LCAS Annuals, vol. XXIII

Preface to LCAS Annuals, vol. XXIII

Publication summaries:

Vysk. dr. Jonas Boruta, SJ

Have the Ideas of Bishop Antanas Baranauskas Lived to See „Their Dawning Years“?

Dr. Vytautas Jogėla

Antanas Baranauskas at the Saint Petersburg Spiritual Academy 1858–1862

Habil. dr. Vanda Žekonienė

The Conception of Ecology According to „the Forest of Anykščiai“ by Antanas Baranauskas

Dr. Kazimieras Garšva

The Unstressed Vowels of the Dialect of the Second Easterners from Antanas Baranauskas until Now

Dr. Dalia Čiočytė

The Relationship between God and nation in the Poems of Antanas Baranauskas

Dr. Vytautas Berenis

The Love of Homeland and National Consciousness of Antanas Baranauskas

Eglė Klimaitė-Keturakienė

The Christian-National Consciousness of Antanas Baranauskas in the Context of „Aušra“

Dr. Paulius Subačius

Europe in the Eyes of Antanas Baranauskas

Dr. Roma Bončkutė

Ancient Topoi in the Writings of Antanas Baranauskas

Habil. dr. Egidijus Aleksandravičius

The „Polomania“ of Antanas Baranauskas in the Eyes of Lithuanian National Movement Leaders

Dr. Bronius Makauskas

Antanas Baranauskas – Misunderstood Intellectual and Bishop

Habil. dr. Aldona Prašmantaitė

Antanas Baranauskas and the Roman Catholic Translations of the Bible into Lithuanian in the 19th Century: Historical Aspect

Dr. Darius Staliūnas

What Language is the Best to Teach Byelorussians the Catholic Religion? (One Problem of Central Russian Authorities in the 19th Century)

Krzysztof Buchowski

Polish-Lithuanian Relations in Seinai Region at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries

Kun. prof. Tadeusz Krahel

The Rule of Bishop Steponas Zvierovičius in the Diocese of Vilnius in the Reminiscences of Rev. Janas Kurčevskis

Dr. Vilma Žaltauskaitė

Changes in the Relations between Russia and the Holy See during the Last Decades of the 19th Century

Algimantas Katilius

Bishop Antanas Baranauskas and the problems of the spiritual seminary: the teaching of russian subjects

Vysk. dr. Jonas Boruta, SJ

Lithuania and the Holy See: Historical Perspective

Algimantas Katilius

What Did the Vatican Know about Lithuania at the Beginning of the 20th Century?

Dr. Juozas Skirius

Lithuania and the Vatican During World War I

Dr. Algimantas Kasparavičius

Lithuanian-Vatican Relations or the Importance of the Holy See on Lithuanian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period

Dr. Regina Laukaitytė

The Battle of the Soviet Authorities Against the Vatican During the First Decade of Occupation

Dr. Arūnas Streikus

Sowjet-Vatikanische Beziehungen und die katholische Kirche in Litauen in den Achtzigen des XX Jahrhunderts

Dr. Paulius Subačius

Public Reflection on the Relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the Holy See after the Restoration of Independence

Andrius Marcinkevičius

A Review of the Development of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania between the Two World Wars

Dr. Arūnas Streikus

Research on the Catholic Church in Lithuania 1944–1990

Akad. habil. dr. Sofija Kanopkaitė

Status quo in Vitaminology

Habil. dr. Ona Tijūnėlienė, Inesa Jurgaitytė

Die Freude – Quelle und Mittel der geistigen Vervollkommnung eines Katholiken

Dr. kun. Kazimieras Meilius, Dr. Jonas Juškevičius, Dr. Gediminas Mesonis

Evident and Veiled Labyrinths of Organized Crime and Its Effect on Man

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Preface

This is the second volume of „The Chronicle of Lithuanian Catholic Academy of Sciences“ (LCAS) published in 2003. According to tradition, it also includes materials from scholarly conferences, in this case, three conferences, organized jointly by the LCAS and other institutions. The speakers were researchers from Lithuania and other countries.

This volume analyzes different aspects of the activities of bishop and poet Antanas Baranauskas, who was also interested in scientific research. It deals with the situation of the Catholic Church in the countries ruled by Russia during his life-time, Lithuanian-Polish relations, the bishop in the context of the national revival, his contribution to the exact sciences, and some aspects of his poetic works. The materials of the conference dealing with the relations of Lithuania and the Holy See analyze various periods of the 20th century: the beginning of the century, the years of World War I, the interwar period, and the decades of Soviet occupation. This volume reviews the questions discussed at an international seminar devoted to Christianity in the Baltic countries in the 20th century, and also analyzes the problems of historical research about some religious confessions in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The programs of the conferences are given at the beginning of the sections. There are also non-conference articles about vitaminology and about joy as a source of spiritual improvement.

The section of newly published materials looks at the activities of Blessed Jurgis Matulaitis, the situation of the believers during the Soviet era, the writings of non-Christian historians testifying about Christ as a historical figure. The anniversaries of members of the LCAS are noted as well those who have departed to eternity.

Thus, this volume analyzes the expression of the Catholic Church of Lithuania in the 19th and 20th centuries, and the contribution of its members to the religious, social, and cultural life of our country.

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Vysk. dr. Jonas Boruta, SJ

Have the Ideas of Bishop Antanas Baranauskas Lived to See „Their Dawning Years“?

The 100th anniversary of the death of Bishop Antanas Baranauskas occurred in the autumn of 2002. During the century his poetry (except for the poem „The Forest of Anykščiai“) and the evaluation of his ideological, social, and national views were very controversial. He was especially attacked because of his moderate position regarding Lithuanian-Polish national relations. The position, which Baranauskas was defending at the end of 19th century, is similar to the contemporary, modern conception of harmony between nations and is, in fact, the Christian principle „love your neighbor as yourself“ applied in resolving the conflicts between ethnic groups and nations.

The same is true about the view of Baranauskas toward the relationship between science and religion, between scientific-technological progress and morality and conscience. The ideas expressed in his poetry and correspondence are identical to the thoughts of the scholarly coryphaei in the middle of 20th century.

