The Sources of the Charge of the Goddess

The Charge of the Goddess is the closest thing to scripture that Wicca possesses. Like scripture, it is used in rituals and to support beliefs. And like scripture, its origins are obscure.

The Charge itself claims to be the words of the Goddess, beginning "Listen to the words of the Great Mother." When Gerald Gardner first published an excerpt from it in Witchcraft Today (1954, p. 42), he claimed it came from the Roman era . He also speculated that "a similar charge was a feature of the ancient mysteries."

Fairly early, however, the age and origin of the Charge was questioned. Stewart Farrar, in 1971 (p. 34), pointed out that a large part of it was quoted from Charles Godfrey Leland's Aradia. Since then more work has been done in ferreting out the Charge's sources, especially in Farrar and Farrar (1981, p. 42) and Kelly (1991, pp. 52 - 4, 114 - 5). The purpose of this essay will be to gather this work together, add more sources to it, and then analyze the relative contributions of the authors of the Charge.

The earliest form of the Charge (given by Kelly, 1991, p. 53), was a prose version put together by Gerald Gardner. It consists mainly of the Leland material with large quotations from Aleister Crowley added, along with very small amount of original material. Kelly dates this version to before 1948. According to Doreen Valiente's own account (1989, 60 - 62), some time after her initiation in 1953 she wrote first a rhyming version, and then the prose version used by most Wiccans. The first prose and the rhyming versions may be found in Kelly (p. 53) and Valiente (pp. 61-2), respectively. The first prose version reads:

Listen to the words of the Great mother, who of old was also called among men Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine, Aphrodite, Cerridwen, Diana, Arianrhod, Bride, and by many other names.

"At mine Altars the youth of Lacedaemon in Sparta made due sacrifice.

[Whenever ye have need of anything, once in the month, and better it be when the moon is full, ye shall assemble in some secret place and adore the spirit of Me who am Queen of allWitcheries and magics.]

["There ye shall assemble, ye who are fain to learn all sorcery, yet have not won its deepest secrets. To these will I teach things that are yet unknown.]

["And ye shall be free from slavery, and as a sign that ye be really free, ye shall be naked in your rites, both men and women, and ye shall dance, sing, feast, make music, and love, all in my praise.]

{There is a Secret Door that I have made to establish the way} to taste even on earth the elixir of immortality.}

Say {'let ecstasy be mine, and joy on earth even to me, To Me} For I am a gracious Goddess. {I give unimaginable joys on earth, certainty, not faith, while in life! And upon death, peace unutterable, rest, and ecstasy, nor do I demand aught in sacrifice."
}

Hear ye the words of the {Star Goddesss}.

{"I love you: I yearn for you: pale or purple,veiled or voluptuous.}

{"I who am all pleasure, and purple and drunkenness of the innermost senses, desire you, put on the wings, arouse the coiled splendor within you, 'Come unto me.'}

{"For I am the flame that burns in the heart of every man, and the core of every Star.}

"Let it be your inmost divine self who art lost in the constant rapture of infinite joy.

{"Let the rituals be rightly performed with joy and beauty.} Remember that all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals.
So let there be {beauty and strength, leaping laughter, force and fire} within you.

("And if thou sayest, I have journeyed unto thee, and it availed me not, Rather shalt thou say, 'I called upon thee, and I waited patiently, and Lo, Thou wast with me from the beginning,'

For they that ever desired me, shall ever attain me, even to the end of desire.)

The words within square brackets ([ ]) are from Leland, those within brackets ({ }) are from Aleister Crowley's Book of the Law, and those within parentheses (( )) are from Crowley's Liber LXV,. The passages in italics are found in Crowley's essay "The Law of Liberty."

The first thing that should be noticed is how little of this version cannot be traced to published sources. Except for the introduction, this version is essentially quotations linked with a small number of connecting phrases.

The large number of quotations from "The Law of Liberty" illustrates Gardner's method of composition especially well. He must have had that essay in front of him as he wrote, since his quotations from it are in the same order as they appear in the essay. This is especially striking in the case of the sections of the Charge wherein quotations from the essay are followed by excerpts from The Book of the Law. In all cases, these quotations are also found together in the essay.

Further, all but one of the quotations from The Book of the Law are also found in "The Law of Liberty." In fact, except for that one phrase, all of this prose version of the Charge (except for the introduction and the short connectors) can be traced to three sources: Leland, "The Law of Liberty," and Liber LXV. The significance of these Crowley sources will be discussed later.

