The Laguna de Bay Masterplan

Executive Summary

Contents:

1.0

Introduction

1.1

Rationale

1.2

The Impetus for the Masterplan : Planning Objectives

1.3

Objectives

1.4

Methodology

1.5

Organization of the Report

2.0

The Laguna de Bay Basin

2.1

General Overview

2.2

Socio-Economic Profile

2.3

Existing and Potential use of the lake

3.0

Institution and Institutional Arrangements in Managing Laguna de Bay

3.1

Existing institutional arrangements in Laguna de Bay

3.2

Institutional Issues and Concerns

4.0

Development Issues, Problems and Constraints

4.1

Environmental Concerns

4.2

Constraints on Land Resources

4.3

Socio Economic Concerns

5.0

Development Plan For The Laguna De Bay Basin

5.1

Proposed Regional Development Framework

5.2

Proposed Laguna De Bay Regional Development Programs And Projects

 

1.0   INTRODUCTION

Contents:

The Laguna de Bay watershed region as a natural resource is strategically situated in the midst of the country’s center of urban and industrial development.  Aside from Metro Manila which lies just west of Laguna de Bay, the region straddles the whole of Laguna and Rizal provinces, parts of Batangas, Cavite and Quezon which compose the CALABARZON  area.  This configuration makes the region a critical resource in terms of its importance as the main source of agricultural  food commodities and industrial raw materials.  The lake itself as well as the other smaller lakes in the basin are important sources of livelihood for the fishery sector and serve multifarious purpose - in irrigation, transportation, energy generation and other industrial uses.

The geographic features and location of the basin within the primary growth area of the country make it susceptible to destructive human interventions which in the long-term may cause irreparable damage to its resources including the loss of valuable agricultural and forest lands to urban and industrial growth.

 

A strategic resource of the Region is the Laguna de Bay, the second largest body of freshwater in Southeast Asia.  It has a surface area of approximately 90,000 heactares, an average depth of 2.8m, a total volume of 3.2 billion cubic meters measured at elevation 11.50 meters above the Laguna de Bay datum set at 10.0 meters below the Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) and a shoreline of 220 kms.  There are 21 tributaries that drain into the lake;  35% of  freshwater that drains comes from Pagsanjan River while 15% comes from the Sta. Cruz River.  The only outlet of the lake is the Napindan Channel which at its confluence with the Marikina River, forms the Pasig River.  This river meanders along 24-km. long course westward through a major part of Metropolitan Manila, before finally discharging into Manila Bay.

 

Laguna de Bay Region boundaries include six (6) provinces, 60 municipalities of which 28 towns are lakeshore and 32 non-lakeshore towns.  The actual population of the Region including Metro-Manila was approximately 8.3 Million in 1990 and is expected to rise to 12.0 Million by year 2000.  The lake is the singly most important resource of the Region.  At present it is a source of industrial cooling water, irrigation water, and hydroelectric power; a transport route for oil products and the lakeshore dwellers; a source of snails for duck feed; a venue for recreation and most notably a source of fish supply.  Also, the lake serves as a huge sink for waste coming from domestic sources (household and service sectors); non-point sources (surface run-off from urban areas, crop lans and forest lands); industries, livestock and poultry production, fishery activities and Pasig River and Manggahan Floodway inflow.  The latter is most alarming since its pollution and sediment load will jeopardize the existing and potential uses of the water body.

 

In the Laguna de Bay Region, groundwater is a common source of water supply, but its reliability to sustain increasing demand has not been established.  Also, there is an increasing evidence of ground water contamination (from leachate of dumpsites, septic tanks, oil depots, etc.) thus, making the use of the lake as a domestic water supply source by the year 2000 inevitable.  However, the water quality in the lake is becoming worse by eutrophication and contamination of toxic and hazardous substances such as heavy metals and agricultural pesticides.  The Laguna de Bay has been undergoing accelerated eutrophication due to increasing nutrient wasteloads from domestic households, expanded agricultural and livestock production, intensive fishpen operations and from natural sources brought about by erosion.

 

The prospect of using the lake as a potential source for domestic water supply remains the core of all management strategies for the Laguna de Bay.  The idea was part of the government plan during the Marcos era and this was reiterated by the Aquino Government in 1989 with the adoption of the “dominant use” policy prioritizing the lake’s use as a fresh water source and to upgrade the quality of water in the lake from Class C ( suitable for fisheries) to Class A (suitable for domestic supply).

 

The original intent to upgrade the lake water quality from Class C to Class A meant interfering with nature.  The closing of the Napindan Channel through the Napindan Hydraulic Control Structure is seen by some sectors as working against nature because it is perceived to affect fishery productivity.  On the other hand, keeping it open would allow the polluted waters of Pasig River to come in during reverse flows.

 

Recently, the new LLDA Management has recommended a policy shift on the “dominant use” of the lake from domestic water use to fisheries.  However, it was pointed out that a multiple use policy can still be possible without interfering with the natural conditions of the lake at Class C.  Water supply use may still be possible by locating the intake pumps in areas where treatment may render the extraction of water economically viable.

The Laguna de Bay is indeed a strategic resource for the economic and social development of the Region and of the country.  The sustainability of the lake, however, depends upon the sustainability of its watershed resources.

 

This scenario calls for the evolution of strategic policies, institutional reforms and measures to maintain a balance between downstream and upstream activities in the watershed.  Most importantly, this would mean strict adherence to basic ecological principles and genuine participation of the government and the public towards a sustainable environmental and natural resources management program in the Region.

 

1.1   RATIONALE

Contents:

 

Rapid expansion of the economic activities and population growth in the catchment areas of the rivers draining into the Laguna de Bay as well as in the coastal zones are the primary pressures being faced in the Region today, as much as in the past.  So far, the scale of interventions in nature is increasing and the physical effects of these decisions spill across regional and national frontiers.  Today, the Region faces risks of severe environmental stress that threaten the basis for social progress and human existence.

 

For the past twenty years or so, the Laguna Lake Development Authority has found a deep public concern for the management of the lake, a concern that has led to multi-sectoral conflicts of varying degrees.  The challengeis to ensure that these conflicts and values generated are more adequately harmonized and reflected in the principles and operations of political and economic structures in the Region.