Baranauskas, who was generally not understood in his epoch, in the words of Maironis, lived to see „his dawning years“. Comparing the ideas Baranauskas expressed in the second half of 19th century with the views of our philosophers and scientists in the middle of 20th century, the article shows the validity of this statement.

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Dr. Vytautas Jogėla

Antanas Baranauskas at the Saint Petersburg Spiritual Academy 1858–1862

This article discusses the period when Antanas Baranauskas lived at the Saint Petersburg Spiritual Academy. In the Academy, he matured as a person and an author who influenced Lithuanian culture. At that time, the life at the Academy was far from peaceful – various intrigues would arise between the academics and the authorities, who were attempting to take control over this educational institution and interfered in the affairs of the Academy's personnel.

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Habil. dr. Vanda Žekonienė

The Conception of Ecology According to „the Forest of Anykščiai“ by Antanas Baranauskas

Based on historical and monographic sources the author describes the changes in landed property resources from the year 1000 until 2000. She speaks in detail about the fate of the Anyksciai Forest and what influence it had on the poet.

She quotes the lines from the poem „The Forest of Anykščiai“ by Antanas Baranauskas, in which the poet with creative youthful energy and creative power presents an as yet unsurpassed description of the spiritual condition of a person in the background of a fragile and easily injured nature inviting one to contemplate in silence and be spiritually uplifted.

In the poem „The Forest of Anykščiai“ the poet Baranauskas without using the concept of ecology was the first to give its most poetical expression.

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Dr. Kazimieras Garšva

The Unstressed Vowels of the Dialect of the Second Easterners from Antanas Baranauskas until Now

Baranauskas called the people speaking the western dialect of Eastern Aukštaičiai the second easterners-the present North Panevėžiškiai. During the life of Baranauskas the dialect was used on both sides of the Lithuanian-Latvian border and did not have any differences. On the basis of dialect texts collected by Baranauskas and all other sources, we may conclude that during 120 years the use of unstressed vowels i and u (broadened and not broadened) has remained the same. The former short vowels at the end of a word were dropped and in their place no „murmuring vowel“ was pronounced.

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Dr. Dalia Čiočytė

The Relationship between God and nation in the Poems of Antanas Baranauskas

The poems of Bishop Antanas Baranauskas (1835–1902), one of the greatest Lithuanian Romanticists, indicate his intense striving to describe and explain the history of Lithuania. In his literary interpretations of Lithuania’s history Baranauskas imitates the methods of thought concerning history used in the Bible and Tradition. The historical fate of Lithuania is understood as a manifestation of metaphysical justice; in part, as the compensation for transgressions („God’s switch“), but mostly as the innocent sufferings of the righteous, connected with the hope of divine intervention.

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Dr. Vytautas Berenis

The Love of Homeland and National Consciousness of Antanas Baranauskas

The article deals with the problems of the ethno-cultural and ethno-political self-awareness of Antanas Baranauskas. Traditionally, Lithuanian historiography has viewed Baranauskas as a person with unionist views favoring Polish culture. Recognizing his poetic talent, researchers, nevertheless, have reproached him for animosity toward the Lithuanian national movement. He was especially criticized by Juozas Tumas-Vaižgantas and Jonas Basanavičius. Being a traditionalist in religious matters, Baranauskas in his political and pastoral work fought against the division of the church on ethnic grounds and favored a unionist Polish-Lithuanian state. He did not consider the Lithuanian nation to be a community with ethno-political aspirations. Therefore, he saw its future in connection with the Polish nation. After the creation of the Lithuanian state in 1918, and especially after the establishment of the ideology of the tautininkai (nationalists) after the coup of 1926, the national consciousness of Baranauskas was questioned, and his political views were held fallacious. Similar evaluations have persisted up to this day.

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Eglė Klimaitė-Keturakienė

The Christian-National Consciousness of Antanas Baranauskas in the Context of „Aušra“

The article looks at the creative works (mostly poems) of Antanas Baranauskas in the middle of the 19th c. as a form expressing Christian national consciousness with a spiritual structure close to the culture of Christianity in the Middle Ages.

In his works Baranauskas expressed the religious/philosophical idea of this culture that the highest truth is the redemption of a man’s soul, and thus the fate of a nation depends on the will of God as well as the strength and morality of the nation’s spirit. Baranauskas understood national reawakening to be the fostering of the Lithuanian peasant’s spiritual culture, relying on the unity of the Catholic Church. The spiritual basis of the Lithuanian identity was Catholicism.

In the context of Polish-Lithuanian relations Baranauskas played the function of an intermediary for which the searches of Christian dialogue (sermons, hymns, rituals of the Catholic Church) fostering the Christian feeling of Lithuanian peasants through a distinctive esthetic consciousness were more important. One can say that the ties of Catholic and national consciousness for Baranauskas were determined by the czarist policies (Russification, spreading of the Orthodox faith) and the goal to strengthen the spiritual basis of the Catholic Church (which was denied by some of the writers in „Aušra“ such as Jonas Basanavičius). The complicated relations of Baranauskas with the publishers of „Aušra“, his non-involvement in the secular newspaper was determined by the views of the Catholic poet, the too great regard for the works of those writing for „Aušra“, and the lack of respect for the author of a text.

For Baranauskas, who combined God and Homeland in his literary works, national values could not be separated from the universal Christian values of Faith, Hope, and Charity.

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Dr. Paulius Subačius

Europe in the Eyes of Antanas Baranauskas

Antanas Baranauskas did not leave any notable remarks about Europe, however, reflection of the European dimension was a constant in his perception of the world. Relying on this assumption, the Baranauskas-related European topics are analyzed at three levels: biographical, in terms of cultural contacts and influences, and in the level of consciousness, reconstructed in the texts. The paper refutes the prevailing statements of biographers, who claim that during his studies in Europe the poet paid little attention to the main purpose of his sojourn in Munich. The paper emphasizes the intentions of the church hierarchy that the future teachers at the Spiritual Academy have a thorough introduction into European culture. The paper notes the opinion of Aleksandras Dambrauskas, Pranciškus Būčys and later commentators that Baranauskas translated the Bible relying on obsolete biblical concepts. The reasons for his reliance on the views of the French Catholic biblicist Fulcran Gregoire Vigouroux is also discussed and his translation of the Bible itself is considered to be an essentially Europeanizing act. The observations of Baranauskas about the relations between national, dead, and artificial languages in Europe are used to help reconstruct his opinion about the culture of the continent. Seeing in Europe a combination of national individualities and common interests, Baranauskas emphasized that it was based on the heritage of Antiquity and Christianity. The intermingling of pastoral motives and images of Lithuanian folklore in his poetry allows one to speak about the introduction of the culture of European models of poetical thinking in Lithuania. Although Europe is more a spiritual rather than a geographical category for Baranauskas, his texts are full of clear references and distinctions as to where the eastern border of Europe lies. It is identified with the extent of the influence of Lithuanian-Polish civilization. For Baranauskas this was a clearly evident never losing its relevance aspect of Lithuania’s civilizing mission.