In my earlier version of this article (Serith, 1996), I suggested that the only line from The Book of the Law which is found in the Charge but is not in "The Law of Liberty" ("There is a Secret Door that I have made to establish the way) would be found quoted in another of Crowley's works. I have indeed found that work, Khabs Am Pekht. At the time that Gardner was composing the first prose version, it was to be found in The Equinox Vol. III:1, commonly called The Blue Equinox because of the color of its binding. Also published in The Blue Equinox were "The Law of Liberty" and Liber LXV.

There has been a fair amount of speculation on the connection between Crowley and Gardner. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Crowley wrote the Gardnerian rituals (Adler, 1979, 1986, p. 64, gives some examples).

Those wishing to see a strong Crowley influence have often pointed to the Charge. As I have shown, there is at this early point a fair amount of Crowley in it. Words from Crowley's works are also found in the Great Rite and the Drawing Down the Moon rituals, as published by Stewart Farrar (1971, pp. 93-94 and 68 respectively). These are taken from The Gnostic Mass. It should come as no suprise at this point that The Gnostic Mass was published by Crowley in The Blue Equinox.

All of this material comes from the first, the earliest, layer of the Book of Shadows (Kelly's 1949 version, and Farrar and Farrar's (1984) Text A). There is one other identifiable quotation from Crowley in this layer, taken from "Two Fragments of Ritual" (Equinox I:10, Kelly, p. 56). The next layer (Kelly's 1953 and Farrar and Farrar Text B) is that used by Gardner at the time of Valiente's initiation. It contains one more piece by Crowley, the Amalthean Horn prayer (given in Kelly, p. 81, and Farrar and Farrar, 1981, p. 41), which is a slightly altered version of the poem "La Fortune," from his Collected Works, Vol. III (p. 120). More Crowley was to enter later, under the editing of Valiente, as will be seen later. To be blunt: with one exception, all of the material taken from Crowley that has been attributed in print to the Book of Shadows in the phase during which Gardnerian Wicca was first taking shape (the 1949/Text A version) comes from one book - The Blue Equinox. Rather than there having been a strong connection between the Gardner and Crowley, then, their contact is likely to have been extremely limited.

The first entry into print of the Charge was an excerpt published In Witchcraft Today (p. 42), which reads:

Listen to the words of the Great Mother, who of old was also called among men Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine, Aphrodite and many other names. At mine altars the youth Lacedaemon made due sacrifice. Once in the month, and better it be when the moon is full, meet in some secret place and adore me, who am queen of all the magics....For I am a gracious goddess, I give joy on earth, certainty, not faith, while in life; and upon death, peace unutterable, rest and the ecstasy of the goddess. Nor do I demand aught in sacrifice.... (The ellipses are in the original.)

This is the version that Gardner says he thinks "came from the time when Romans or sirangers came in." It should be noted that since it was published in 1954 it dates from after Valiente's inititiation in 1953. In light of that it seems a bit odd that, as seen below in the textual comparison, it deviates quite significantly from the first prose version, and that the second prose version follows the first prose rather than the published excerpt. It is likely from this that Gardner did not consider this published version authoritative, and may have been working from memory, resulting in the differences.

Most interesting is the phase with which Gardner introduces this fragment: "Before an initiation a charge is read beginning:"That he mentions this document specifically in the context of an initiation ritual is clear evidence that the idea of a "charge" and, of course, the term itself, originated in Gardner's Masonic roots, where such charges are part of inititiation rituals.

The sources of the final version of the Charge, as edited by Valiente, are more complex. In the following analysis, I give the exact quotations from her sources, along with the Charge itself, so that Valiente's editing may be seen more clearly. I have included as well those sections of Gardner's Charge (both the first prose and the Witchcraft Today versions) which survived into the final form.

I have used these abbreviations for the sources:
AL: The Book of the Law (Liber AL vel Legis).
AR: Aradia: Gospel of the Witches.
GD: The Golden Dawn (ed. Israel Regardie, III, p. 245). (The second half of this passage, "From me ... return," is also found in Milton's "Paradise Lost," Book V, but since the first part is not, it is unlikely that Valiente took it from Milton.)
KP: "Khabs Am Pekht."
LL: "The Law of Liberty" (including quotations ultimately from The Book of the Law.)
P1: Gardner's prose version.
WT: The Witchcraft Today version.
65: Liber LXV II: 59-60 (Crowley).
VV: The Vision and the Voice, chapters 19 and 5 (Crowley).