 

These deepening interconnections are the central justification for the formulation of a sustainable management plan for the Laguna de Bay Region.

 

1.2   THE IMPETUS FOR THE “MASTER PLAN”: (PLANNING OBJECTIVES)

Contents:

 

Following the visit of His Excellency President Fidel V. Ramos to the University of the Philippines at Los Baños and Pila, Laguna sometime in June 1993, the need to address some of the policy gaps and issues associated with the Laguna de Bay Region as well as CALABARZON and other matters pertaining to the quality of the lake and Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve were identified.  Rather than adding another agency, the idea was to come out with an ad hoc institution such as a Presidential Commission:  (1) in order to generate a Master Planc or a set of policies that the Office of the President may adopt; (2) so that the LLDA as the lead agency in the development and management of the Laguna de Bay Region would be strengthened.

 

To effectively address the problem, the President issued Executive Order No. 121 on August 24, 1993 which clothed the Mt. Makiling Reserve Area and Laguna de Bay Commission with the authority to determine what development activities may still be allowed in the Region and what should immediately be stopped.  The Commission’s mandate gave it three objectives:  1)  to formulate an Action Plan for the immediate concerns of the Region;  2)  to formulate the master plans for sustainable development for the Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve and Laguna de Bay Region under the long-term; and 3)  to implement a moratorium on new development activities in the Region.

 

Being considered as a major activity of the Commission, the parameters for the formulation of the Master Plan for the Region have been set by the Office of the President and shall henceforth be observed as follows:

 

1.2.1

As its overall framework, the Master Plan should provide the vision for the development of the Laguna de Bay Region consistent with the national goals under the Philippines 2000, particularly with the sustainable development thrusts of the Medium Term Development Plan.

1.2.2

Towards this vision, short and long term objectives should be set in the Plan together with the strategies and mechanism to attain them.

1.2.3

Discussion on:  (a)  potentials of the region, including alternative uses for lake;  (b)  the attributes and characteristics of the Region;  (c)  assessment of the present state of the lake Region, including its implications on the other sectors and to national life;  (d)  issues affecting the Lake, including policy and structural concerns; and  (e)  status of the existing government’s initiatives to address these issues, to serve as basis for the Plan objectives and activities.

1.2.4

Central part of the Plan should be the discussions on the specific programs and measures to be implemented, including concrete government interventions to address the issues and concerns on Laguna de Bay (such as environment degradation, water pollution, management problems, etc.)

1.2.5

Inclusion of the appropriate organizational framework for effective Plan administration.  This should clearly define the role and responsibilities of the concerned agencies in the implementation of the Plan.  Part of this, should be the system for monitoring and reviewing the Plan implementation to ensure the attainment of the Plan objectives.

1.2.6

The Plan objectives and activities for Laguna de Bay Region should be complementary with those in Mt. Makiling Reserve Area to allow their integration into the blueprint for development of both areas as envisioned in Executive Order No. 121.

 

1.3   OBJECTIVES

Contents:

The formulation of the Master Plan for the Laguna de Bay Region is focused on the sustainability of the Lake as the most vital regional resource.  To ensure its sustainability, however, it is equally essentially that attention is given towards the conservation and management of the watershed areas from which downstream environmental problems originate.

Therefore, the ultimate objective of the Master Plan should be the development of strategies and programs for the protection, rehabilitation and enhancement of the environment and natural resources in the Laguna de Bay Region in order to ensure an efficient, equitable and sustainable development.  More specifically, the Master Plan shall endeavor to attain the following:

 

1.3.1

To develop and implement an environmental management program for the Laguna de Bay which would monitor and address water quality issues, define policy measures to address environmental pollution problems and identify infrastructures for environmental enhancement;

1.3.2

To identify strategies and programs for implementation towards the management of Laguna de Bay watershed focusing on the critical catchment areas where soil and water resources need to be protected and/or restored to ensure the adequate flow of clean and adequate freshwater into the Laguna de Bay;

1.3.3

To formulate and implement policy measures and development projects for the conservation, management and enhancement of the fishery resources towards a more equitable access and utilization without sacrificing the ecological integrity of the lake;

1.3.4

To develop and implement policy measures and strategies for an agricultural development program in order to ensure the long term sustainbility of primary production areas, minimize agricultural pollution and enhance productivity;

1.3.5

To identify mechanisms and institutional arrangements which could be operationalized to manage the utilization of lake basin resources, resolve conflicts and interests among agencies and among stakeholders, delineate powers and responsibilities, and ensure public participation in decision-making;

1.3.6

To design strategies and programs towards an effective and sustained implementation of an information, education, and communication program in order to ensure public awareness and understanding of government policies, plans, programs, and projects as well as the basic problems and issues in environmental managements;

1.3.7

To develop and implement a community development program which would focus on organizing the marginalized sector thereby facilitating the implementation of alternative livelihood projects, the advocacy towards their partnership in environmental management and their participation in decision-making processes in managing the Laguna de Bay resources;

1.3.8

To identify policy and technical concerns which could be the subject of a research and development agenda that would lead towards the formulation of alternative developmental strategies and/or the resolution of environmental and developmental problems and issues in the Lake region.

 

1.4       METHODOLOGY

Contents:

 

To determine the influence of various factors on the environmental conditions in the study areas and their ultimate effect in the Laguna de Bay water quality, the Master Plan Project has focused on the investigation of four components described hereunder.  This analysis served as a basis for coming up with the recommended development programs and projects which form the central focus of this Master Plan.

 

1.4.1

LAND RESOURCE COMPONENT

This component deals with the investigation of the natural and physical attributes of the lake watershed and includes agriculture, industries, built up areas, forest areas, pedology/geology, land use, protected areas, reserve areas and natural parks.

1.4.2

WATER RESOURCE COMPONENT

This component is of fundamental importance in the implementation of measures for the rehabilitation of the Laguna de Bay environment and for sustaining development activities.  This includes the lake and its tributaries, air and water quality, chemical and biological attributes, fisheries, pollution, lake uses, benthos, hydrologic and hydraulic conditions.  The conflicting and competing uses and the associated socio-economic and environmental problems are also investigated.