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Dr. Roma Bončkutė

Ancient Topoi in the Writings of Antanas Baranauskas

Relying on the work of Ernst Robert Curtius on the antique topoi system dominating in the literature of the Middle Ages, the article analyzes the topoi in the writings of Antanas Baranauskas. It is believed that in the 19th century the growing needs to socialize and thus compensate the loss of family, to share thoughts with soul mates about the difficult to know world, to record every historically valuable (heroic) fact of one's own life determined the retention of rhetoric. The needs of the Romantic genius to remain historical did not permit for some time the abandonment of rhetorical speech. The mediation of rhetoric permitted the representation of the relationships in the changing world, until forms could be found that conveyed directly the newly understood reality and the „I“. The topoi appropriated from rhetorical or traditional poetry helped to organize and systematize everyday life. As a mean of abstraction, the topos helped the reader to sense intuitively what was unsaid, to create a reality beyond the text.

Both isolated and interrelated topoi from antiquity are found in his writings of Baranauskas. The most frequent topoi of fanciful eloquence, such as meekness, participation of a third person or God, insurance and others did not allow Baranauskas to finally make the „I“ an object and helped him to support the traditional conception of the poet – God's messenger, to speak with the voice of a prophet.

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Habil. dr. Egidijus Aleksandravičius

The „Polomania“ of Antanas Baranauskas in the Eyes of Lithuanian National Movement Leaders

In this work, the author tries to discuss how in our historical conscience the image of Bishop of Seinai Antanas Baranauskas as a polonomaniac and renegade of the Lithuanian revival was formed and functioned.

There is an attempt to show (in a fragmentary manner) to what extent this image agrees and disagrees with historical reality. The author presents his own interpretations of the reasons why these adequacies and inadequacies occurred.

He presents several propositions in which the characteristics of historiographic reality and hypothetical fragility intermingle, but which can be very productive reinterpretations of Baranauskas and the world he lived in. They are reinterpretations, which according to V.Kavolis we should undertake without fear and pathos.

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Dr. Bronius Makauskas

Antanas Baranauskas – Misunderstood Intellectual and Bishop

This article criticizes the widespread simplified version of the supposed departure of Baranauskas from Lithuanian national movement after becoming the Bishop of Seinai. The author states that the reason why Baranauskas departed from the radical stream of the Lithuanian national renewal was not „polonophilia“ as some Lithuanian and Polish authors have said. Seeing that the main goal was the fight against the Russification of Lithuanians and the defense of the Catholic Church against the Orthodox Church which was supported by administrative means, Baranauskas did not think that it was prudent to stir up Polish and Lithuanian national antagonism, which naturally accompanied the national Lithuanian revival. He probably viewed this process in a different manner. He thought that one had to strengthen the Lithuanian national identity by expanding the rights of the Lithuanian language in the religious life of Lithuanians (adding additional elements), and expected to use the process of catechization and education for this purpose. They were well thought out and diligently carried out actions of Baranauskas in Seinai.

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Habil. dr. Aldona Prašmantaitė

Antanas Baranauskas and the Roman Catholic Translations of the Bible into Lithuanian in the 19th Century: Historical Aspect

The translations of the Bible into Polish by V.Vujek had the greatest influence on the religious education of the Lithuanian Catholic community in the 19th century, while for the formation of the clergy, of course, – the Latin Vulgate. The origins of the idea to translate the entire Bible into Lithuania for Catholics began at the beginning of the 19th century. However, in the 1810s, J.A. Giedraitis translated and published only the New Testament. The cultural niche of the Old Testament in the 19th century was partially filled by publications, printed in several editions, prepared by Bishop Motiejus Valančius narrating episodes from the Bible (1850s) and the translation of the Psalms of David (the end of the 1860s – beginning of the 1870s).

The evident changes in the attitude of the Catholic Church in Lithuania regarding the usage of the Bible can be fixed to the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries (chronologically it was also in phase with the changed position of the Holy See). We can consider the translation work by Baranauskas as one of the expressions of these changes.

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Dr. Darius Staliūnas

What Language is the Best to Teach Byelorussians the Catholic Religion? (One Problem of Central Russian Authorities in the 19th Century)

This article is analysing one dilemma, which the authorities of Russian Empire faced in the Western region in the middle of the 19th century: what language is the best to teach Byelorussians the catholic religion in the state primary schools. Though on the threshold of 1863–1864 uprising authorities in Saint Petersburg were discussing possibility to support the Byelorussian ethnical and cultural development (also introducing Byelorussian as teaching language), however the political elite of the empire rejected such strategy, because they did not recognize the difference of Byelorussian nationality and considered Byelorussians as an integral part of trinomial Russian nation. However, even after suppression of the uprising, the Catholic religion teaching in Russian in primary schools did not start immediately (this took place only under governor-general Constantine von Kaufman from the school year of 1865–1866). The article tries to explain why governor-general of Vilnius, Mikhail Muravjov, did not establish the teaching of Catholic religion in primary schools in Russian. This could be influenced by two circumstances: identification of confession and nationality (Catholicism was identified with Polish nationality, Orthodoxy – with Russian) and for the fear that Catholic catechisms could draw the peasants from Orthodox Church to Catholicism.

