The CTR program pursues four objectives to reduce the present threat of WMD and guarantee national security.
There are several programs aimed to meet each objective.
- Objective 1: Dismantle FSU WMD and associated infrastructure,
- Objective 2: Consolidate and secure FSU WMD and related technology and materials,
- Objective 3: Increase transparency and encourage higher standards of conduct, and
- Objective 4: Support defense and military cooperation with the objective of preventing proliferation.
Objective 1: Dismantle FSU WMD and Associated Infrastructure
Strategic Offensive Arms Elimination (SOAE) Program
- Russia - DoD continues to assist Russia by contracting for
and overseeing destruction of strategic weapons delivery systems in
accordance with the SOAE Implementing Agreement and applicable Strategic
Arms Reduction Treaty (START) provisions, including the START Conversion
or Elimination Protocol. CTR Program assistance remains an incentive
for Russia to draw down its Soviet-legacy nuclear forces, thereby reducing
opportunities for their proliferation or use. DoD provides equipment
and services to destroy or dismantle ICBMs, ICBM silo launchers, road
and rail mobile launchers, SLBMs, SLBM launchers, reactor cores of associated
strategic nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), and
WMD infrastructure. DoD also supports placement of spent fuel from naval
nuclear reactors, referred to as Spent Naval Fuel (SNF), prior to its
elimination, into casks designed for long-term storage as well as logistical
and maintenance support for equipment.
Chemical Weapons Destruction (CWD) Program - Russia -
In accordance with the Chemical Weapons Destruction (CWD)
Implementing Agreement, DoD is assisting Russia with the safe, secure,
and environmentally sound destruction of the most proliferable portion
of its chemical weapons nerve-agent stockpile. The Chemical Weapons
Destruction Facility and the former Chemical Weapons Production Facility
demilitarization projects support this effort.
Strategic Nuclear Arms Elimination (SNAE) Program - Ukraine -
CTR Program assistance, consistent with the Strategic
Nuclear Arms Elimination (SNAE) Implementing Agreement, includes elimination
of Tu 22M Backfire and Tu-142 Bear nuclear capable maritime patrol aircraft
that are modifications of START-accountable heavy bombers, Kh 22 nuclear
air to surface missiles (ASMs), and strategic bomber trainers.
Weapons of Mass Destruction Infrastructure Elimination (WMDIE)
Program – Ukraine - In accordance with the WMDIE Implementing
Agreement, the Nuclear Weapons Storage Area project will eliminate infrastructure
at sites formerly associated with nuclear weapons and warhead storage, operations,
and maintenance that supported the forward-deployed nuclear weapons arsenals
of the Soviet armed forces and assist in preventing the proliferation of
associated design data, materials, equipment, and technologies.
Biological Threat Reduction Prevention (BTRP)
Program – FSU - The BTRP program’s objectives
are to reduce the risk of bioterrorism and prevent the proliferation
of biological weapons (BW) technology, expertise, and extremely dangerous
pathogens (EDPs). The U.S. has CTR implementing agreements with Kazakhstan,
Uzbekistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Ukraine to assist them in preventing
the proliferation of BW materials and expertise to rogue states and
terrorist groups, increase transparency, encourage high standards of
conduct by scientists, and preempt a “brain drain” of bio-related
expertise. All BTRP projects in Russia fall under the International
Science & Technology Center (ISTC) Agreement and the ISTC Funding
Memorandum of Agreement. The U.S.–Kazakhstan WMDIE Implementing
Agreement covers BTRP projects in Kazakhstan. Biological Threat Reduction
Implementing Agreements have been signed with Uzbekistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan,
and Ukraine. This program is executed through three projects, each of
which serves a different objective of the CTR Program:
Biological Weapons Infrastructure Elimination – Objective 1,
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Biosecurity and Biosafety (BS&S) and Threat Agent Detection and Response
(TADR) Network – Objective 2, and
Cooperative Biological Research – Objective 3.