1.4.3

SOCIO - ECONOMIC  STRUCTURES/ PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT

This component deals with the investigation of the sociological and economic aspects in the study area.  This includes demography, political and economic structures, regional economy and existing programs and projects.

1.4.4

INSTITUTIONS AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

This component deals with an analysis of existing institutional arrangements in managing the Laguna de Bay Region and its basin resources.  Legal and policy instruments, inter-agency coordinations, organizational problems and structural constraints are investigated to come up with appropriate institutional changes.  Of major importance are the institutional issues and constraints within LLDA - the agency mandated to manage the development of the Laguna de Bay Region.

The project components and corresponding activities of the Master Plan Project was prepared by an integrated team headed by the Project Manager, the LLDA Technical Support Staff and the Project Staff specifically hired for the purpose.

The first activity undertaken by the project staff included the collection of data and information based on major studies conducted on Laguna de Bay Region since the 70s and a multi-sectoral consultations with stakeholders.  The second phase was the analysis and synthesis of the recommendation of these studies by the LLDA technical support staff.  The third phase involved the presentation of the LLDA divisional concerns, projects and activities.  The last phase was the formulation of specific programs and strategies for the development of the Laguna de Bay and its watershed basin.

 

1.5   ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT

Contents:

 

1.5.1

REPORT STRUCTURE

This is the Final Report of the Master Plan for the Laguna de Bay Region.  To achieve the objectives set forth, the Master Plan has focused on the development and formulation of different programs and projects.  Ten appendices are attached to this report.  Nine (9) programs are proposed to address specific sectoral issues and concerns in the Region.  These are as follows:

 

Appendix:

A.

Environmental Management Program

B.

Watershed Management Program

C.

Fisheries Development Program

D.

Agricultural Development Program

E.

Cottage Industries Development Program

F.

Institutional Development Program

G.

Community Development Program

H.

Research Agenda

J.

Contains a compilation of the proposed plans and programs of the different agencies concerned with the Laguna de Bay Region.

 

1.5.2 

ORGANIZATION OF THE FINAL REPORT

The remaining part of the Final Report is structured in the following order.  In Chapter 1 the overview of the Master Plan is presented.  This includes the rationale and impetus for which the Master Plan was formulated.  The policy statement expressed under Executive Order No. 121 issued by the President on August 24, 1993 as translated in the parameters set forth by the Executive Department was presented.  Following from the parameters identified, the ultimate objective of the Master Plan is the development of strategies and program, for the protection, rehabilitation and/or enhancement of the environment and natural resources in the Laguna de Bay region in order to ensure an efficient, equitable and sustainable development.

Chapter 2 presents the general overview of the Laguna de Bay Basin.  It describes the general features of the lake and its watershed in terms of its origin, geology, topography, climatology, location, hydrology and land uses.

The socio-economic profile of the lake region is also presented focusing on the demography and regional economy.  This chapter highlighted the central focus of the regional resource which is the lake itself and the multifarious uses for which it is intended.

A special treatment of the existing institutions and institutional arrangements in managing the Laguna de Bay is presented in Chapter 3.  The evolution of Laguna Lake Development Authority as a special regional agency was presented.  The policy and legal framework (Republic Act 4850 and its amendments) were clarified whereby the mandates, jurisdiction, powers and functions of LLDA were defined.  The second part of this chapter deals with the institutional issues and concerns facing LLDA as it manages the resources of the Laguna de Bay region.

Chapter 4 presents the regional development issues, problems and constraints.  These include environmental concerns such as water quality issues, pollution and declining fisheries; constraints on land resources focusing on land use and conversion, deforestation, urbanization, land titling of shorelands and ground water contamination; and ; socio-economic concerns such as conflicting uses of the lake, lake fishery problems, livelihood and skills training.

Chapter 5 is the presentation of the proposed regional development plans and programs.  A regional development framework, as a guide to the development of sectoral program formulation is presented as the first part of this chapter.  The overall plan is presented based on sectoral program areas namely:  Environmental Management, Watershed Management, Fisheries Development, Agricultural Development, Cottage Industries Development, Institutional Development, Lake Environmental Education and Communication Support, Community Development and Research Agenda.  The objectives, strategies and components for each program are also presented.  The details and profiles of the project components for each program are annexed in the appendices of the Master Plan.

Chapter 6 contains a summary of the implementation schedule of the proposed programs and projects in the Master Plan.  A summary of the estimated costs for the implementation of the proposed programs and projects is presented in Chapter 7.

 

2.0   THE LAGUNA DE BAY BASIN

Contents:

 

2.1   GENERAL OVERVIEW

Contents:

2.1.1

ORIGIN OF LAGUNA DE BAY

2.1.2

GEOLOGY

2.1.3

TOPOGRAPHY

2.1.4

CLIMATOLOGY

2.1.5

LOCATION

2.1.6

HYDROLOGY OF THE LAKE

2.1.7

LAND USE

 

2.1.1

ORIGIN OF LAGUNA DE BAY            

Varied opinions have been advanced by early geologists regarding the origin of Laguna de Bay. The idea that the bay was formerly a volcanic crater or that it originated through subsidence of a volcano, remains unresolved.  The most generally accepted theory, however, based on recent findings, is that the basin was once part of Manila Bay.  The drill cores uncovered various layers of marine shells which are of the same species as those shells living in Manila Bay waters today.  Remnants of almost identical species of marine shells were also found in the upper shores of the town of Bagumbayan (Luneta Park), and in the Marikina fault in Pasig-Marikina river junction (SOGREAH, 1974).

Chapter Contents

2.1.2 

GEOLOGY                                                                                       

The Laguna de Bay watershed is underlain almost entirely by Quarternary (Pliocene-Pleistocene) clastic, pyroclastic and volcanic rocks, except for the extreme northern portion of the region, which is occupied chiefly by Tertiary rocks and a few erosional remnants of Cretaceous rocks.  A group of volcanic cones and small crater-lakes characterizes the southern Laguna de Bay watershed.  These volcanoes experienced intermittent eruptions, both quiet and explosive types of varied intensities, during the Pleistocene time.  They ejected large volumes of volcanic and pyroclastic materials, particularly tuff and agglomerate that blanketed extensive areas of the older Tertiary rocks (SOGREAH, 1974).  