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Krzysztof Buchowski

Polish-Lithuanian Relations in Seinai Region at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries

The territory, bearing the name of the Seinai region, was never a separate region from either a geographical or historical point of view. We may call „Seinija“ the territory, which until 1919 was the Seinai County. Later its greater part became part of Lithuania, and the smaller a part of Poland. In Poland, Seinai County, as an administrative unit, remained until 1925, and later the Polish administration incorporated this territory into the Suvalkai County. Interwar Lithuania also had a Seinai County with its center in Lazdijai. Consequently, we can conclude that the name of the Seinai region defines the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian ethnic periphery, and in a wider sense – Suvalkija. One can clearly see the Polish-Lithuanian ethnographic line in the Seinai County existing in the present territory of Poland.

In the second half of the 19th century, the Lithuanians living in Suvalkija had better social and economic conditions for national renewal than Lithuanians in the Kaunas region and Vilnius area. The favorable policy of secondary education in Suvalkija determined the faster formation of a Lithuanian intelligentsia originating from the farmers. An important role in this matter was played by the Seinai Seminary. The priests graduating from this seminary formed the intellectual generation, which awakened the national consciousness of Lithuanians.

An important object of Polish-Lithuanian ethnic conflicts was the usage of an additional service language (Lithuanian or Polish) in the churches. At the beginning of the 20th century, this conflict was very intense. Ethnic conflicts even took place in the selection of the bishop ordinate after the death of Bishop Antanas Baranauskas. After 1905 Polish and Lithuanian ethnic interests clashed mostly in the cultural, economic, and political life. Admittedly, the organized activities of Lithuanians in the Seinai region, even including the town of Seinai, at that time gained strength. The Poles reacted negatively to the Lithuanian national movement and also tried to strengthen their positions (such as the activities of the priest Romuald Jałbrzykowski in Seinai).

In time, the Polish-Lithuanian relations in the Seinai region increasingly acquired political colors, and the incompatibility between Polonism and the Lithuanian national movement became more and more evident. During World War I, the German administration allowed Lithuanians to open their schools, but did not allow the Poles to do the same. At the end of World War I, when the independent states of Poland and Lithuania were being established, there were separate Polish and Lithuanian local authorities and military structures. The dispute between Poland and Lithuania regarding the dependence of this region even reached the Paris Peace Conference (Foch Line). However, the resolutions of this conference satisfied none of the parties, especially regarding the control of the Seinai region. At the end of the summer of 1919, after German troops retreated, the Polish side began establishing its power in the Seinai region by military actions (the so-called Seinai Revolt). Several times Seinai changed hands. During these battles both sides used repressive measures. The Lithuanians in the neighborhoods of Lazdijai deported several Polish families to the Polish side of the Seinai region. The Poles, in turn, applied similar measures to the Lithuanians. From the autumn of 1919, the rapid establishment of the Polish administration and the opening of Polish schools was begun in this region. The Poles closed all the Lithuanian schools in Seinai and its neighborhood. The biggest problem was the fate of the Seinai Seminary. Polish authorities considered it as a stronghold of Lithuanian chauvinism. A few days after the revolt, Bishop R.Jałbrzykowski arrived in Seinai in order to transfer the seminary building to the Polish clergy. Bishop Antanas Karosas did not agree. Then, the local authorities received permission from Warsaw to move the seminary from Seinai. The Polish authorities evicted the clergy and professors on the night of 2–3 October 1919.

In the summer of 1920 during the war between Poland and Soviet Russia, the battles for the Seinai region started again. On 19 July Lithuanian troops entered Seinai, and on 30 July – Suvalkai. They established a Lithuanian administration in Seinai and elected a new City Council, but Lithuanians did not expect to keep Suvalkai for a long time. The government tried to erase all traces of Polonism in Seinai. The battles between the Lithuanians and Poles erupted again in the autumn of 1920. Seinai changed hands several times until finally going to the Poles on 22 September. In 1920–1923 the relations between Poles and Lithuanians were determined by the problems concerning the military demarcation line. This line was 12 km wide – 6 km on the Polish side and 6 km on the Lithuanian side. A civil war between the Poles and Lithuanians took place there until the spring of 1923. The absence of a strong administration created good conditions for partisan raids, revenge actions, and even the formation of gangs of robbers. Things went as far as the establishment of the „Republic of Varviškiai“, which survived four years, and the regular army of Lithuania ended its existence only at the end of March 1923. In February 1923, the Council of League of Nations canceled the line of demarcation and substantially stabilized the situation.

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Kun. prof. Tadeusz Krahel

The Rule of Bishop Steponas Zvierovičius in the Diocese of Vilnius in the Reminiscences of Rev. Janas Kurčevskis

Bishop Steponas Zvierovičius ruled the Vilnius Diocese in 1897–1902, and during the same period, Bishop Antanas Baranauskas was ruling the neighboring diocese on the other side of the Nemunas River. Bishop Zvierovičius was exiled from Vilnius to Tver in the spring of 1902, but through the intervention of Pope Leo XIII in September 1902, he returned from exile and was appointed Bishop of Sandomiez. The author of the reminiscences, presented in the article, is Prelate Janas Kurčevskis, a noted author on the history of the Vilnius Diocese and as a close associate of Bishop Zvierovičius in the Vilnius Diocese Capitula. Therefore, these reminiscences are a valuable source of information about the activities of Zvierovičius. Moreover, these memories also provide some information about the activities of other bishops and diocesan administrators of Vilnius, about the Vilnius Seminary , and about the general situation in the Vilnius Diocese at the turn of the 20th century. The manuscript containing these reminiscences is held in the archive of the Balstogė Archdiocese curia. The appendices to the article are extracts from the memoirs of Kurčevskis about Bishop Zvierovičius.

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Dr. Vilma Žaltauskaitė

Changes in the Relations between Russia and the Holy See during the Last Decades of the 19th Century

The article analyzes the relations between Russia and the Holy See during the last decades of the 19th century taking into consideration the context of the general political situation in Europe. It also discusses how these relations touched and/or changed the condition of the Catholic Church in the Catholic dioceses of Vilnius and Samogitia (Telšiai) existing in the historical territories of Lithuania. The author states that the repressions against the Catholic Church after the uprising of 1863 were one of the reasons why Pope Pius IX severed relations with Russia. After the termination of the official relations, correspondence between the Curia and authorities of Russia continued on some matters, but the Church no longer had a document regulating its relations with the secular authorities in Russia. The life of the Church institution was constricted, the authorities tried to destroy its hierarchical structure and subordination to the Pope. The changes in the relations of the Holy See and Russia occurred in the pontificate of Leo XIII, which started in 1878. The foreign policy also changed. The new Pope was inclined to restore diplomatic relations with non-Catholic countries and to strengthen the influence of the Catholic Church in them. Seeking to restore and expand the influence of the Church, Leo XIII was willing to make compromises. Such a stance by the Pope was a good foundation for the beginning of negotiations with Russia.

