*View our Interview with Tom & Lisa Butler on EVP & "The Movie White Noise!"

Elctronic Voice Phenomenon: The receiving of voice on videotape for which there is no known physical source. The electronic voice phenomenon {EVP} is controversial; EVP researchers believe they capture on tape the voices of the dead, spirit beings and extraterrestrials, but skeptics contend the voices come from radio, television and city band {CB} radio transmissions or are imagined from static and white sound. EVP voices often are faint and difficult to understand; to some, they seem more like aural simulacra than real voices.

EVP is the first high-technology attempt to communicate with the dead and other discarnate beings. Thomas Alva Edison believed that an electronic device could be built for such a communication. He was fascinated by spirit photography and believed that if spirits could be captured on film, they could be reached electronically. Edison announced in the October 1920 issue of 'Scientific American' that he was working on such a device, but it was not completed prior to his death in 1931. He left behind no machine and no plans for one.

In 1936, Attila Von Szalay began experimenting with a record cutter and player in an attempt to capture voice on phonograph records. He said that he began to hear a 'tiny voice' in the air near him in 1938. He believed the voice belonged to his dead son, Edson. The experiments yielded what sounded like male and female voices, whistles and rapping. In 1947, Von Szalay tried using a wire recorder in an effort to improve his results but had difficulty with the wire.

In the 1950's, George Hunt Williamson attempted to tape paranormal voices, particularly of extraterrestrials. In 1956, Von Szalay began experiments with researchers {including Raymond Bayless and D. Scott Rogo} to capture voices on electronic tape.

The EVP remained in obscurity until the unexpected discovery Friedrich Jurgenson, a Swedish opera singer, painter and film producer. In 1959, Jurgenson tape recorded bird songs in the country side near his villa. On play back, he heard a male voice discuss" nocturnal bird songs" in Norwegian. At first he thought it was interferance from a radio broadcast but nonetheless made other recordings to see if the same thing happened. Though he hard no voices during taping, many voices were heard on playback. The voices gave personal information about Jurgenson, plus instructions on how to record more voices.

Jurgenson wrote about his experiments in "VOICES FROM THE UNIVERSE"," published in 1964 with a record. In 1965, he met Konstantin Raudive, A Letivian psyhcologist and philosopher, who was so intrigued, by the EVP that he devoted himself to reasearching it and recorded over years more than 100,000 voices. Raudive published his research in German "THE INAUDIBLE MADE AUDIBLE" translated into English in 1971 under the title "BREAKTHROUGH." EVP voices are also called 'Raudive Voices,' named after him.

By the 1980's, thousands of EVP researchers around the world were recording messages from the dead and from more evolved spiritual beings who had once lived as humans on earth. Many are engineers and electronics experts who have devised sofisticated experimental equipment for capturing the voices. In Germany, 'The Association for Voice Taping Reasearch' was founded in the 1970's, followed by a second organization a few years later, 'The Reasearch Association For Voice Taping.' In 1982, Sara Estep founded the 'American Association-Electronic Voice phenomena' in the U.S.

Estep rates voices according to three categories: Class 'C' are faint, whispery voices that can barely be heard and are sometimes inindecipherable; Class 'B' voices, are louder and clearer and can sometimes be heard without headphones; and Class 'A' voices are clear, can be heard without headphones, and can be duplicated into other tapes.

EVP voices are not heard during recording, only on playback. They typically speak in short, cryptic and sometimes grammatically incorrect phrases. They speak in a variety of languages, reguardless of the listeners, and sometimes sing indistinguishable lyrics. Sometimes the voices sound natural and sometimes they sound mechanical. Sometimes one or two voices are heard, and other times a multitude of them. The voices are indentifiable as men, women and children. Animal sounds have been recorded as well. Some voices have said they are able to communicate on tape through ectoplasm. Voices also report that they communicate through one of many" Central Transmitting Agencies" on the other side.