Full bibliographical information will be found at the end of this article.

For the text itself I have relied on Kelly,1991, pp. 114-5 (correcting what appears to be an error by changing "ideals" to "ideal"). The few differences between this and other published versions do not affect my results in any substantial manner. (Other versions may be found in Farrar, 1971, pp. 197-198; Lady Sheba, 1971, pp. 65-67; and Leek, 1971, pp. 189-191. Excerpts from it are found in Holzer, 1971, pp. 16-17; Huson, 1970, p. 221; and Johns, 1969, p. 143. Starhawk, 1979, pp. 76-77, gives an edited version in which she has removed every phrase that has the word "man" in it.) I have used the abbreviation "P2" for this version.

P2: Listen to the words of the Great mother,
P1: Listen to the words of the Great mother,
WT: Listen to the words of the Great Mother,

P2: who was of old also called among men,
P1: who ... of old was also called among men
WT: who ... of old was also called among men

P2: Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine,
P1: Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine,
LL: Melusine
WT: Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine,

P2: Aphrodite, Cerridwen, Diana, Arianrhod, Bride,
P1: Aphrodite, Cerridwen, Diana, Arianrhod, Bride,
WT: Aphrodite

P2: and by many other names. "At mine Altars the youth
P1: and by many other names. "At mine Altars the youth
WT: and many other names. At mine altars the youth

P2: of Lacedaemon in Sparta made due sacrifice.
P1: of Lacedaemon in Sparta made due sacrifice.
WT: of Lacedaemon made due sacrifice.

P2: "Whenever ye have need of anything, once in the month, and
P1: Whenever ye have need of anything, once in the month, and
WT: Once in the month, and
AR: Whenever ye have need of anything, Once in the month, and

P2: better it be when the moon is full. Then ye shall assemble
P1: better it be when the moon is full, ye shall assemble
WT: better it be when the moon is full, meet
AR: when the moon is full, Ye shall assemble

P2: in some secret place
P1: in some secret place
WT: in some secret place
AR: in some desert place, Or in a forest all together join,

P2: and adore the spirit of Me
P1: and adore the spirit of Me
WT: and adore me,
AR: To adore the potent spirit of your

P2: who am Queen of all Witcheries.
P1: who am Queen of all Witcheries and magics.
WT: who am queen of all the magics
AR: queen, My mother, great Diana.

P2: "There ye shall assemble, ye who are fain to learn all
P1: There ye shall assemble, ye who are fain to learn all
AR: ye shall assemble She who fain would learn all

P2: sorcery, yet who have not won its deepest secrets. To
P1: sorcery, yet have not won its deepest secrets. To
AR: sorcery yet has not won Its deepest secrets,

P2: these will I teach things
P1: these will I teach things
AR: them my mother will teach all things

P2: that are yet unknown.
P1: that are yet unknown.
AR: as yet unknown.

P2: "And ye shall be free from slavery,
P1: "And ye shall be free from slavery,
AR: And ye shall all be freed from slavery, And so ye

P2: and as a sign that ye
P1: and as a sign that ye
AR: be free in everything; And as a sign that ye

P2: be really free, ye shall be naked in your rites,
P1: be really free, ye shall be naked in your rites, both
AR: are truly free, Ye shall be naked in your rites, both

P2: and ye shall dance, sing, feast,
P1: men and women, and ye shall dance, sing, feast,
AR: men And women also they shall dance, sing

P2: make music, and love, all in my praise.
P1: make music, and love, all in my praise.
AR: make music and then love in her praise

P2: "For mine is the ecstasy of the Spirit, and mine is also joy
P1: Let ecstasy be mine, and joy
LL: But ecstasy be thine and joy
AL: ecstasy be thine and joy

P2: on earth. For my Law is Love unto all beings.
P1: on earth...
LL: of earth Love is the Law
AL: of earth Love is the Law

P2: "Keep pure your highest ideal. Strive ever towards it.
LL: Keep pure your highest ideal; strive ever toward it

P2: Let naught stop you or turn you aside.
LL: without allowing aught to stop you or turn you aside,

P2: "For mine is the secret which opens upon the door of
P1: There is a Secret Door which I have made...
KP: There is a Secret door that I shall make
AL: There is a Secret door that I shall make

P2: youth and mine is the cup of the Wine of Life:

P2: and the Cauldron of Cerridwen,

P2: which is the Holy Grail of Immortality.