The ascension to the throne by Alexander III in 1881 strengthened the positions of the enemies of liberal reforms in Russia. Some of them were also opponents of the restoration of relations with Holy See. However, on 4 December 1882 Chancellor of Russia Nikolai Girs signed a bilateral agreement with the Vatican: the Vatican recognized the administrative alterations in the metropolises of Warsaw and Mogilev and took over the administration of the dioceses liquidated by the authorities. There was also an agreement on the appointment of new bishops in the Kingdom of Poland and the Russian Empire and on the restrictions of the bishop's power in the Catholic seminaries. This agreement was a document of mutual compromises: the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in Russia was restored, the subordination of the seminary to the bishop was preserved. However, in the wider context of relations between Russia and the Vatican the agreements of 1882 were limited because they did not guarantee the continuity of relations and lacked an agreement regarding the establishment of a papal nuncio in Russia.

How did the agreement of 1882 affect the dioceses of Vilnius and Samogitia? First, new bishops were appointed. Samogitian Bishop M.Paliulionis began to organize the transfer of the cathedral from Varniai to Kaunas. The Pope signed the decree regarding the transfer of the cathedral on the 8 September 1883, and the ceremony of transference took place in November 1895. Kaunas was the actual center of the diocese since 1864, and now it received all the necessary attributes.

As stipulated in the agreement, the secular authorities obligated the bishops to prepare new statutes for the Catholic seminaries. They prepared more than one project, but none of them were approved by the authorities.

In the 1890s the relations between Russia and Holy See did not change in terms of quality although there were some positive shifts. The Russian authorities held the opinion that the matters of the Catholic Church are more a subject of state internal policy. Russia was not restricted by long-lasting international obligations with the Vatican. The mending of relations was more often occasional and not consistent or long lasting. Officially, the relations were restored and functioned at the highest level of politics. The Vatican sought and had some influence on the Catholic Church in Russia. However, the real condition of the Catholic Church and its activity in the particular dioceses depended on the policies of the central government of Russia and local officials.

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Algimantas Katilius

Bishop Antanas Baranauskas and the problems of the spiritual seminary: the teaching of russian subjects

During the pastoral work of the bishop Antanas Baranauskas in the Seinai diocese, the problem of teaching the Russian language, Russian literature and Russian history (especially regarding the content and the order of examination) in all spiritual seminaries of the Kingdom of Poland became deeper, and the bishop actively participated in the discussions regarding this matter. Bishop Baranauskas tried to be firm and to defend his rights in the process of education of the priests. He was not submissively obeying the demands of the authorities and he explained his firm position to the Minister of Internal Affairs, though later he had to submit to the requirements of the minister. His firm position regarding the teaching of the Russian language, Russian literature and Russian history in seminaries even distinguished bishop Baranauskas from the other bishops of the Kingdom of Poland.

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Vysk. dr. Jonas Boruta, SJ

Lithuania and the Holy See: Historical Perspective

The focus of the scholarly conference on 3 March 2003 was the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the Holy See in the 20th century. We have to admit that the full history of the preceding ages and all its problems, some solved and some unresolved during the centuries, influenced in one way or another the relations between Lithuania and the Holy See in the 20th century.

The goal of this work is to give a brief description of this historical heritage, which in the 20th century influenced the development of state relations between Lithuania and the Vatican, and other neighboring countries in one way or another. The author reviews the material found in the archives of the Vatican and the publications written by Z.Ivinskis, P.Jatulis, St. Matulis, R.Krasauskas, P.Rabikauskas, R.Mažeika and other historians of the emigration. He also looks at the works of Lithuanian historians E.Gudavičius, A.Bumblauskas, M.Jučas, I.Vaišvilaitė, L.Jovaiša and others.

Events connected with the autonomy of Church structures and with the direct subordination of the Catholic Church in Lithuania to the Holy See influenced the history, cultural, and national traditions of our country in one way or another. The article looks at the relations with the Holy See from the viewpoint of Lithuania. From the times of the national revival, it was usual to paint the relations with the German Order and Poland only in black and white. At present, we need to look at this tendency critically; it must sink into oblivion and be replaced by consistent and objective research.

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Algimantas Katilius

What Did the Vatican Know about Lithuania at the Beginning of the 20th Century?

Briefly, Vatican institutions at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries knew little about Lithuania and the Lithuanians. Why did this happen? First, it was influenced by the objective situation, because from the christening of Lithuania until the beginning of the 1920s, there were no direct relations (in both the political and ecclesiastical sense) between the Holy See and Lithuania or simply Lithuania was not a subject of those relations. Second, at that time the Lithuanians had limited possibilities to create their image in the Vatican. Third, the Poles although having strong positions in the Vatican did not understand or had a hard time understanding the newly developing situation, i.e. they did not recognize the fact that Lithuanians had the right to act independently and to represent the interests of their nation.

