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Home / Cooperative Threat Reduction / Programs
Cooperative Threat Reduction


The CTR program pursues four objectives to reduce the present threat of WMD and guarantee national security.

  • Objective 1: Dismantle FSU WMD and associated infrastructure,
  • Objective 2: Consolidate and secure FSU WMD and related technology and materials,
  • Objective 3: Increase transparency and encourage higher standards of conduct, and
  • Objective 4: Support defense and military cooperation with the objective of preventing proliferation.
There are several programs aimed to meet each objective.

Objective 1: Dismantle FSU WMD and Associated Infrastructure

Strategic Offensive Arms Elimination (SOAE) Program - Russia - DoD continues to assist Russia by contracting for and overseeing destruction of strategic weapons delivery systems in accordance with the SOAE Implementing Agreement and applicable Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) provisions, including the START Conversion or Elimination Protocol. CTR Program assistance remains an incentive for Russia to draw down its Soviet-legacy nuclear forces, thereby reducing opportunities for their proliferation or use. DoD provides equipment and services to destroy or dismantle ICBMs, ICBM silo launchers, road and rail mobile launchers, SLBMs, SLBM launchers, reactor cores of associated strategic nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), and WMD infrastructure. DoD also supports placement of spent fuel from naval nuclear reactors, referred to as Spent Naval Fuel (SNF), prior to its elimination, into casks designed for long-term storage as well as logistical and maintenance support for equipment.

Chemical Weapons Destruction (CWD) Program - Russia - In accordance with the Chemical Weapons Destruction (CWD) Implementing Agreement, DoD is assisting Russia with the safe, secure, and environmentally sound destruction of the most proliferable portion of its chemical weapons nerve-agent stockpile. The Chemical Weapons Destruction Facility and the former Chemical Weapons Production Facility demilitarization projects support this effort.

Strategic Nuclear Arms Elimination (SNAE) Program - Ukraine - CTR Program assistance, consistent with the Strategic Nuclear Arms Elimination (SNAE) Implementing Agreement, includes elimination of Tu 22M Backfire and Tu-142 Bear nuclear capable maritime patrol aircraft that are modifications of START-accountable heavy bombers, Kh 22 nuclear air to surface missiles (ASMs), and strategic bomber trainers.

Weapons of Mass Destruction Infrastructure Elimination (WMDIE) Program – Ukraine - In accordance with the WMDIE Implementing Agreement, the Nuclear Weapons Storage Area project will eliminate infrastructure at sites formerly associated with nuclear weapons and warhead storage, operations, and maintenance that supported the forward-deployed nuclear weapons arsenals of the Soviet armed forces and assist in preventing the proliferation of associated design data, materials, equipment, and technologies.

Biological Threat Reduction Prevention (BTRP) Program – FSU - The BTRP program’s objectives are to reduce the risk of bioterrorism and prevent the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) technology, expertise, and extremely dangerous pathogens (EDPs). The U.S. has CTR implementing agreements with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Ukraine to assist them in preventing the proliferation of BW materials and expertise to rogue states and terrorist groups, increase transparency, encourage high standards of conduct by scientists, and preempt a “brain drain” of bio-related expertise. All BTRP projects in Russia fall under the International Science & Technology Center (ISTC) Agreement and the ISTC Funding Memorandum of Agreement. The U.S.–Kazakhstan WMDIE Implementing Agreement covers BTRP projects in Kazakhstan. Biological Threat Reduction Implementing Agreements have been signed with Uzbekistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Ukraine. This program is executed through three projects, each of which serves a different objective of the CTR Program:

Biological Weapons Infrastructure EliminationObjective 1,
Biosecurity and Biosafety (BS&S) and Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) NetworkObjective 2, and
Cooperative Biological ResearchObjective 3.
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Objective 2: Consolidate and Secure FSU WMD and Related Technology and Materials

Nuclear Weapons Storage Security (NWSS) Program - Russia - In accordance with the Nuclear Weapons Storage Security (NWSS) Implementing Agreement, this program helps support proliferation prevention by providing enhancements to the security systems of nuclear weapons storage sites.
The Personnel Reliability Program project was completed in August 2005 with delivery of the final 5,000 test cups. MOD’s 12th Main Directorate assumed full responsibility for the project.

Nuclear Weapons Transportation Security (NWTS) Program – Russia - In accordance with the Nuclear Weapons Transportation Security (NWTS) Implementing Agreement, this program supports proliferation prevention by enhancing the security and safety of nuclear weapons during shipment. Much of the DoD-provided equipment is located at sensitive MOD locations. It is shipped to less sensitive locations when DoD conducts Audits &Examinations.  

Fissile Material Storage Facility (FMSF) Program – Russia - In accordance with the Fissile Material Storage Facility (FMSF) Construction Implementing Agreement, the facility will provide centralized, safe, secure, and ecologically sound storage for weapons-grade fissile material. The facility was completed and commissioned on December 11, 2003.  

Biological Threat Reduction Prevention (BTRP) Program - FSU - DoD combined the Biosecurity and Biosafety (BS&S ) and Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR ) programs into one project because of their close relationship and common objective. Their goals are: prevent the theft, sale, diversion, and accidental or intentional release of pathogens; consolidate pathogen collections and work at safe, secure centralized repositories; and strengthen the recipient states’ detection and response networks for dangerous pathogens. Combining them enables a more integrated and streamlined approach to engaging institutes in the BTRP program. BS&S/TADR efforts target dangerous pathogens that pose particular risks for theft, diversion, accidental release, or use by terrorists. In Russia, work is focused on BS&S enhancements, with no plans to create a TADR system.  

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Objective 3: Increase Transparency and Encourage Higher Standards of Conduct

Biological Threat Reduction Prevention (BTRP) Program – FSU - Through the Cooperative Biological Research (CBR) program DoD works with institutes and scientists previously involved in BW research to employ them in peaceful research focusing on investigating dangerous pathogens for prophylactic, preventive, or other peaceful purposes. By so engaging former BW scientists, CBR helps to: prevent the proliferation of BW scientific expertise and preempt potential “brain drain” of scientists to rogue states; increase the transparency at biological institutes and encourage higher standards of openness, ethics, and conduct by scientists; provide the U.S. access to expertise that can enhance preparedness against biological threats; enable the transfer of EDPs to the U.S. for study to improve public health; and enable forensics reference research.

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Objective 4: Support Defense and Military Cooperation with the Objective of Preventing Proliferation

Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation Prevention Initiative (WMD-PPI) Program – FSU, Except Russia - The WMD-PPI program addresses the potential vulnerability of the non-Russian FSU states’ borders to smuggling of WMD and related components. WMD-PPI attempts to complement the CTR Program’s traditional focus, WMD at its source, by addressing WMD on the move. Currently, DoD is helping Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan to develop and sustain capabilities to prevent the proliferation of WMD-related materials, components, and technologies across their borders. Agreements are made with the recipient states to have them report any WMD detections made with USG-supplied equipment to the in-country U.S. Embassy, for forwarding to the USG.

Defense and Military Contacts - The DMC program was created in 1993 as a part of the larger CTR Program and attempts to develop positive relationships between the defense, military, and security communities of the U.S. and FSU states. Bilateral activities are designed to engage the military and defense officials of FSU states in activities that promote demilitarization and defense reform, further proliferation prevention efforts, and endorse regional stability and cooperation. The program is developed by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, through the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Eurasia Policy, in close coordination with the Joint Staff, the Combatant Commands, and the U.S. military services to ensure that scheduled events support the Secretary of Defense’s Security Cooperation Guidance and regional commands’ country and regional campaign plans.

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