P2: "I am the Gracious Goddess who gives the gift of Joy
P1: For I am a gracious Goddess. I give unimaginable joys
WT: For I am a gracious Goddess, I give joy
LL: Gracious Goddess I give unimaginable joys
AL: I give unimaginable joys

P2: unto the heart of Man.

P2: "Upon Earth I give the knowledge of the Spirit Eternal,
P1: on earth,
WT: on earth
LL: on earth:
AL: on earth:

P2: and beyond death I give peace and freedom, and reunion
P1: And upon death, peace
WT: and upon death, peace
LL: upon death; peace
AL: upon death; peace

P2: with those who have gone before. Nor do I
P1: nor do I
WT: nor do I
LL: nor do I
AL: nor do I

P2: demand aught in sacrifice, for behold, I am the Mother of
P1: demand aught in sacrifice."
WT: demand aught in sacrifice
LL: demand aught in sacrifice.
AL: demand aught in sacrifice.

P2: all things, and my love is poured out upon earth."

P2: Hear ye the words of the Star Goddess, She in the
P1: Hear ye the words of the Star Goddess.
LL: We have heard the voice of the Star Goddess

P2: dust of whose feet are the hosts of Heaven, whose body

P2: encircleth the universe.

P2: "I who am the beauty of the green earth; and the White Moon

P2: amongst the Stars; and the mystery of the Waters; and the
VV: the

P2: desire of the heart of man. I call unto thy soul:
VV: blind ache within the heart of man
LL: the heart of every man
AL: the heart of every man

P2: arise and come unto me.
LL: arouse... come unto me!
AL: arouse... come unto me!

P2: "For I am the Soul of nature who giveth life to the
GD: O Soul of Nature giving life and energy to the

P2: Universe; ‘From me all things proceed; and unto me, all
GD: Universe. From thee all things do proceed. Unto Thee all

P2: things must return.' Beloved of the Gods
GD: must return.

P2: and men, thine inmost divine self shall
P1: Let it be your inmost divine self...
LL: He is then your inmost divine self...

P2: be enfolded in the raptures of the
P1: in the constant rapture of the
LL: in the constant rapture of the embraces of

P2: infinite.
P1: infinite.
LL: Infinite Beauty

P2: "Let my worship be within the heart that rejoiceth, for
VV: the heart that rejoiceth,

P2: behold: all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals;
P1: Remember that all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals.
LL: Remember that all acts of love and pleasure are rituals,

P2: and therefore let there be Beauty and Strength, Power and
P1: So let there be beauty and strength,...
AL: beauty and strength

P2: Compassion, Honour and Humility,

P2: Mirth and reverence within you.

P2: "And thou who thinkest to seek me, know that thy
P1: "And if thou sayest, I have journeyed unto thee,
65: I have journeyed unto Thee,

P2: seeking and yearning shall avail thee not unless thou
P1: and it availed me not...
65: and it availed me not.

P2: know the mystery, 'That if that which thou seekest

P2: thou findest not within thee, thou wilt never find it

P2: without thee,'

P2: for behold; I have been with thee from the beginning,
P1: Thou wast with me from the beginning,'...
65: and Thou wast with me from the beginning.

P2: and I am that which is attained at the end of desire."
P1: shall ever attain me the end of desire."

According to Kelly (p. 115) "That if that which thou seekest thou findest not within thee thou wilt never find it without thee" is from L. A. Cahagnet, Magnetic Magic. Since I have not been able to verify the wording, I have not included it in the textual comparison, but I have included it in the numerical analysis.

There are a total of 498 words in the version given by Kelly. The following table shows how many came from each source:

Valiente: 174 - (34.9%)
Gardner: 66 - (15%)
Crowley: 83 - (16.7%)
Crowley
(edited by
either Gardner
or Valiente): 40 - (8.0%)
Gardner (edited
by Valiente): 12 - (2.4%)
Cahagnet: 18 - (3.6%)
Golden Dawn: 12 - (2.4%)
Leland: 93 - (18.7%)
(Total is greater than 100% due to rounding.)

