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Interactive Demos
 77

Ir

Iridium

Iridium General Information
 Categories
  • Class: Transition Metals
  • Period: 6
  • IUPAC group: 9
  • Traditional: VIII
History
  • Discovered in: 1803 by Tennant
  • Origin of name: LaTin: iris, (rainbow)
  • Historical or alternate name:
Common natural occurrences

PlaTinum & Nickel ores

Description

Lustrous, Silvery, hard metal. Unreactive in air, water and acids. Attacked by fused NaOH.

Abundances
  • Atmosphere: ~0.0 ppm
  • Primitive mantle: 0.0032 ppm
  • Sea water: ~0.0 ppm
  • Metallic meteorite: 0.473 ppm
  • ConTinental crust: 0.0001 ppm
  • Solar photosphere: 0.85 log of abundance
  • Oceanic crust: 2.0E-6 ppm
  • Solar system: 0.660 relative to Si=1.0e6
Hazards and Tolerances

   Hazards

Metal ignites and burns readily..

   Human daily limits
  • Lower:
  • Upper:0.01

Return to Top   Element Properties: General - Physical - Chemical - Nuclear - Energy

Iridium Physical Properties

 Transitional Data

  • State: Solid
  • Density: 22.421 g/cm3

 Molar enthalpy

  • Atomization: 664.34 kJ mol-1
  • Fusion: 26.4 kJ mol-1
  • Vaporization: 612.1 kJ mol-1

 Transition points

  • MelTing point: 2683.0 K
  • Boiling point: 4403.0 K
  • Critical temperature: 7800.0 K

 Molar properties

  • Atomic weight: 192.22 g/mole
  • Molar volume: 8.572 cm3 mol-1

 Crystal structure sequence

face-centered-cubic

 Thermodynamics

  • State: solid
    • Enthalpy 0
    • Gibbs function 0
    • Entropy 35.48
    • Heat Capacity 25.10
  • State: gas
    • Enthalpy 665.3
    • Gibbs function 617.9
    • Entropy 193.578
    • Heat Capacity 20.786

 Miscellaneous physical

  • Electrical resistivity: 5.3 µ-ohms/cm
  • Debye temperature: 420.0 K
  • Thermal conductivity: 147.0 W / m / K
  • Coefficient of linear expansion: 6.4Coef. per K
  • Mass magnetic susceptibility: 1.67e-9
  • X-ray diffraction mass absorption coefficients:
    • CuK: 193 (µ/p)/cm2 g-1
    • MoK: 110 (µ/p)/cm2 g-1

Return to Top   Element Properties: General - Physical - Chemical - Nuclear - Energy

Iridium Chemical Properties

 Chemical basics:

  • Oxidation states: +3 +4 +5
  • Molecular wt: 192.22 g/mole

 Radii

  • Covalent: 126 pm
  • Atomic: 136.0 pm
  • Van der Waals: pm

 Ions:

  • ion: +3 pm 68.0
  • ion: +4 pm 62.5
  • ion: +5 pm 57.0

 Covalent bonds

Bond:
Radius
Energy

 Effective nuclear charge

  • Slater: 3.90
  • Clementi: 10.57
  • Froese-Fischer: 15.33

 Electronegativity

  • Pauling: 2.2
  • Allred-Rochow: 1.55

 Standard reactions

oxidation =>
IrCI6-2 + e- =>
IrCl6-3 + 3e- =>
IrO2 + 4H+ + e- =>

reduction
IrCl6-3
Ir + 6Cl-
Ir+3 + 2H2O
potential
1.02
0.72
0.70

Return to Top   Element Properties: General - Physical - Chemical - Nuclear - Energy