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Dr. Juozas Skirius

Lithuania and the Vatican During World War I

The growing Lithuanian national self-consciousness at the beginning of the 20th century was confronted with constantly increasing Polonization. This was especially evident in church matters. Lithuanian activists, especially priests, started to seek the independence of the Church in Lithuania – as a separate province from the Church of Poland. However, their efforts to bring this to the notice of the Holy See were not fruitful. Lithuanian priests needed their permanent resident in Vatican, so in 1913 they sent Canon Kazimieras Prapuolenis (1858–1933) to Rome. His task was to explain to the Vatican administration the harmful effects of Polonization to the Church of Lithuania. He faced a great obstacle – the influence of the Polish priests in the strata of the Holy See. Prapuolenis began to form contacts with the high clerics of Rome and diplomats at the Vatican and explained to them the situation in Lithuania and the desire of Lithuanians to have a Lithuanian Catholic Church. On this subject, he wrote many articles published in the Italian press and distributed in the Vatican his book, „Polish Apostleship in Lithuania,“ published in Polish and French. He became an adviser and information distributor for Lithuanians arriving in Rome and tried to get the permission of the Holy Father to arrange a Lithuanian Day whose purpose was not only to raise funds for the re-establishment of independence of Lithuania but also to propagate Lithuania widely and to tell about the attempts of the Lithuanian nation to establish its own state. This was a new stage in the relations between Lithuanian activists and the Vatican. From 1916 more and more Lithuanian activists visited the Vatican, and some of them – M.Yčas, Rev. V.Bartuška, Prelate K.Olšauskas – received an audience with Pope Benedict XV. At that time, the political situation in Europe, i.e. the German occupation of Lithuania, the evident striving of the Poles to establish their statehood, and the determination of Lithuanians to reach the independence, induced the Vatican administration to revise its positions regarding the Lithuanian nation. The Holy Father agreed to proclaim Lithuanian Day in Catholic Churches of the world in the beginning of 1917. The Lithuanian Day arranged on 20 May 1917 had not only financial but also a political meaning. Moreover, the Holy See officially recognized for the first time that there is a separate Lithuanian nation, which is attempting to reach not only ecclesiastical independence from the Church of Poland but also its statehood.

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Dr. Algimantas Kasparavičius

Lithuanian-Vatican Relations or the Importance of the Holy See on Lithuanian Foreign Policy in the Interwar Period

The moral authority of the Holy See was very important to the Republic of Lithuania during the interwar period. On the one hand, small Lithuania when dealing with its complicated and many-sided international problems (borders, territory, and legal recognition) could not compete with its more than ten times larger neighbors in the areas of political influence or military capability. Therefore, the priorities of Lithuanian foreign policy were matters of morality, international law, and justice. It proposed and tried to solve all emerging border or international problems not by force but by diplomatic negotiations and equitable treaties. In this way, the principles of Christian morality and justice espoused by the Holy See, and their application in international affairs had a positive meaning to Lithuania and undoubtedly provided certain international security guarantees to the recently re-established state. On the other hand, the internal confessional-national and social-political structure of the country motivated the government of Lithuania to establish and maintain close international relations with the Vatican. During the interwar period the absolute majority of the population of independent Lithuania were Roman Catholic Lithuanians, and one of the most influential political forces in the country was the Christian Democratic Party, closely tied with the Catholic Church in Lithuania. Thus, for the absolute majority of Lithuanian citizens the moral authority of the Holy See strengthened the sense of their identification with the national state and the feeling of national security.

Due to internal and international circumstances the diplomatic relations between independent Lithuania and the Holy See developed with a certain content and in many ways. These relations developed in several stages, which we can compare with the high and low tides of the sea. The importance of the Holy See to Lithuania increased especially after the Vatican recognized the Republic of Lithuania de jure on 10 November 1922. The Holy See did this several weeks earlier than the most influential secular countries of Europe: Great Britain, France, and Italy.

The legal settlement of relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the Holy See opened a new, more fruitful page of bilateral cooperation. The Government of Lithuania on many occasions turned to the Holy See for support and appealed to its authority in dealing with or solving its most painful foreign policy problems. The diplomatic relations of Lithuania and the Vatican in the 1920s survived two significant moments: 1) On 4 April 1926 Pope Pius XI announced the very carefully formed and diplomatic Lithuanorum gente bull, on the basis of which the Vatican established the Church Province of Lithuania; 2) On 27 September 1927 Lithuania and the Holy See signed a concordat.

The establishment of the Church Province of Lithuania helped the Catholic Church in Lithuania to become an uniform, modern confessional organism, , subordinate directly, without any mediators, only to the Curia in Rome. In the cities, which became the centers of the archdioceses and dioceses – Kaunas, Telšiai, Klaipėda, Panevėžys, Kaišiadorys, Vilkaviškis – new hearths of confessional and spiritual culture began to form. The Church Province of Lithuania, established in 1926, and its structure effectively survived for almost all the 20th century, it did not disappear even during the fifty years long freeze of Soviet totalitarianism, and was newly reformed only after the re-establishment of independence at the end of 1991.

Of no less importance for the Republic of Lithuania and its Catholic community was the formation of the concordat. The concordat consolidated the Lithuanian Catholic community, regulated, and expanded its rights and duties in the state. The Catholic Church became an equal institution in the organizational state structure. The concordat had a positive influence on the political development of the Republic of Lithuania. The concordat stimulated Lithuania's relations with neighboring countries, primarily Poland and Germany.

Nevertheless, the diplomatic relations of Lithuania and the Holy See were not always positive. Two times – in 1925/26 and in 1930/31 their relations balanced dangerously on the verge of a crisis. Nevertheless, the diplomats of Lithuania and the Holy See succeeded in solving the problems that arose. Eventually the relations between the countries improved. Rational and pragmatic actions replaced emotional impressions. Mutual understanding grew and solid diplomatic cooperation traditions were formed. The Republic of Lithuania grew politically, economically, and culturally. In parallel with this, its political and diplomatic elite matured. The young generation often with more education and contemporary thinking gradually strengthened the older generation of political leaders.

In the second half of the 1930s, when the deluge of World War II was approaching, the relations of Lithuania and Vatican survived both better and worse days. Looking from a retrospective and more general viewpoint, one can state that at that time the interrelations of these two states often copied the general European political panorama or at least its tendencies. The diplomats of Kaunas and the Vatican discussed the subject of war and peace in various meetings more than once. The positive influence of the Holy See on the Republic of Lithuania continued until the very destruction of its statehood. In the autumn of 1939, when Lithuania reclaimed its historical capital – Vilnius and at the same time de facto fell into the grip of a Soviet protectorate, the Holy See did not turn away from Lithuania, but tried to help it. The Government of Lithuania at the end of 1939 – beginning of 1940 mainly succeeded in its struggle to introduce Lithuanian Masses in the churches of the Vilnius region and to calm down the radically inclined local national communities.

Therefore, the diplomatic relations of Lithuania and the Holy See during the interwar period were an integral part of European political discourse of that time. The landscape of diplomatic relations between Lithuania and the Holy See during that time probably was a little bit more varied than other parts of the political panorama.