There are various ways to attempt to record EVP voices. The simplest is to turn a recorder on and leave it running. Enthusiasts record at any time of day and night, but say night is best to reduce the risk of broadcast interference. Serious reasearchers employ sensitive microphones, amplifiers and high quality tape. Some researchers ask questions and leave a tape running to capture answers that are inaudible during taping, but audible on playback. Often headphons must be used to distinguish EVP voices. Samples of some of the clearer recordings can be heard on the internet. The experimenter's intent is said to be a major factor in the results obtained. An open minded, positive attitude is desirable. Doubt seems to dampen results.

Many investigators doubt EVP voices are paranormal. Between 1970-1972, the 'Society for PSYCHICAL reasearch' {SPR}, in London, commissioned D.J. Ellis to investigate EVP voices. He concluded that the interpretation of the sounds was highly subjective and was suceptible to imagination, and that the voices most likely were a natural phenomenon. Such conclutions are supported by the 'Rorschach' sound test, which demonstrates that a person can listen to a medly of sounds and hear whatever one wishes. Other skeptics propose that the voices are due to psychokinesis in which sounds are imprinted on the tape due to intense desire of the experimenter to capture 'paranormal voices.' Raudive, who died on Septenber 2, 1974, expressed no particular theory on EVP.

In 1982, the EVP fiels recieved an international publicity boost with the annoucement of George Meek, a retired engineer, that he and a medium, William O'Neill, an electronics expert, had built a devoce called 'The Spiricom' that could communicate with the other side. Meek, long interested in survival after death, had been given the idea for building a device by a discarnate scientist who communicate during a seance. The dead scientist told Meek he would cooperate in giving him instructions.

Meek then met O'Neill in 1977. O'Neill's spirit communicator identified himself as "Doc Nick," a former ham radio operator, and delivered the thecnical information used by Meek and O'Neill to build Spiricom. According to Doc Nick, Spiricom would make available thousands of sensitive frequencies to the other side. Meek founded the 'Metascience Foundation of North Carolina' and invested more than a half million dollars in the research.

Spiricom allegedly enabled sustained, two-way conversations between the living and the dead, a vast improvement over the cryptic phrases caracteristics of most EVP voices. Meek made available the plans for spiricom devices to anyone at no cost. Unfortunately, no one who constructed the device reported success. EVP reasearchers, theorized the spiricom's success rested largely on the unique mediumship abilities of O'Neill. Meek went on to pursue increasingly sophisticated systems intended to reach astral levels where 'higher minds' resided.

Despite such spotty experimental records, EVP researchers strive to capture something on tape that will prove survival after death. Seances, at which voices are attempted to be captured live for audiences, are conducted for individuals, groups, and even the media.

The EVP has moved into other media as well, including television, video and film cameras, and computers. In 1967, Edison purportedly came through a West Germany medium, Sigrun Seuterman, with advice for tuning television sets to 740 megahertz in order to recieve paranormal effects. Many thecnological advances were made in the 1980's. Hans Otto Koenig of West Germany developed sophisticated electronic equipment that used ultraviolet and infrared lights and extremely low beat frequency oscillators. Other electronic systems were developed by Jules Harsh and Maggie Harsh-Fischbach of Luxenburg. Researchers in several countries reported a spontaneous appearance of images of the dead on their television set. In 1985, Klaus Schrieber of West Germany, assited by Martin Wenzel, reported successful audio and video contact through televisions. Two of the subjects were Schrieber's dead wives.

Computer communications also developed in the1980's, first with unsolicited printouts and then with sustained computer contact.



Electronic voice phenomenon is the appearance of intelligible voices on recording tape which have no known physical explanation. Certain equipment, which is easily obtained and need not be expensive, and a good deal of patience and persistence is necessary. It is not necessary to be a psychic superstar or gifted medium to communicate with unseen worlds.