Before going on to discuss the sources further, there is a non-source that I need to address, Apuleius's The Golden Ass. In this Roman novel the main character is turned into an ass as a punishment for spying on a ritual to Diana. After many humorous adventures, he prays to Isis. She appears to him in a dream and instructs him how to regain his human form. First, however, she describes herself as the reality behind other goddesses (pp. 263-265).

What we have here is essentially a charge of a goddess. This goddess is moreover a syncretistic goddess, one who "was of old called among men" many names. That Gardner knew the story is certain; he summarizes it in The Meaning of Witchcraft (1982, 1959, pp. 87 - 88). It is likely to be the "similar charge [that] was a feature of the ancient mysteries."

What is interesting, though, is that no lines from Isis' address appear in the Charge of the Goddess. Further, although Isis identifies herself with several other goddesses (Cecropian Minerva, Paphian Venus, Dictynnian Diana, Ceres, Juno Bellona, Hecate, and Rhamnusia), none of them are among the goddesses mentioned in the Charge of the Goddess.

What has happened here? Gardner had access to a charge of a goddess, but in composing his own chose not to use any of it. Perhaps Apuleius was simply too well-known to copy.

Regardless of his reasons for not using any of the words (or goddess names) from Apuleius, it is quite possible that the idea of a Charge of the Goddess, that is, one delivered as if from a goddess, was inspired by that of Isis in The Golden Ass. As we have seen, the idea of a "charge" in general has Masonic roots. But a Masonic charge is not a proclamation of a deity, as that found in Apuleius is. If the idea of a charge from a goddess came from Apuleius, it could be said that he both was and wasn't the source of the Charge.

When analyzing the sources of the actual words of the Charge, it is important to note that those attributed to Valiente or Gardner may eventually prove to have a further source behind them. However, assuming these figures to be accurate, it will be seen that Valiente wrote a plurality of the Charge, slightly more than one third. Leland takes the second place, but when the edited versions of Crowley’s are added to the direct quotes, it is Crowley who comes in second. In light of Valiente's stated objections to material from Crowley (Valiente, 1989, 60-1), it is interesting that she left so much of his work in the Charge.

Even more interesting are the quotations from Crowley that she herself must have put in; that is, those that were not in Gardner's prose version but are in Valiente's version. These are "the desire of the heart of man," "the heart that rejoiceth," and "Keep pure your highest ideal; let naught stop you or turn you aside."

The two from The Vision and the Voice (originally published in The Equinox, Vol I:5) are slight; "the heart of man" and "the heart that rejoiceth." Since The Equinox is listed in the bibliography of The Meaning of Witchcraft, it is possible that Valiente had access to it during the period between the writing of Witchcraft Today (it was published the year after her initiation) and the publishing of The Meaning of Witchcraft (in 1959), and thus had access to The Vision and the Voice during her editing of the Charge.

I hesitate to be too confident about identifying The Vision and the Voice as the source of these phrases. In favor of eliminating them is first of all the fact that no other lines from that text appear in the Charge. The Vision and the Voice is a series of visions Crowley had. A large part of it consists of teachings given him by spiritual beings; in essence, a series of Charges. If Valiente had had access to it, it is odd that she would have chosen only these two short lines to incorporate. Perhaps she did not have The Vision and the Voice at hand when she was working, or did not want to rely on Crowley, but remembered the phrases without remembering where they came from.

There are other possible sources. "Desire of the heart of man" might have been drawn from the Gardner version where he quotes The Law of Liberty (which is itself quoting The Book of the Law), which says "the heart of every man." Supporting this is the fact that the position of this phrase in Valiente's version corresponds to that in Gardner's.

"The heart that rejoiceth" is word for word exactly the same in Valiente's prose Charge and The Vision and the Voice, which makes me reluctant to suggest another source. I would like to point out, however, that somewhat similar lines are found in the Bible and The Book of Common Prayer (1928 edition; quoting the Bible), both of which Gardner and Valiente would, of course, have been familiar with. For instance, there is 1 Sam. 12:1: "My heart rejoiceth in the LORD." This is not as close a parallel as The Vision and the Voice, however, and I cannot put this forth as a source with confidence.

Regardless of the source of the possible Vision and the Voice material, it can not be denied that "Keep pure your highest ideal; let naught stop you or turn you aside" is from "The Law of Liberty." If indeed Valiente was determined to eliminate Crowley material, why did she put some in that had not been there before? In the light of this, it would be worth reevaluating other of Valiente's accounts.