Chapter Contents

2.1.3

TOPOGRAPHY                                                                                               

The surface feature of the area is characterized by mixed topography.  The area is 35% gentle, 45% rolling, 15% steep and 5% very steep (Pacardo et.al., 1988).  The northern part of the watershed is characterized by a series of rolling hills with high to moderate reliefs.  Among these are the Binangonan peninsula, Talim Island, Jala-Jala peninsula and the Famy valley, which is flanked to the east by the Caliraya plateau (SOGREAH, 1974).  However, the southern portion of the watershed can be described by the presence of a group of volcanic cones with numerous smaller cinder cones and crater lakes.  Some of the prominent features of this part are Mt. Banahaw, the highest in the whole region at elevation 2165 meters, Mt. San Cristobal, Mt. Nagcarlan and Mt. Makiling.  The major part of the remote places or thinly inhabited areas is covered mostly with forest which includes most of limestone hills.  The lower land areas and valleys are normally planted to seasonal rice, vegetables, fruit trees, other short-season crops.  

Chapter Contents

2.1.4

CLIMATOLOGY 

The prevailing climatic conditions are the Type I for the Rizal province and Metro Manila, having two pronounced seasons (i.e. dry from November to April and wet from May to October) and Type IV for the Laguna and Cavite provinces (i.e. having an even distribution of rainfall throughout the year (NEDA,  1987).  In the cool season (December to February), the lowest air temperatures and peak wind velocities occur, causing high water turbidity that even with the presence of large amounts of free nutrients, primary production and fish growth is at its lowest for the year.

Chapter Contents

2.1.5

LOCATION                                                                                                      

Today, Laguna de Bay cover almost one half of the 190,000 ha. total area of all existing lakes in this country.  It is known as the second largest inland body of water in Southeast Asia next to Lake Toba in Indonesia (Santos-Borja, 1994).  It has a total surface area of about 90,000 has. and an average depth of 2.8 m.  Laguna de Bay stands unique in the sense that it is right in the middle of its upper watershed.  It lies just east and generally south of Metropolitan Manila.  The lake has a total volume of 3.2 billion cubic meters with a  shoreline of 220 km.  There are 21 tributaries that drain into the lake;  35% of freshwater that drain comes from Pagsanjan River while 15% comes from Sta. Cruz River.  The only outlet of the lake is the Napindan Channel which at its confluence with the Marikina river, forms the Pasig river, which meanders along a 24 km. long course westward through a major part of Metropolitan Manila, before eventually discharging into Manila Bay (Francisco, 1985).  Other lakes in the region also include the Seven Crater Lakes in San Pablo City with a total surface area of 289.6 has. and Tadlak Lake in Los Baños with only 22.6 ha. area.

Laguna de Bay Region occupies 1.3% of the total land area of the Philippines.  It encompasses the whole provinces of Rizal and Laguna, the cities of San Pablo, Pasay, Caloocan, Quezon, Manila and Tagaytay, the towns of Tanauan, Sto. Tomas and Malvar in Batangas, the towns of Silang and Carmona in Cavite; Lucban in Quezon province and Marikina, Pasig, Taguig, Muntinlupa and Pateros in Metro Manila.  To sum it up, Laguna de Bay Region boundaries include 6 provinces, 60 municipalities of which 28 towns are lakeshore covering 177 barangays and 32 non-lakeshore towns.

Laguna de Bay is trilobate lake with three corporate bays:  The West Bay, Central Bay and East Bay that converge towards the South carving out what resembles a large bird or dinosaur.  The West and Central Bays are separated by Talim Island, the largest and most populated of the nine islands within the lake.  It is bordered by the ruggedly high Sierra Madre mountain ranges on the Northeastern portion, the high Caliraya volcanic plateau in the East and the chains of mountains of Laguna and Batangas province to the South and Southeast, which includes Mt. Banahaw and Mt. Makiling.

Chapter Contents

2.1.6

HYDROLOGY OF THE LAKE

The hydrology of the lake has a natural stage regime which in the dry season results in a minimum lake elevation of about 10.5 m. controlled by mean level in Manila Bay.  At the end of the dry season, the lake level may drop below the level of high tide in Manila Bay, resulting in the intrusion of seawater up the Pasig river.  With this diurnal reversal, the highly polluted waters of the Pasig river system are carried in the lake.  The tidal influx is also the primary cause of elevated salinity in the lake during this part of the year (Francisco, 1985).

During the wet season, precipitation results in an annual mean high water elevation of 12.5m. and a peak elevation which may reach as high as 14.6m for a 100 year recurrence interval.  During extremely wet years, widespread flood damage occurs along the lakeshores because the land is relatively flat for several kilometers inland in most areas.  Also during this period, the Marikina river floods the Pasig river and overflows into the Laguna de Bay via the Napindan Channel because the Marikina river can generate floodflows of about 200 m3s to 4000 m3s, and because the Pasig river bank full channel capacity varies from as little as 50 m3 to only about 750 m3s.  Depending upon the tide and local inflow, the Marikina river causes flooding in and around Metropolitan Manila.

Chapter Contents

2.1.7

LAND USE

The total basin area of the lake is about 382,000 has. and this is commonly referred to as the Laguna de Bay Region.  The land being used for agriculture is approximately 198,640 has. which comprises 52% of the total land resources. At present, the forest area includes only 73,000 has.  Extensive deforestation has been reported (BCEOM, 1984)  where 54,000 has. between 1966 and 1977 had been transformed into unproductive grassland, with serious erosion hazard, involving sediment transport siltation problems thus, the remaining forest cover is only 19,000 hectares.

Moreover, around 83,620 has. is now being used for industries; 26,740 has. as built-up area, and 14,000 has. as lakeshore area.  The drainage basin includes about 3,600 square meters kms. of land composed of: urbanizing suburbs, spilling over from the Metropolitan Manila area: flatlands bordering the lake which are intensively farmed, predominantly for rice and sugarcane production; mountainous areas where bananas and coconuts are grown, and where timber is harvested and a large patch of hilly scrub and grassland in the lake’s denuded northern side (Francisco, 1985).