Equipment Needed:

Tape Recorder--Paranormal voices have been recorded on all types of tape recorders. Because of the vocal quality of the voice, however, it is advisable to use either an open reel or a cassette tape deck rather than a portable tape recorder with a built-in microphone. Tape recorders of this nature tend to be noisy and in most cases will overshadow the faint voices which first begin to speak. Whatever type of tape recorder is chosen be sure it has a counter.

Amplifier--Since a tape deck does not have an amplifier it will be necessary to use one into which the tape recorder can be plugged. There is a wide price range. The one you choose should be of high quality with low noise characteristics but it is not necessary to buy the most expensive one on the market. Many home stereo systems have an outlet for a tape recorder. If you have a stereo, check and see if there is a connection for a recorder. If so, you can play your tape recorder through that and avoid the cost of an amplifier.

Microphone--A microphone should always be used while recording. In this way, you will have a record, on tape, of the date and time you made your recordings as well as questions asked during the recording. Some entities also seem to use the microphone in order to answer your questions as well as make comments of their own. The omnidirectional electret condenser microphone is sensitive and gives good results.

Headphones--Headphones should always be worn when playing a tape back. Since the paranormal voice is not load, especially in-the early months of recording, many voices will be missed unless headphones are used. These should be plugged into the amplifier. The ear-muff type which completely covers the ear are better than the flat type.

Tape--Any low noise, high sensitivity tape may be used. Regular tape is recommended rather than high-density tape which generally has a higher residual noise level than regular tape. If a cassette tape deck is used for recording, I prefer the 60-minute tape (30 minutes each side). Longer tapes at times become entangled with the inner mechanism and parts may be destroyed as you free it.

Speaker--A separate speaker is not necessary but is a welcome addition. Without the speaker, only someone wearing headphones can hear a tape as it is played back. With the speaker, everyone in the room can hear. It is also helpful to the experimenter. When he hears an unusually loud, clear voice during playback, he can take off the headphones and replay the segment through the external speaker. Then he can classify the voices as Class A, B, or C.

It is not necessary to spend a great deal of money in order to start recording voices. If you have some of the equipment mentioned, use it. Later on, if you decide to continue working in the field, you will have a better idea what needs to be replaced, or the type of equipment you prefer.

Recording ProcedureGeneral:

Always tape When your energy level is highest!

Scheduling-- Although voices will speak on tape at any time of day or night it is advisable, especially at the beginning, to have a regular time and place to do your recording. The time chosen should be that which is most convenient for you. Wherever you set up your recording equipment, try to find a place that will be quiet and free of interruption as you record. A seldom used room, or a corner in the basement, might be considered. It is better to make one or two short recordings every day, or as frequently as possible, than one long recording once or twice a week. Those in the next dimension will learn when and where to expect you, and then will begin to try to speak.

Announcements--A short prayer and then an invitation to friends, known and unknown, in the unseen world to join you, who come in love, peace and truth is recommended as you start to record. This can be followed with the date and time and the question: "Do I have spirit world friends here?" After a pause of a minute or so to allow those on the other side to reply who are able to, another question can be asked, followed by a pause and so on. All of this should be done with the microphone turned on and the tape recorder recording. If the taper wishes to speak to a specific friend or loved one in the next dimension, he should ask helpers on the other side to please get this person for him. For best results, it is advised to make this request as you end recording for the day. As an example: "When I return tomorrow, I would especially like to speak to my mother, Mary Smith. If you would please try to bring her to me, I will be very grateful."

Recordings should be limited to five minutes. Since playback of the recording just completed takes so long (a five minute recording may take half an hour to play back to be sure none of the voices have been missed) short recordings are strongly recommended. Announcements, questions and comments should be to the point, courteous and conducted in a matter-of-fact way. Although it is natural to want to establish contact with a friend, try to limit these contacts. Remember they have their own, new busy life to live and we do an injustice to them if we try to call them forth continuously. We can better spend our time tying to find out, through our tape recorder, as much as possible about the next dimension. It is helpful to those on the other side to give feedback as you start each new recording. Briefly mention, on tape, what you have succeeded in picking up from them in the previous recording. In this way, they know what has come through and what hasn't. It is also a good idea when you end recording to say, "I'm going to stop recording for now but I will try to return soon and I hope I will have many friends present at that time who will be able to speak in a good, clear Class A voice and answer my questions. Thank you for being here today."

