. Cassio Taniguchi was elected mayor of Curitiba City, as the first Japanese descendant elected mayor in the State Capital. More 36 Japanese descendants were elected mayors in Parana and San Paulo State, and in other States. In 1998 it was commemorated for the 90th anniversary of the Japanese Immigration to Brazil. Foreign Minister Keizo Obuchi with the representatives of the Japanese Brazilian Parlamentary League, Mr. Masaaki Nakayama, Mr. Takeo Kawamura and Mr. Osamu Fujimura, visited Brazil to participate in the ceremonies held in the States of Parana and Sao Paulo. From Brazilian side, President Cardoso was on hand to celebrate the ceremony in Parana, so was Foreign Minister Lampreia in Sao Paulo.In 1999, it is commemorated for the 70th anniversary of the Japanese Immigration to Amazonas region.
- (2) Visit of VIPS:
- Many events were held in both Japan and Brazil during 1995 commemorating the hundredth anniversary of the conclusion of the bilateral treaty of amity, commerce and navigation. President Cardoso visited Japan as a state guest in March 1996, Prime Minister Hashimoto visited Brazil in August 1996. Their Majesties The Emperor and Empress visited Brazil in June 1997 for the first time as Emperor and Empress, marking the start of a new era in Japan-Brazil friendship. In June 1998, Foreign Minister Obuchi visited Brazil to celebrate the 90th anniversary of Japanese Immigration to Brazil and in November 1998, Foreign Minister Lampreia visited Japan as a guest of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In September 1999, President of the Japanese Brazilian Parlamentary League, Mr. Mitsuzuka visited Brazil.
- (3) Important trade partner, lively investment from Japan:
- Japan regularly imports more than it exports in its trade with Brazil; as of 1996 Japan was the third-ranking country among Brazil's export destinations and among its import sources.
- Brazil ranks eleventh in the world as a target of Japanese direct investment, following such countries as the United States, Indonesia, and the United Kingdom. Some 350 Japanese companies are now active in Brazil in such fields as manufacturing and finance.
- (4) Major projects in economic cooperation:
- Usiminas (Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais) (producing 4.03 million tons of crude steel a year), Amazon aluminum refinery (processing 340,000 tons of aluminum a year), Senibra project (paper pulp resources development, producing 370,000 tons of pulp a year), Cia. Siderurgica Tubarão (producing 3 million tons of slab a year), Carajá iron mine development (producing 33 million tons of iron ore a year), Cerrado plain agricultural development (180,000 ha).
Active bilateral cooperation at the government level
(1) Provision of funds
- (A) Yen loans
- (a) Loans pledged in 1992
- Guanabara Bay sewer system construction (Bridge Loan with IDB, L/A (Loan Agreement) signed March 1994)
- Environmental improvement project for the Rio Tieté Basin (approx. 49.4 billion yen, L/A (Loan Agreement) signed July 1995).
- (b) Loans pledged in 1996
- Flood control project for the Rio Itajaí Acú Basin (approx.17.6 billion yen)
- Environmental improvement project for the state of Paraná (approx. 23.7 billion yen).
- Basic hygiene improvement project for Todos os Santos (approx. 7.9 billion yen).
- Wind-power electricity generation project for the state of Ceará (approx. 6.0 billion yen).
- (c) Loans pledged in 1998
- Northeast Water Resources Development Program (approx. 6.123 billion yen )
- Urban Sanitation Improvement Project - "PMSS II" (approx. 6.868 billion yen)
- Sao Luis Sanitation Improvement Program (approx. 11.320 billion yen)
- Caatinga Environmental Conservation Project (approx. 3.595 billion yen)
- (B) Lending by the Export-Import Bank of Japan
- (a) Tied loans
- Bank loans to the National Social and Economic Development Bank (BNDES) and Bank of Brazil (BB) ($1 million each, implemented).
- JEXIM Credit Line to UNIBANCO (3 billion yen, L/A signed April 15,1998)
- Bank loans to the Bank of Brazil (6 billion yen, L/A signed August 26, 1999)
- (b) Untied loans
- Carajas iron mine project (13.0 billion yen, August 20, 1982).
- World Bank syndication for industrial pollution control project (6.5 billion yen, September 21, 1992).
- Modernization of equipment at private-sector corporations (32.5 billion yen, L/A signed September 21, 1992).
- Modernization of Fortaleza suburban railway ($268 million,L/A signed March 13, 1996).
- Construction of Sao Paulo-Florianopolis expressway ($450 million, L/A signed March 13, 1996).
- Road improvement in the state of Tocantins (5.5 billion yen, L/A signed March 17,1997).