The lake region is also endowed with rich natural resources within its inland basin.  The Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve (MFR) approximately situated 6 kilometers from South Bay and 20- kms. from Talim Island is the nearest resource of its kind to the seat of government.  It is a 4,244-hectare resource designated primarily as a training laboratory under Republic Act 6967 for the advancement of scientific knowledge on natural resources.  It serves as a wildlife sanctuary and a pool for genetic diversity.  As an educational resource, the MFR has been the setting of floristic studies in the country by internationally famous botanists.  It is also the home of various academic, research and tourism institutions such as the UP Los Baños (UPLB), International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Boy Scouts of the Philippines (BSP), National Arts Center  (NAC) and “Pook ni Maria Makiling”.  (A Master Plan for the Mt. Makiling Reserve Area is currently being prepared by a counterpart Committee).

As a natural resource, it is considered a very important watershed providing irrigation, industrial and domestic water supply to numerous population of its surrounding communities.  The Reserve serves as an important catchment area for Laguna de Bay.  Along with forest lands, other resources include extractive opportunities for both metallic and non-metallic deposits.  Geothermal potential has also been established.  The Mt. Makiling-Banahaw geothermal resources is already developed and is being utilized to supplement the nation’s energy needs.

The natural resource endowments of Laguna de Bay Region being affected by rapid urbanization of Metropolitan Manila, such as rapid population growth, intensive agriculture, and industrialization, present a challenge to development planning.  The lake is the single most important resource of the region and to which all aspects of resource exploitation are vitally linked. (For greater detail of this subject, see Gedney, 1973; Lee and Adan, 1976 and Francisco, 1985).

Chapter Contents

2.2   SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE

Contents:

2.2.1

Demography

2.2.2

Laguna de Bay Basin Economy

2.2.1

DEMOGRAPHY

The Region represents about 1.3% of the country’s land area, where about 13.8% of the nation’s population is concentrated.  In 1990, the actual population of the region, including Metropolitan Manila, was 8.3million (Table 2.01) with a growth rate of 3.13% and a population density in 1992 of 23.36 per ha. (LLDA, 1992).  The non-lakeshore areas’ population of 6.4 million as of 1990 will reach 10 million by the year 2000 (Table 2.02).  URSI projections (1989) also reveal that the 2 million lakeshore population will change significantly.

Based on the 1985 NSO Family Income and Expenditures Survey, the average annual family income in the Basin ranges from P35,000 to P116,566.  The main Basin areas, Rizal and Laguna, have average annual family incomes of P38,547 and P41,249 respectively.  These would generally apply to the lakeshore areas with individual incomes per lakeshore municipality within these baseline levels.  The average annual family incomes in Rizal and Laguna are significantly higher than the national average.  In 1985, the national income for the country stood at P31,052 (MEIP, 1994).

By the year 2000, the projected population by City, province and municipality is 12 million.  This growth and distribution in the watershed area is strongly influenced by the proximity of Metro Manila.  The more densely populated municipalities are located within or close to Manila.  The rate of increase in the province of Rizal and Laguna which, comprise the main portion of the region, was 5.8% and 3.9% respectively.  The high population growth rate is largely attributed to in-migration from the other regions of the country which results mainly from the perceived economic opportunities in Metropolitan Manila (Francisco, 1985).

Chapter Contents

2.2.2 LAGUNA DE BAY BASIN ECONOMY

Because Metropolitan Manila is almost totally urbanized, the spill over into the rapidly urbanizing suburbs of Rizal and Laguna provinces has now resulted in the expansion of the Metropolis.  This expansion was concentrated in the Western Bay and has since extended to the southern extremity of the lake.  At present, the province of Rizal is about 85% urbanized while Laguna province is 50% urbanized.  This rapid urbanization, coupled with the high rate of in-migration, is associated with the region’s growing economic and social problems, as well as, the worsening environmental problems.

In terms of economic output, selected economic indicators reveal that Laguna de Bay Region produces a Gross Regional Domestic Product of P101.3 billion (GRDP, Region IV), a potential labor force of 6.1 in 1990 NCSO and is projected to reach 8.5 million by the year 2000 (Table 2.03). In addition, the total number of industrial establishments is increasing rapidly with a total number of 1,481 (LLDA, 1994).  The high trade export receipts of US$257.073 million covers 41.14% export receipts in the whole Region IV not to mention the output of P38.84 billion from industrial establishments of local and foreign investments (Sectoral Performance Report, 1991).  All these factors led to the suitability of the region for economic development.

In the early 80’s the region also produced more than 60% of nation’s total manufacturing.  In the region itself, the projected manufacturing and services for the year 2000 account for almost 86% while primary production (agriculture) accounts for only 6.6% (see Table 2.04).  The economic significance of this large difference in output should not, however, be over emphasized, for with more than three-fourths of the land in agrarian use, agriculture still retains considerable socio-economic importance.  Again, this should be fully appreciated when considering the present trend of rapid urbanization that is continually reducing the area of agricultural land.

Chapter Contents

2.3   EXISTING AND POTENTIAL USES OF THE LAKE

Contents:

Studies conducted since 1967 have established existing uses and indicated development potentials for the lake’s natural resources.  Because of its proximity to Metropolitan Manila, the resources and their use contain unique potentials for economic development.  At present it is a source of industrial cooling water; a source of irrigation water; a source of hydroelectric power; a transport route for oil products and the lakeshore dwellers; a source of snails for duck feed; a venue for recreation and most notably a source of fish supply.  The lake is intended in the future to be a main source of domestic water supply for the region especially Metropolitan Manila.

2.3.1

Fisheries

2.3.2

Transport Route

2.3.3

Reservoir for Flood Water

2.3.4

Power Generation

2.3.5

Recreation

2.3.6

Waste Sink

2.3.7

Water Supply

2.3.8

Irrigation

2.3.9

Industrial Cooling

2.3.1

Fisheries

The fisheries of Laguna de Bay have been an outstanding economic resource from the lake since historic times, providing food for the lake basin population and the means of livelihood for approximately 17,000 fishermen residing in the various municipalities around the lake (LLDA Registration of Fisherment, 1992).  In 1970, the LLDA introduced an innovation in aquaculture technology to improve fish productivity of the lake.  Better known as the fishpen culture, this innovation proved to be highly profitable.