After this, let the recording run for about a minute. Frequently after your final announcement a paranormal voices will have a final message of its own. When recordings are made at night it is not necessary that they be done in the dark.

Playback--As mentioned, it takes a long time to play a recording back. The paranormal voice is not heard until tape playback. Eventually they become stronger and clearer but at first we cannot expect many Class A voices. The voices may speak in whispers so the experimenter should be alert for this. We should also not expect to tape voices every time we sit down to record. It may take several months, or longer, for the first voice to come through. This is why patience and persistence and a regular schedule are so important. Once voices begin to speak, they seem to learn through practice how to come through more frequently as well as to improve in quality.

Recording Procedure--Technique:

There are different techniques that can be used to record paranormal voices. We will look at the two which are used the most often.

Straight Microphone--Turn on the microphone, push the record button on the tape recorder and begin your first announcement. Some individuals prefer this method. There is less background noise and with straight microphone recordings, there is less controversy. At the same time, the voices, which are recorded this way, are usually faint with few Class A voices being taped.

Microphone with Background Sound Source--Since the paranormal voice uses sounds in the environment to help with its voice manifestation, the experimenter can deliberately supply these sounds. This can be done in several ways, The best, and the one the voices seem to prefer, is to turn a radio on, volume low, to an inactive channel. Some radios have an air-band channel, 108- 136 MHz. Tuning such a radio to 125-130 MHz can bring good results. It is good to tune your radio between two channels (FM or Air-band) where there is some earth plane break-in. The paranormal voice will use, at times, the voice of the earth plane radio operator to help in his own communication. The experimenter needs to be careful, however, not to attribute the earth plane break-in to a paranormal voice. He also should be careful to keep the volume down or it will overshadow the paranormal voice. At the same time it needs to be loud enough to be faintly heard in order for those in the next dimension to be able to benefit from it.

Keeping a Log-- The experimenter should develop a good record-keeping system for recordings and their results. As soon as a message is recorded, the date, time, place on the counter where the message is received, the message itself, and the question asked should be entered in the log. Each tape should be properly labeled, including tape number and side to correspond with the log.

Reverse Paranormal Voices on Tapes:

Some EVP experimenters have discovered that they have voices on the reverse side of recorded tapes. The taper makes a recording in the usual way and then upon the conclusion he turns the tape over and plays it in reverse. If he has recorded from 0-50, he would turn it over where he has stopped--in this case 50--and play it back to 0 or the start of the days recording. It is at this point that the voices are heard. They are not heard on the forward side of the tape. Take the following procedure step by step.

First: Take both reels off your recorder. Turn both reels to the other side.

Second: Place the right reel on the left spindle and the left reel on the right spindle,

Third: Give one twist to the tape on the left side, just before it starts to play back through the recording head. In most tapes the shiny side of the tape is now up.

Fourth: Push your play button and the tape will start to play in reverse. As soon as you hear your voice speaking gibberish, you will know you have completed the transaction correctly. The paranormal voice will be clear and easily interpreted.

The reverse voices need sounds, just as the forward voices do. Best results are obtained using your radio. If you want to preserve these reverse voices, you must duplicate them or else continue your next recording a counter or two after the last reverse voice is received. Unless you do this, they will be erased, as the forward voices are, when you rerecord the next time. Reverse voices are not an occasional thing. They speak almost as often on the reverse side as on the forward side. There are also reverse voices on the wrong side of cassette tapes. After making a cassette recording, have it duplicated onto a reel to reel tape. Then turn the reel tape over as described above and play it in reverse. This will be, in effect, a play through of a cassette tape on its wrong side. If you don't have a reel to reel recorder ask a friend to duplicate the reverse side of your cassette tape as he is playing it on his reel recorder, back onto a cassette tape. You will then have a copy of the cassette recording you have made--as it sounds in reverse and can listen to it at your leisure.