Iridium Nuclear Properties

Isotopes
Number of isotopes:
  • Known 25
  • Listed 7
Isotope range:
  • Known 182 - 198
  • Listed 189 - 193
Nuclide 189
  • % Occ.:Natural
  • Mossbauer NRA:
  • Nuclear spin/Quantum no.:
  • Radioisotopes:
    • Half-life: 13.3 days
    • Decay mode: E.C.,
    • Source:
  • Notes
Nuclide 190
  • % Occ.:Natural
  • Mossbauer NRA:
  • Nuclear spin/Quantum no.:
  • Radioisotopes:
    • Half-life: 11.8 days
    • Decay mode: E.C.,
    • Source:
  • Notes
Nuclide 191
  • % Occ.:Natural 37.3%
  • Mossbauer NRA: 13.2
  • Nuclear spin/Quantum no.: 3/2
  • Radioisotopes:
    • Half-life:
    • Decay mode:
    • Source:
  • Notes
Nuclide 191
  • % Occ.:Natural
  • Mossbauer NRA: 20.7 *
  • Nuclear spin/Quantum no.:
  • Radioisotopes:
    • Half-life:
    • Decay mode:
    • Source:
  • Notes
Nuclide 192
  • % Occ.:Natural
  • Mossbauer NRA:
  • Nuclear spin/Quantum no.:
  • Radioisotopes:
    • Half-life: 74.0 days
    • Decay mode: Beta- E.C.,
    • Source:
  • Notes med
Nuclide 193
  • % Occ.:Natural 62.7%
  • Mossbauer NRA: 11.7
  • Nuclear spin/Quantum no.: 3/2
  • Radioisotopes:
    • Half-life:
    • Decay mode:
    • Source:
  • Notes
Nuclide 193
  • % Occ.:Natural
  • Mossbauer NRA: 22.3
  • Nuclear spin/Quantum no.:
  • Radioisotopes:
    • Half-life:
    • Decay mode:
    • Source:
  • Notes
Thermal neutron capture
  • Isotope Cross-section 425±15 barns
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Nuclide: 191
  • Absolute sensitivity: 9.43e-6 1H=1.0
  • Relative sensitivity: 2.53e-5 1H=1.0
  • Receptivity: 0.023 13C=1.0
  • Magnetogyric ratio: 0.539e7 rad / T / s
  • Quadropole moment: 1.5e-28 m2
  • Frequency: 1.718 MHz
  • Reference:

Return to Top   Element Properties: General - Physical - Chemical - Nuclear - Energy

Iridium Energy Properties

Electrons

  • Ground state electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
  • Electron affinity: 190 kJ mol-1
  • Filling orbitals:

Spectral lines

 Wave length 2088.82
  • Relative intensity 13
  • Detection limits
    • Arc (ug/g)
    • Spark (ug/ml)
    • Flame emission (ug/ml)
    • Atomic absorption (ug/ml) 8 AA
  • Notes:
 Wave length 2543.97
  • Relative intensity 380
  • Detection limits
    • Arc (ug/g)
    • Spark (ug/ml)
    • Flame emission (ug/ml)
    • Atomic absorption (ug/ml) 20 AA
  • Notes:
 Wave length 2639.71
  • Relative intensity 170
  • Detection limits
    • Arc (ug/g)
    • Spark (ug/ml)
    • Flame emission (ug/ml)
    • Atomic absorption (ug/ml) 13 AA
  • Notes:
 Wave length 2664.79
  • Relative intensity 200
  • Detection limits
    • Arc (ug/g)
    • Spark (ug/ml)
    • Flame emission (ug/ml)
    • Atomic absorption (ug/ml) 15 AA
  • Notes:
 Wave length 2849.72
  • Relative intensity 280
  • Detection limits
    • Arc (ug/g) 10
    • Spark (ug/ml)
    • Flame emission (ug/ml)
    • Atomic absorption (ug/ml) 18 AA
  • Notes:
 Wave length 3220.78
  • Relative intensity 500
  • Detection limits
    • Arc (ug/g) 10
    • Spark (ug/ml) 10
    • Flame emission (ug/ml)
    • Atomic absorption (ug/ml)
  • Notes:

 Ionization energies

Ionization level
Ir -> Ir+
Ir+ -> Ir+2
Ionization potential
880
~1680

 Atomic energy levels

Orbital
ns
(n-1)d
(n-1)p
Energy
1.1577
2.1243
9.1524

Return to Top   Element Properties: General - Physical - Chemical - Nuclear - Energy

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