Today, the fishpen industry averages an annual yield of 6.7 metric tons/ha/cropping.  The industry attracted private investors which subsequently saw the lake teeming with fishpens.  With about 13,700 has. of the lake surface devoted to fishpen culture in 1994, approximately 91,809 tons of fish was produced from the lake (LLDA, 1994).

The boom in the lake fishery production has led to continuing conflict in the region.  The large scale fishpen culture has threathened the economic conditions of fishermen dependent upon open water catch.  Because investment in fishpen culture requires considerable amount of capitalization, the marginal fishermen could not afford to establish their own fishpens.  Traditional fishermen are battling for fishing grounds in the open water and this has been a major social conflict since the early eighties.  

Aside from lake occupancy, the fishermen are also demanding for the removal of the fishpen structures which, according to them, are affecting water circulation and contributing to water pollution.  This affects the distribution of nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate which are essential for the production of natural food in the lake.

Fishpen ownership is also an issue in the fisheries of Laguna de Bay.  Because fishpen industry has proven to be highly profitable, the small fishermen question the legitimacy of fishpen ownership, thereby demanding for proper allocation and distribution of the aquaculture area to include fishermen through cooperatives.  To date, there are 62 fishpens owned by fishermen cooperatives, equivalent to about 2,382 has., 187 structures owned by corporations or about 10,485 has. and 104 fishpens belong to individual-owners or an equivalent area of about 833 has. (LLDA, 1994).

Chapter Contents

2.3.2 Transport Route 

The lake also provides a transport route for lakeshore dwellers.  In 1982, there were over 4,162 motorized and non-motorized watercraft operating on the lake as a form of transport for lakeshore communities which are not easily accessible by road (Centeno, 1982). In addition, 19 barges are using the lake for barging an average of 73,078 lbs. of oil and oil products daily.

Residents from Talim Island travel by boat to various destinations around the lake.  The major routes, however, are the wharfs in Binangonan and Cardona in Rizal province and Calamba and Sta. Rosa in Laguna.

Chapter Contents

2.3.3 Reservoir for Flood Water

The increase magnitude and uncontrolled flood in the Metropolitan Area paved the way for the construction of the Manggahan Floodway.  This floodway was constructed to connect Marikina River with the Laguna de Bay with the objective of easing up and mitigating the floods in Metropolitan Area, thus making the lake as a reservoir of flood waters.

As designed, the Manggahan Floodway has as estimated capacity of 2,400 m3/sec although the actual volume capacity during floods is only 2,000 m3/sec which is then diverted to the lake.  With length of about 9 km. from the Manggahan Floodway gate to the lake, it usually takes 8 hours to return to its normal level.  These estimates serves to contain the volume of water being poured down by both the upper and lower Marikina River which has a capacity of 800 m3 and 2,000 m3 respectively.

As a complement to this floodway, the Napindan Hydraulic Control  System (NHCS) was constructed in 1983 not only to regulate saline water intrusion from Manila Bay but also control the inflow of polluted water to the lake.

Simultaneous operation of these structures lessen the flood conditions in Metropolitan Manila by diverting peak flows of the Marikina River for temporary storage into Laguna Lake (Lee and Adan, 1976).  The construction of these structures has made the lake a floodwater reservoir (Francisco 1985).

Chapter Contents

2.4.4 Power Generation

A pump storage hydroelectric power station has been operating in Kalayaan, Laguna about 60 kms. southeast of Manila.  The plant exploits the head between the Laguna de Bay and existing Caliraya Reservoir (a man-made lake near Kalayaan) which currently produces 300 megawatts of electricity. The Kalayaan plant have an expected generating capacity of 3,000 megawatts.

Chapter Contents

2.5.5

Recreation

The lake provides a source for recreational activities not only among lakeshore dwellers but also among tourists local and foreigners alike, although not on a commercial scale.

However, recent findings show that water quality has deteriorated.  According to the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) classification of water surface, Class-C is only proper boating, sailing and the like activities.

Chapter Contents

2.3.6

Waste Sink

The lake serves as a huge sink for waste coming from domestic sources (households and service sectors); non-point sources (surface run-off from urban areas, croplands and forest lands); industries, livestock and poultry production, fishery activities and Pasig River and Manggahan Floodway inflow.

The actual population of the Laguna de Bay region in 1990 was placed at 8.3 million.  Seventy six percent (76%) resides in non lakeshore municipalities while twenty four percent (24%) are located in lakeshore areas.  Almost 80% of the population resides in urbanized areas of the region.  Due to increasing demand for residential areas, more subdivisions mushroomed in the region.  By 1989, around 1,898 subdivisions were developed, most of these are concentrated in the west bay.

It was estimated that 60% of the total households discharge their solid and liquid wastes directly into the tributary rivers of the lake, thus, domestic sources account for 70% of the organic wastes discharged into the lake and for the highly pollutive leachate from solid wastes.

For croplands, average fertilizer application is estimated as follows:  palay - 72 kg. (irrigated), 48 kg. (non-irrigated) and corn - 89 kg. of this, 20% is estimated to end up in the lake.  With the completion of the irrigation projects in the region, pollution from croplands is expected to increase.

Sedimentation of the lake is attributed to the continuing soil erosion due to deforestation and also to poor agricultural practices within the basin.  The sedimentation rate is estimated at 1.5 million m3/year (SOGREAH 1991) with the Marikina River as a major contibutor of silt to the lake through the Manggahan Floodway.

There are 1481 (LLDA 1994) industries in the lake today.  Of these, 63% undertake pollution control measures or have wastewater treatment facilities.  In 1989, a survey by URSI revealed that 41% of the industries located in the region discharged increasing number of toxic and hazardouz substances.

Artificial feeds such as rice bran, bread crumbs, ice cream cones also contribute to polltuion in the lake.  From 35,000 has. of fihpen in 1983 to 10,701 has. to date, all of them are suspected of using artificial feeds, one can just imagine the pollutants generated.

Pollution also comes from the backflow of Pasig River bringing 930 tons or almost 20% of the total annual pollution Nitrogen load to the lake while phosphorous was estimated to be 420 tons (MEIP 1994).

Chapter Contents

2.3.7 Water Supply

A basic need everywhere, providing water supply is a problem in a country with an expanding economy and a growing population.  The massive pollution expansion, aggravated by uncontrolled urbanization, placed demands on domestic water supply.