Sarah Estep

Reversing a Cassette Tape Player:

It is possible to reverse some cassette tape players.  The type of player that plays in both directions, usually have a mechanical mechanism to move the read head for reverse playing.  If you can disable that mechanism, so that the read head remains in the same  position as it is for forward playing, then it will in effect, read the reverse side of the tape.

Recording Sound into a Computer:

These instructions apply to a PC type computer.

Some EVP experimenters use the computer as a tool for editing sound tracks, reviewing what they have recorded either in a computer or on a tape recorder and for sending samples via email.  Getting sound into the computer can be complicated, and each version of Windows poses different solutions.  In general, these are the steps you should look for:

The computer should have a LINE IN somewhere.  It may be on a speaker, but it is probably on the back of your computer.  If all you have is a MICROPHONE IN jack, then you may need to use an impedance matching cord.  (It can get to be complicated trying to match inputs and outputs, so the best thing to do is plug in a see if it works.)  An impedance matching cord is designed to connect the low impedance of the SPEAKER OUT jack in a recorder (around 8 ohms) to the high impedance of the LINE IN jack of the computer (around 10K ohms).  Such a cord is available at Radio Shack.

You want to connect your tape recorder to the computer--ideally LINE OUT of the tape recorder to LINE IN of the computer.  Connecting the tape recorder HEADPHONE  or SPEAKER OUT jack to the MICROPHONE IN jack of the computer may work, or any combination of these.  If there is any problem, it will show up as a recording level problem or noise.

If you have Cool Edit, then you can use it as a tape recorder.  If not, on a PC, look under START, PROGRAMS, ACCESSORIES, ENTERTAINMENT for something like a SOUND RECORDER.  You can use that as a tape recorder as well.

Go to START, SETTINGS, CONTROL PANEL and open something like SOUNDS AND MEDIA.  (It is good to make a shortcut for this icon on your desk top so that you can get to it easier.)  You will see a SOUND PLAYBACK and a SOUND RECORDING VOLUME button.  Click on the recording button and you will see that you can select LINE IN or MICROPHONE IN volume controls (Windows 2000 me).  These need to agree with the input jack you use.

The rest is just like running a tape recorder.  Most of the time, you will be able to simply plug in and begin recording.  Also, different tape recorders and microphones work in different ways on the computer, so switch things around to make it work.  A very good microphone MAY not work while a cheep one designed for the computer will.

There are considerations about the best type of file you should use for saving sound tracks.  Some people are beginning to save in MP3, which has a higher compression ratio than the usual WAVE file, but WAVE is still the standard.  Cool Edit is by Syntrillium, and can be downloaded from http://www.syntrillium.com/cooledit/index.html.  Other editing software may be good, but Cool Edit seems to be the standard.  A license to operate their software is not too costly.

The higher sample rate you use, the more memory the sound track will take.  16 to 22 K is good, but in reality, much lower samples should work.  (Our target frequency range is around 100 Hz to 3KHz.  For 3 KHz, you only need to sample 6 KHz to recover the data in digital.)


EVP Related Links:

American Association of Electronic Voice Phenomena


AA-EVP is an association founded in 1982 by Sarah Estep to provide objective evidence that we survive death in an individual conscious state.