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Dr. Regina Laukaitytė

The Battle of the Soviet Authorities Against the Vatican During the First Decade of Occupation

The article analyzes the reasons for the Soviet authorities' confrontation with the Vatican, and reviews the battle against „reactionary Catholicism“, the influence of the Vatican in Lithuania, and the consequences of this battle.

Peaceful coexistence between Soviet Moscow and the Vatican would have been possible if at least one of the one confronting party would have taken a yielding, compromising position. However, neither party felt weaker or erring. They were two antipodes representing two different world-views. Moreover, Russia never trusted the Catholic Church and the Vatican. The criticism of the Union of Brest, its abolition in the 19th century allowed for the creation of a suggestive image of aggressive, proselytizing Catholicism, which is still continuing now.

The factor which weakened the Catholic Church the most in the post-war period was the reorganization of its structure (dioceses, monasteries, seminaries), limiting its social and religious activities. Other projects inspired by the Soviet authorities in 1944–1949 –- to strengthen the influence of the Orthodox Church on Lithuanian society and to create in Lithuania an „autocephalic“, i.e. independent from the Vatican, Catholic Church –- did not succeed. The government of the Lithuanian SSR, avoiding open Russification, opposed the Soviet Union's attempts to strengthen the pro-soviet Orthodox Church. The NKGB and the Council of Religious Affairs at the Council of Ministers of the USSR were building an „autocephalic“ church for about 5 years, but had to give up the idea when they failed to recruit the needed group of „progressive“ clergy.

During the post-war years, a new structure for the Catholic Church of Lithuania was formed, its social status and legal standing was totally changed. Although the Church in Lithuania remained part of the universal Catholic Church, the Soviet authorities reached their goal – the influence of the Vatican was eliminated for a long time. The Church was forced to live according to Soviet laws.

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Dr. Arūnas Streikus

Sowjet-Vatikanische Beziehungen und die katholische Kirche in Litauen in den Achtzigen des XX Jahrhunderts

Im Bericht untersucht man den Einfluβ, den die Veränderungen in den Sowjet-Vatikanischen Beziehungen auf die Lage der Kirche in Litauen hatten. In den Achtzigen des XX. Jahrhunderts verschärften sich diese Beziehungen wegen der neuen Akzenten in der vatikanischen Ostpolitik nach der Wahl des neuen Päpstes wieder. Deswegen veränderte sich die Politik der sowjetischen Regierung hinsichtlich der Kirche in Litauen wesentlich aber nicht. Es vergrößerte nur der Umfang von antivatikanischen Propaganda in der Presse. Außerdem wurden die Verbindungen zwischen der Kirche in Litauen und dem Hl. Stuhl begränzt, besonders in der Zeit von Jubiläen des Hl. Kasimir und der Christianisierung Litauens. Es hat ihre potenzielle Wirkung aud eine mögliche Wiedergeburt des religiösen Lebens vermindert. Auf der anderen Seite, gelang es der sowjetischen Regierung auch nicht die Ziele erreichen, die für sie in diesem Feld im Moment am wichtigsten waren: die formale Lage des Erzbistums von Vilnius nicht verändert wurde und der Bischof J.Steponavičius wirkte weiter als ihr apostolische Administrator.

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Dr. Paulius Subačius

Public Reflection on the Relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the Holy See after the Restoration of Independence

Public interest in the relations between Lithuania and the Holy See considerably exceeds the normal interest in diplomatic processes, except for the most relevant areas of foreign relations. Relying on material provided by the media as well as the life stories and focus interviews collected by the Vilnius University Center of Religious Studies, the article analyzes the nature of the public reflection on the relations between Lithuania and the Holy See, their historical and synchronous conditionality. The greatest attention is focused on subjects that have usually been avoided. It is stated that public opinion makes no distinction between the relations of Lithuania and the Holy See and the relations between the Church and the State.

This is determined by the relatively low consciousness of the believers, the low in number and inactive stratum of Catholic intellectuals, and a poor general knowledge of Christian culture and history. The Lithuanian media usually provides information about the Vatican, using secondary sources, foreign media, especially those left-wing dailies (e.g. L’Unité) the use of whose materials can be regarded as continuing the heritage of the Soviet-era. The combination of the influence of the Soviet period and the restored tradition of the primitive pre-war patriotism has determined that the motif of „the interference by the Vatican into the affairs of Lithuania“ is still functioning in public discourse.

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Andrius Marcinkevičius

A Review of the Development of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania between the Two World Wars

After World War I one of the principal tasks of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania was the re-establishment of its administration. The administrative bodies, including 31 parishes, were re-established in 1918–1939. In the census the Orthodox community in Lithuania had 22,926 members, comprising 1.13% of the state’s population. Most of them were Russians (83.7%).

Another important task for the Orthodox Church in Lithuania was the establishment of its legal position and of formal relations with the Lithuanian Government. These relations were determined by special temporary rules, which the Lithuanian Government approved by a resolution on 20 May 1923. The Government by this document recognized the organizational structure of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania, set the limits of competence of its administrative bodies, and assigned salaries for Orthodox priests from the State budget. The Orthodox Church in Lithuania acquired the right to settle its affairs according to its own canons and to represent its interests in the political structures of the Lithuanian Republic.

Another noticeable problem which hindered the image of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania for the Lithuanian authorities and public was its canonical subordination to the Moscow Patriarchate, which quite often also involved political subordination to Moscow.

The economic decline of the Lithuanian Orthodox Church also started in the period between the two world wars and was determined by the changes in the political system and economic structure of the country. The state appropriated a large share of the real estate owned by the Orthodox Church in Lithuania and distributed some of it to public and private institutions in Lithuania. Orthodox church buildings taken from the Orthodox believers were transferred to Catholic parishes, turned into civil use buildings, or ruined. The land tenure of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania was canceled by the Land Reform Law in 1922. The State took over at least 1,500 ha of land from Orthodox parishes, forcing the Orthodox clergy to search for additional financial resources such as religious teaching in schools.