In the region, groundwater is a common source of water supply, but its reliability to sustain increasing demand has not been established.  In fact, receding groundwater level brought about be excessive extraction (overpumping) has been found to be an incipient problem in some municipalities in the region (LLDA 1978). Also, there is an increasing evidence of groundwater contamination (from leachate of dumpsites, septic tanks, etc.) thus making it imperative to use the lake as a domestic water supply source.  The potential volume of water that can be abstracted from the lake for domestic use is about 161.5 million cubic meters annually.  It has been programmed to be tapped as a new water source for the year 2000.  Utilizing the irrigation pumps of NIA located at Putatan, Muntinlupa, the MWSS project could provide water to Muntinlupa, Parañaque, Cavite City and nearby municipalities.  Approximately, 1.6 million people (1995) will be served by the said project initially.

At present, the MWSS project to supply for domestic water requirements of Taytay, Angono, Binangonan and Cardona in Rizal province is underway.  Called the Rizal Province Water Supply Improvement Project, it is expected to be fully operational by August of 1996.  With a capacity of 1,000 liters per second, it is being constructed from a Protocol Loan of 54 million French Francs.  Once the project is implemented, it is projected that about 36,000 m3/day would be abstracted.  This abstraction would result in a drop in water level of about 0.04 mm per day representing about 28% of the average annual inflow of water in the lake estimated at about 4.6 billion m3/year.

Chapter Contents

2.3.8

Irrigation

The existence of extensive inland areas around the lake allows for another beneficial use of lakewater.  The lake has sufficient water for the year round irrigation of farmlands in lakeshore town as well as for some areas of adjacent Quezon and Cavite provinces.  The potential area that can be irrigated using lakewater is 102,456 has. Through irrigation, crop production will be intensified in the region to more than two crops per year and will facilitate the attainment of self sufficiency in rice production.  It is estimated that about 230 million m3/year will be abstracted from the lake to irrigate all targeted agricultural areas.

It should be noted, however, that with the present trend of urbanization, agricultural areas which are targeted for irrigation are now rapidly converted into industrial land uses.  Such trends in land development should be reviewed and adequate policies should be formulated and implemented to rationalize development directions in view of investments already made in certain irrigation projects.

Chapter Contents

2.3.9 Industrial Cooling Water

Aside from the demands for domestic water supply, the lake is also being used as a source of cooling water for the industries around the lakeshores.  More than 2.04 billion cubic meters of lakewater is used annually for industrial cooling.  Seventy percent (70%) is used by the power generating plants of the National Power Corporation (Malaya  TPP, Sucat TPP and Kalayaan HPP), four percent (4%) by the Phil. Petroleum Corporation refinery in Pililla, Rizal and the rest by some industries surrounding the lake.

Cooling water is recycled back into the lake taking with it some pollutants which could be considered negligible, although, thermal pollution results in the process.  Thermal pollution measurement is reported to result in about 2 oC rise in the temparature in areas near the discharge points of the thermal power plants.

Chapter Contents

3.0   INSTITUTIONS AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS IN MANAGING LAGUNA DE BAY

Contents:

3.1   EXISTING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS IN LAGUNA DE BAY

Contents:

In view of the imperatives of socio-economic development and in recognition of the potential of the lake as a resource, the Philippine government enacted in 1966 a law that would control the use of Laguna de Bay.  Republic Act 4850 and its subsequent amendments provide the broad policy and management framework for the once unregulated and underutilized resource of the lake.  To understand the institutional arrangements and the policy decision-making process in Laguna de Bay, it is essential to examine the origin and implications of the Act.

 

Contents:

 

3.1.1

THE EVOLUTION OF A LAKE MANAGEMENT AGENCY: A HISTORICAL TREATMENT

3.1.2

THE POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

3.1.2.1

COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

A.

Coordination of Plans

B.

Infrastructure Financing

C.

Lake Fisheries

D.

Water Quality Standards

E.

Financial/Managerial Control

F.

Organizational Structure

G.

Scope of Jurisdiction

3.1.3

THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND OPERATIONS OF LLDA

3.1.3.1

The LLDA Board of Directors

3.1.3.2

The LLDA Divisions

3.1.4

OTHER CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN THE  LAKE REGION

3.1.5

PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND INTEREST GROUPS

 

3.1.1 THE EVOLUTION OF A LAKE MANAGEMENT AGENCY: A HISTORICAL TREATMENT

The problems brought about by rapid urbanization, pollution from industrialization and a growing population, have led to the evolution of a resource management institutional framework for Laguna de Bay.  In the early 1960s because of perceived threats from the rapidly changing character of the lake region, political leaders in the area sought the enactment of legislation to control and manage the resources of the lake.  The specific problems perceived were socio-economic in nature and dealt mainly with the observed decreased in fish yield; the proliferation of industries along the lakeshores; deteriorating water quality as a result of pollution and algal bloom; poor living standards and rapidly increasing population growth.  In view of these problems, and through the initiative of former Congressmen Frisco F. San Juan (Author) and Wenceslao Rancap Lagumbay (Co-Author), a Bill was presented to the House of Representatives of the Philippine Congress.  During deliberations, the proposed Bill gained favorable acceptance.  This motivated Senators Helena Benitez and Lorenzo Sumulong to present the Bill to the Philippine Senate.  In the Senate, there were practically no arguments presented against the Bill.  Hence, on 18 July 1966, through a concerted effort, the Bill was finally approved by the Philippine Congress as Republic Act 4850, thereby creating the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA), (Francisco, 1985).

The move to seek the enactment of R.A. 4850 was precisely intended to create an instrument to facilitate rational utilization of the lake resources.  It was perceived that the creation of an “Authority” would facilitate cooperation and coordination and a pooling of resources among national government agencies, local governments and the private sector.  In response to the problems in the region, as well as national goals for economic development, the LLDA was created.  By virtue of R.A. 4850, a policy was declared which gave LLDA the task to:

“... lead, promote and accelerate the development and balanced growth of the Laguna de Bay area and the surrounding provinces, cities and towns hereinafter referred to as the region, within the context of the national plans and policies for social and economic development.”