Judy Guggenheim:

Judy, and Bill Guggenheim have researched After Death Communications (ADC) for many years.  Judy has written a book tilted, Hello from Heaven!  Her site is at: http://www.after-death.com

The Scole Group:

There is little doubt that the spotlight of interest is focused on the Scole Group (properly known as the Spiritual Science Foundation) more than any other metaphysical group. This is a development group in every sense of the word. The phenomena they are reporting, and the evidential material that is coming from that phenomena, promises to be a considerable benefit to everyone who is interested in spirit communications. You can access the Scole Group's web site at: http://www.psisci.f9.co.uk/

The address is:

Spiritual Science Foundation 2000
Street Farmhouse, Scole
Diss, Norfolk IP21 4DR


Go to http://www.psisci.f9.co.uk/subjects.htm/mainframe.htm and click on the TDC (Trans Dimensional Communications) button at the top of the web page, on the left of that page, click on "Article 1 (March '97."  You will see information about the germanium device on that page.

Alexander MacRae:

Alexander MacRae is a long time researcher into EVP.  We believe you may be interested in reading an article in Fate Magazine by Jose Feola, Ph.D. concerning Alexander's serendipitous discovery of EVP.  The article is posted at:


You can also find information about Alexander MacRae's new book on the Literature page.

Utah Ghost Hunters Society:

This group has been featured on national television, both as ghost hunters and as EVP experimenters, and have won many awards.  They work extensively with EVP in their investigations.  Their web site is at: http://www.ghostwave.com.  This site contains many good examples of EVP voices that they have recorded.

Haunted New Jersey:

There are some very interesting EVP recordings available for review on this site.  Unlike the usual controlled environment maintained by many EVP experimenters, it appears that these recordings have been made under field conditions.  Take a listen at http://www.hauntednewjersey.com/.


Konstantinos is an author and researcher in areas of spirit communication that includes EVP.  He is planning to conduct an a coordinated séance Feb 2, 2001 with visitors to his web site.  Visit his site at http://www.konstantinos.com   He has several examples of audio and video EVP/ITC on the site.  You can read the Fate Magazine article, You Can Hear Dead People by Konstantinos at http://www.llewellyn.com/fate/fate_articles.php3?id=95.

Victor Zammit:

Victor is the author of the book, A Lawyer Presents the Case for the Afterlife.  You can find information about this  most interesting book at: http://www.victorzammit.com

Ghost Voices:

This is an interesting site that has information about hauntings research with a strong emphasis on EVP.  http://www.ghostvoices.com/

The Academy of Religious and Psychical Research:

The ARPR is ". . .an academic affiliate of SPIRITUAL FRONTIERS FELLOWSHIP, INTERNATIONAL. Its purposes are threefold:

"FIRST, to encourage dialogue, exchange of ideas and cooperation between clergy and academics of religion and philosophy and scientists, researchers and academics of all scientific and humanistic disciplines in the fields of psychical research and new disciplines as well as the historic sciences.

"SECOND, to conduct an education program for these scholars, the Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship membership and the general public, blending data already available in the area of their common interest with the interchange of views stimulated in these scholars, to the end that both the scientific and religion communities may be better informed about such facts and views and their propriety, value and respectability.

"THIRD, to work closely with, and offer good offices to, all reputable organizations having related interests in the fields of education, religion, science and psychical research."
(Text taken from the ARPR web site.)

The ARPR is at: http://www.lightlink.com/arpr

A Dutch website about recording voices.

Hello, I am an EVP researcher and also a film maker.
I have recently made a film about Friedrich Jurgenson and the EVP (fictional).
The film will be touring world festivals from Jan 2005.

Yours Sincerely,
Mark Haynes-Kershaw

All credit and information obtained in these notes {* to *} goes to AA-EVP, Copyright ©.
If you know of a web site that could be added to this list,
please e-mail us here.

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When architect Jonathan Rivers (Michael Keaton) loses his wife in a tragic accident, he turns to the shadowy, unnerving world of Electronic Voice Phenomenon - communication from beyond the grave. But as he begins to penetrate the mysteries of EVP, Jonathan makes a shocking discovery: once a portal to the other world is opened, there's no telling what will come through it.

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