Relations between the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church in Lithuania remained complicated due to the mutual opposition that was inspired by the government policy of the Russian Empire in the 19th century and matters dealing with real estate. The Catholic Church regained a greater part of the land that it had lost in the times of the Russian Empire. The efforts of the Orthodox Church to keep the property which had been confiscated from the Catholics by any means was another reason making the relations between the churches more complicated.

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Dr. Arūnas Streikus

Research on the Catholic Church in Lithuania 1944–1990

The article is a short review of the research made in Lithuania in the field of Church history during the Soviet period. The author explores the problems and perspectives of future research of this subject. The scanty historiography on this question is primarily devoted to the investigation of the measures the Soviet state used against the Church in Lithuania as little research about the response of the Church to it has been done. This is due to the lack of sources, which in part can now be filled with the recently published memoirs of priests. The article also mentions the possibilities for comparative research in the context of East (Central) Europe, stressing the need for content-analysis of the texts of Soviet anti-religious propaganda, specifying the reasons, why the investigation of the former anti-Church policies of the authorities should be continued.

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Akad. habil. dr. Sofija Kanopkaitė

Status quo in Vitaminology

Vitaminology is one of the fields of biochemistry which has suitably implemented scientific results in practical life. The article provides information about a balanced diet for humans. It should include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and vitamins.

This article emphasizes proteins as an indispensable component of the diet because of the essential amino acids they provide.

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Habil. dr. Ona Tijūnėlienė, Inesa Jurgaitytė

Die Freude – Quelle und Mittel der geistigen Vervollkommnung eines Katholiken

Das Ziehl dieses Artikels ist die Besprechung der Interpretionsfreude der Heiligen Schrift, des theologischen, psychologischen, edukologischen Inhalts in der Literatur.

Das Forschungsobjekt ist die Freude des Katholiken im Leben (der theoretische Aspekt).

Die Forschungsmethoden – die Analyse von verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen Bereichen der Literatur, die deskriptive – beschreibende, ein Teilvergleich.

Bei der Analyse der gewählten Literatur ist es zu einigen wesentlichen Sclußfolgerungen gekommen.

Die Heilige Schrift ist eine der Hauptquellen der Freude. Die Bibel regt an, damit sich alle Katholiken überall und über alles freuen, denn der Gott ist mit seinen Kindern. Die Angst kann nicht die echte Freude am Gott beschatten, weil der Gott sein Werk befreut und paßt darauf auf. Jesus Christti zeigt sehr deutlich die vom göttlichen Vater gegebene Freude und Pflege. Durch ihn empfindet der Mensch die Wirklichkeit seines Lebens und die Vollkommenheit. Die Natur lässt durch ihre Einfachheit sich an den Gott anfassen. Die Trauer wird nie die echte und reine Freude beschatten. Der Glaube gibt der Seele Kräfte, daß der Schmerz einen frönlichen Lohn im Gott findet.

In der Literatur dargelegter Stoff läßt, noch deutlicher verstehen, daß die Trauer Gegenteil von Freude ist, daß die Unwandlung zwischen diesen Emotionen vor sich geht. Auf der Welt existiert die Trauer neben der Freude. Nur am Himmel können wir nur ganz freuen, weil die ganze Trauer verschwindet.

Die Freude ist der Hauptbegleiter im Leben der Heiligen. Natürlich ist es für die Heiligen unverständlich, was die Trauer ist, was die Düsternis der Seele ist, aber die innerliche Freude und der Glaube haben ihnen geholfen. Bei der Arbeit, beim Umgang dankten sie im Herzen dem Gott dafür, was sie haben und deshalb waren sie offen für die von Ihm bereitete Freude. Dem richtigen Heiligen darf es an der echten Seelenfreude nicht fehlen. Sie sind die echten Träger der Gottesliebe und des Lichtes zur Welt, sie sind Seine Botschafter hier, auf der Erde, deshalb bemühen sie sich in sich gehäufte Freude den anderen überzugeben. Die Heiligen sahen überall die Gottesliebe und das Wohlwollen. Da man alles durch den Dank annehmen konnte, schonte der Gott ihnen keine Freude.

Die Freude kommt aus dem Verständnis der Existenz, daß Mensch gerettet ist. Der Got wurde zum Menschen, um den Menschen zu erlösen, damit er dem Gott änlich wird. Wenn es Glauben gibt, ist es möglich zu leben und sich zu freuen. Das Verständnis der echten Freude, das Empfinden ist das Resultat der Reife der Persönlichkeit. Die echte Freude gebende Faktoren, Arbeiten, Natur, Glaube geben die innerliche Harmonie, Ruhe und das Segen.

Die größte Freude erlebt der Mensch im Umgang mit den anderen und so streben sie nach der Vollkommenheit in ihrem geistigen Leben. Ein großer Freudeteil steckt im Verständnis des Umgangs, in der Freundlichkeit und im Streben besser für anderen zu sein.

Die Natur zeugt vom Herzen des Menschen, man muß nur verstehen, sich darüber zu freuen. Deshalb ist es wichtig die von der Natur gegebenen kleinen Freuden zu bemerken. Es ist wichtig, jede Kleinigkeit zu bemerken, die Freude bereitet und die vom natürlichen Gott geschaffene Weltgüte, Schönheit, Aufrichtigkeit lehren sich über jedem Tag zu freuen.

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Dr. kun. Kazimieras Meilius, Dr. Jonas Juškevičius, Dr. Gediminas Mesonis

Evident and Veiled Labyrinths of Organized Crime and Its Effect on Man

We often try to answer the questions what is happiness, joy, honor etc. How differently do people understand these ideas and how do they change. But do we often seek an answer to the question how do the forms of crime change and how do they affect everyday life? Very often, we complain about social rejection, contempt, and exploitation of man. But why doesn't anybody even try to explain why we regard a person as a competitor and enemy, as a dangerous and unnecessary contestant. Positive law is not always able to answer these questions. A person confronting this phenomenon understands without knowing the law that someone is treating him improperly. What law is unable to do, sociologists should do. Their obligation should be to make public facts, which negatively influence the social and legal prospects of society. The article tries to reveal how society in a voluntary or forced way contributes to the evolution of evident and veiled crime, and how, sometimes even without understanding it, it favors the anonymous mafia, though on the surface it appears that a normal democratic society is being created.