- Modernization of equipment at private-sector corporations II. (34.5 billion yen, L/A signed May 30, 1992)
- Tocantins Rural Electrification Project (9,279.9 million yen, L/A signed March 6,1998)
- Electricity Transmission System North/South (45 billion yen, L/A signed November 26, 1998)
- Fernao Dias Highway Expansion Project (27 billion yen, L/A signed November 26, 1998)
- (c) Overseas Investment Loan
- Sixth loan toward the production capacity doubling project of Cenibra (Celulose Nipo-Brasileira S.A.) ($2 million, approved).
- Promotion of investment in Japanese-run businesses (3.0 billion yen, L/A signed September 30, 1996).
- Alunorte No. 3 Loan ($200 million, L/A signed December 11,1996)
- (d) Export finance
- EXIM Buyer's Credit to Petrobras for RLAM (27.5 billion yen, L/A signed March 24,1997)
- Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline Project (3.5 billion yen, L/A signed November 14, 1997)
- EXIM Buyer's Credit to Petrobras for URUCU (1.3 billion yen, L/A signed November 14, 1997)
- EXIM Buyer's Credit to the Federal Republic of Brazil to help Modernization of Universities and Research Institutes (18 billion yen, L/A signed May 13,1999)
(2) Trade insurance
- $1.5 billion credit line set up in March 1996 (a line of $1 billion was previously set up in May 1993).
(3) Technical cooperation
- (A) Brazil ranks seventh among the recipients of Japan's technical cooperation (and first in Latin America) in terms of the cumulative total. (1998 total, $53.02 million; cumulative total $720.48 million).
- (B) Major accomplishments
- Up through 1998 Japan received 6,396 trainees, dispatched 1,854 experts, sent 2,728 people as members of survey teams, provided 13,731.5 million yen worth of equipment and materials, undertook project-type technical cooperation in 33 cases, and completed or was carrying out 40 development surveys.
(4) Cultural Grant (cumulative total fiscal 1975-2004)
- (A) 106 million yen (Cultural Grant Aid)
- (B) 24.4 million yen (Grant Assistance for Cultural Grassroots Projects)
Active movement in private-sector economic relations
The Japanese business world and the Japanese government jointly invested in the big national projects such as USIMINAS, CENIBRA, Amazon-Aluminium in the 60's and 70's. But, in the 80's, the Japanese business world had bitter experience in Brazil's debt problem, and has been decreasing interests in investing in Brazil. The European and American business world, on the other hand, has been showing increasing interests in the Brazilian opening and liberalizing economy.
In September 1999, the 8th Joint Meeting of the Japan-Brazil Economic Committee was held in Tokyo, and the two delegations agreed that cooperation should be pursued to expand trade and investment between the two countries.
- Mr. Taro Aso, Minister for Foreign Affairs, to Visit Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, Mexico and Brazil (August 2007)
- Prof. Akiko Yamanaka, Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs, to Visit Brazil and Paraguay (September 2006)
- Visit to Japan by Brazilian Cabinet Mission (April 2006)
- Visit to Japan of His Excellency Mr. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (May 2005)
- Speech by Parliamentary Secretary for Foreign Affairs Mr. Katsuyuki Kawai at the General Assembly of the Parliamentary Confederation of the Americas "Japan's Pororoca: Japanese Migration to Brazil and the Reverse Flow Back to Japan" (May 2005)
- Visit by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to Latin America (Overview, Evaluation and Specific Results) (September 2004)
- Joint Communique between Japan and the Federative Republic of Brazil (September 2004)
- The Third Day of Prime Minister's Visit to Brazil (Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet Official Web Site) (September 2004)
- Address by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi on the Latin American and Caribbean Policies - Toward a New Japan-Latin America and Caribbean Partnership - (September 2004) [English] [Japanese] [Spanish (PDF) ] [Portuguese (PDF) ]
- The Second Day of Prime Minister's Visits to Brazil (Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet Official Web Site) (September 2004)
- The First Day of Prime Minister's Visits to Brazil (Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet Official Web Site) (September 2004)
- Brazilian Coordinators for International Relations Pay Courtesy Call on Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet Official Web Site) (September 2004)
- Symposium on the Brazilian Community in Japan (February 2003)
- Visit to Japan by Minister of Foreign Affairs Celso Lafer of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Overview and Evaluation) (May 2002)
- Visit to Japan of Mr. Luiz Felipe Palmeira Lampreia, Minister of External Relations of Brazil (November 25-29, 1998)
Press Secretary' Press Conference on Brazil
- Embassy of Japan in Brasil Web Site
- Consulate-General of Japan in Manaus Web Site (Japanese only)
- Consulate General of Japan in Rio de Janeiro Web Site
- Consulate General of Japan in Sao Paulo Web Site
- Embassy of Brazil in Japan Web Site
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