Objective 2: Consolidate and Secure FSU WMD and Related
Technology and Materials
Nuclear Weapons Storage Security (NWSS) Program
- Russia - In accordance with the Nuclear Weapons Storage Security
(NWSS) Implementing Agreement, this program helps support proliferation
prevention by providing enhancements to the security systems of nuclear
weapons storage sites.
The Personnel Reliability Program project was completed
in August 2005 with delivery of the final 5,000 test cups. MOD’s
12th Main Directorate assumed full responsibility for the project.
Nuclear Weapons Transportation Security (NWTS) Program – Russia -
In accordance with the Nuclear Weapons Transportation Security
(NWTS) Implementing Agreement, this program supports proliferation prevention
by enhancing the security and safety of nuclear weapons during shipment.
Much of the DoD-provided equipment is located at sensitive MOD locations.
It is shipped to less sensitive locations when DoD conducts Audits &Examinations.
Fissile Material Storage Facility (FMSF) Program – Russia -
In accordance with the Fissile Material Storage Facility
(FMSF) Construction Implementing Agreement, the facility will provide
centralized, safe, secure, and ecologically sound storage for weapons-grade
fissile material. The facility was completed and commissioned on December
Biological Threat Reduction Prevention (BTRP) Program - FSU -
DoD combined the Biosecurity and Biosafety (BS&S ) and Threat Agent
Detection and Response (TADR ) programs into one project because of
their close relationship and common objective. Their goals are: prevent
the theft, sale, diversion, and accidental or intentional release of
pathogens; consolidate pathogen collections and work at safe, secure
centralized repositories; and strengthen the recipient states’ detection
and response networks for dangerous pathogens. Combining them enables
a more integrated and streamlined approach to engaging institutes in
the BTRP program. BS&S/TADR efforts target dangerous pathogens that
pose particular risks for theft, diversion, accidental release, or use
by terrorists. In Russia, work is focused on BS&S enhancements,
with no plans to create a TADR system.
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Objective 3: Increase Transparency and Encourage
Higher Standards of Conduct
Biological Threat Reduction Prevention (BTRP)
Program – FSU - Through the Cooperative Biological Research
(CBR) program DoD works with institutes and scientists previously involved
in BW research to employ them in peaceful research focusing on investigating
dangerous pathogens for prophylactic, preventive, or other peaceful
purposes. By so engaging former BW scientists, CBR helps to: prevent
the proliferation of BW scientific expertise and preempt potential “brain
drain” of scientists to rogue states; increase the transparency
at biological institutes and encourage higher standards of openness,
ethics, and conduct by scientists; provide the U.S. access to expertise
that can enhance preparedness against biological threats; enable the
transfer of EDPs to the U.S. for study to improve public health; and
enable forensics reference research.
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Objective 4: Support Defense and Military Cooperation
with the Objective of Preventing Proliferation
Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation Prevention
Initiative (WMD-PPI) Program – FSU, Except Russia - The WMD-PPI
program addresses the potential vulnerability of the non-Russian FSU states’ borders
to smuggling of WMD and related components. WMD-PPI attempts to complement
the CTR Program’s traditional focus, WMD at its source, by addressing
WMD on the move. Currently, DoD is helping Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan,
and Azerbaijan to develop and sustain capabilities to prevent the proliferation
of WMD-related materials, components, and technologies across their borders.
Agreements are made with the recipient states to have them report any
WMD detections made with USG-supplied equipment to the in-country U.S.
Embassy, for forwarding to the USG.
Defense and Military Contacts - The DMC program was created
in 1993 as a part of the larger CTR Program and attempts to develop positive
relationships between the defense, military, and security communities
of the U.S. and FSU states. Bilateral activities are designed to engage
the military and defense officials of FSU states in activities that promote
demilitarization and defense reform, further proliferation prevention
efforts, and endorse regional stability and cooperation. The program is
developed by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International
Security Policy, through the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for
Eurasia Policy, in close coordination with the Joint Staff, the Combatant
Commands, and the U.S. military services to ensure that scheduled events
support the Secretary of Defense’s Security Cooperation Guidance
and regional commands’ country and regional campaign plans.
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