On the other hand, it is important to note that much of the meat of the Charge, the theologizing regarding the Goddess, may be attributed to Valiente. Although Wicca's Goddess theology has been heavily influenced by "The Law of Liberty," it has been put into memorable words by Valiente.

If all of the lines that have an identifiable source plus all of those that are in the Gerald Gardner version are removed, we are given a view of those lines that were most likely written by Doreen Valiente. Disregarding words that Valiente added to knit quotations together, her contribution is this:

"of the Spirit, mine also is unto all beings. Which opens upon the of youth and mine is the cup of the Wine of Life and the Cauldron of Cerridwen, which is the Holy Grail of Immortality. Unto the heart of Man. I give the knowledge of the Spirit Eternal, and freedom, and reunion with those who have gone before. For behold, I am the Mother of all things, and my love is poured out upon earth. She in the dust of whose feet are the hosts of Heaven, whose body encircleth the universe. I who am the beauty of the green earth; and the White Moon amongst the Stars; and the mystery of the Waters; and I call unto thy soul; For I am the Soul of nature who giveth life to the Universe; Beloved of the Gods and men, shall be enfolded Let my worship be within Power and Compassion, Honour and Humility, Mirth and reverence within you. Unless thou knowest the mystery."

There is certainly room for further research. First, there are the unattributed lines. I would expect at least some of these to have sources which can be found. Second, the importance of "The Law of Liberty" for the history of Wicca has been missed by previous researchers. As well as having been used as a source for the Charge, it presents a form of duotheism that no doubt was one of the sources of Wicca's own, especially in its theology of the Goddess. It is a document which certainly deserves study.

What has emerged from this analysis is a picture of the Charge not as a scripture that emerged from the shadows, nor as a text that sprang full-blown from the mind of one woman, nor even as an edited version of a single earlier text. It is, rather, a complex text, with many parents. It is, in fact, a microcosm of Wicca itself, and the history of the varying claims of its authorship parallel that of Wicca as well.

Bibliography:
Adler, Margot. Drawing Down the Moon. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1979, 1986.
Apuleius. The Golden Ass. tr. William Adlington (1566). ed. Harry C. Schnur. New York, NY: Collier Books, 1962.
The Bible (King James Translation). http://www.hti.umich.edu/k/kjv/index.html
The Book of Common Prayer. http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/index.html
Crowley, Aleister. The Collected Works of Aleister Crowley, Vol. III. Society for the Propagation of Religious Truth, 1907 (reprinted by Yoga Publication Society, n. d.).
--The Equinox. Vol. I:5. York, ME: Samuel Weiser, 1972 (originally published 1911).
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Duncan, Malcolm C. Duncan's Ritual of Freemasonry. New York, NY: David McKay, n. d.
Farrar, Janet, and Farrar, Stewart. Eight Sabbats for Witches. London: Robert Hale, 1981.
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Farrar, Stewart. What Witches Do. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1971.
Gardner, Gerald. Witchcraft Today. New York: Citadel Press, 1970 (1954).
--The Meaning of Witchcraft. New York: Magickal Childe, 1982 (1959).
Holzer, Hans. The Truth About Witchcraft. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1971.Huson, Paul. Mastering Witchcraft: A Practical Guide for Witches, Warlocks, and Covens. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1970.
Johns, June. King of the Witches: The World of Alex Sanders. London: Morrison and Gibb, 1969.
Kelly, Aidan. Crafting the Art of Magic (Book I). St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1991.
Lady Sheba (Jessie Wicker Bell). The Book of Shadows. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn, 1971.
Leek, Sybil. The Complete Art of Witchcraft. Chicago: The New American Library, 1971.
Leland, Charles G. Aradia: The Gospel of the Witches. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1974 (1899).
Milton, John. "Paradise Lost." In Complete Poetry and Selected Prose of John Milton. Intro. Cleanth Brooks. New York: The Modern Library, 1950.
Regardie, Israel (ed). The Golden Dawn. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1984.
Serith, Ceisiwr. The Charge of the Goddess: A Source Analysis. Enchante 21 (Carmentalia, 1996), pp. 22-25.
Starhawk (Miriam Simos). The Spiral Dance. San Francisco, CA : Harper and Row, 1979.
Valiente, Doreen. The Rebirth of Witchcraft. London: Robert Hale, 1989.


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