The LLDA  was created as a quasi-government agency with powers and functions to act as a corporation.  Thus, on 06 October 1969, the first stockholders meeting was held with the subsequent election of its Board of Directors and the subsequent election of the Rizal Provincial Governor, Isidro Rodriguez, as Chairman of the Board (LLDA Annual Report, 1980).

The Act conferred upon LLDA the jurisdiction to execute its powers and functions in the Laguna de Bay region.  As defined by the Act, the region comprised the provinces of Rizal and Laguna including San Pablo City and the cities of Manila, Pasay, Quezon and Caloocan.  Through this empowering legislation, LLDA established the legal and administrative bases of its operation and slowly developed its technical capabilities.  On 16 March 1970, LLDA took over the function as Cooperating Agency for the “UNDP Feasibility Survey for the Hydraulic Control of Laguna de Bay Complex and Related Development Activities” (LLDA Annual Report, 1980).

The findings of the UNDP paved the way towards a more responsible role for LLDA in terms of planning and development in the region.  The study recommended further evaluation of vital programs which included lake fishery, lake water quality, water supply, industrial estate planning and irrigation.  Among the major issues that justified the need for in-depth studies of the lake were those related to water quality hazards which hindered utilization of the lake’s resources for development purposes.  Although these studies mainly outlined specific technical matters, the recommendations explicitly considered institutional matters.

In 1968, while the UNDP studies were being initiated, a growing concern for environmental awareness had been developing amongst leaders and politicians in the country.  In August 1969, the Seventh Congress of the Republic of the Philippines in their first session endorsed and approved a House Joint Resolution which sought the establishment of a comprehensive system of “environmental planning” as one way through which social and economic policies enunciated in Congress may be achieved.

Two years later, on 14 October 1971, in accordance with the policies on Environmental Planning, Senator Helena Benitez introduced in the Philippine Senate a proposal to amend Republic Act 4850.  The proposed amendment sought to add in the “declaration of policy, a statement that:

“It shall also be the policy of the Authority (LLDA) to carry out the development of the Laguna Lake area with due regard and adequate provisions in all the developmental projects within the area for environmental management and control, preservation of the quality of human life and ecological systems and the prevention of undue ecological disturbance, deterioration and pollution.”

(Senate Paper No. 561; 1971:  Seventh

Congress, Third Special Session)

The move to amend R.A. 4850 was finally realized on 17 October, 1975, by the issuance of Presidential Decree (PD) 813 based on the following considerations:

1.

The urban expansion of Metro Manila, combined with the current and intended uses of the lake, had created deep concern among the government and the general public over the impact of development on the Laguna de Bay and its tributaries;

2.

The continuing deterioration of the lake induced by inflow of polluted water from Pasig River and industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes from urbanizing and built-up areas around the lake;

3.

The floods in Metro Manila and the lakeshore towns were being influenced by the hydraulic system of Laguna de Bay and its river systems;

4.

The deficiencies and ambiguities in the provisions of R.A. 4850 were found to impede the Accomplishment of the Authority’s goals; and

5.

There were other government agencies exercising varying degrees of jurisdiction and control of the lake, resulting in problems of coordination, planning and management, thereby creating a constraint on the Authority to plan and implement its objectives.

On 16 December 1983, despite PD 813 which had already strengthened the charter for lake management, the President issued Executed Order No. 927.  The national government felt the need to further improve the institutional capabilities of LLDA to rationalize the allocation of resources in response to the demands of various users.  The Executive Order further defined certain functions and granted additional powers to LLDA.  This more significantly included the Authority to modify and improve the organizational structure, the extension of the scope of jurisdiction and the power to issue standards, rules and regulations pertaining to aspects of pollution control.  (The preceding discussions were based from Francisco, 1985).

Chapter Contents

3.1.2 THE POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

For Laguna de Bay, the legal rules for managing the resources evolved in three major stages:

The first stage was the creation of a lake management agency through the enactment of R.A. 4850.  The Act was passed to rationalize the uncontrolled and underutilized resources which was threatened by the spillover effects of  urbanization, industrial pollution and a growing population.  The Act provided the necessary decision-making process at the regional level to facilitate cooperation and coordination among different sectors.  The Laguna Lake Development Authority was created by this Act to promote and accelerate the development and balanced growth of the Laguna de Bay area.

The second stage was the proclamation of PD 813 which sought to amend R.A. 4850.  The Presidential Decree was issued to remedy the deficiencies and ambiguities in the previous Act which were found to impede the accomplishment of the objectives defined for the LLDA.  This amending Decree provided a better-defined statutory system for the decision-making process.  The power to issue necessary permits or clearances in the use of the lake, as well as the power to institute necessary legal proceedings, was defined at this level for the LLDA to implement.  As an expression of the central government’s basic policies, the amendment defined the relationship of LLDA with the NEDA and other central government agencies.  This reinforced the integration of the LLDA with the central decision-making body in government.  The third stage was the issuance of Executive Order No. 927 which further defined certain functions and specified additional powers for the LLDA.  The Executive Order provided the LLDA with the authority to modify and improve its structure.  (This was, however, not realized up to the present administration).  It also extended the scope of its jurisdiction.  A strengthened statutory system was defined which granted the LLDA the power to issue standards, rules and regulations pertaining to specific aspects of pollution control.

Within the provisions of the three statutory stages mentioned above, there are several institutional mechanisms which specifically define the limits of policy decision-making by LLDA.  The significant role given to the President and the strong influence of the National Economic and Development Authority on the policy decision-making process in Laguna de Bay clearly indicate these limits.  A review of the provisions of the legislation, particularly PD 813, explicitly shows the strict reference to the need for approval of NEDA and other central government agencies, and/or the President of practically all actions undertaken by the LLDA.

More recently, through Executive Order 149 (28 December 1993) the administrative supervision over LLDA was transferred to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.  This recent move remains an institutional question in terms of its constitutionality.

The essential provisions of the policy and Legal Mandates of LLDA are presented below.

Chapter Contents

3.1.2.1

COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

The amending legal framework (PD 813) specifies for the LLDA to undertake a comprehensive survey of the physical and natural resources and potential of the region, particularly the socio-economic conditions, the development of resources and the regional problems.  On the basis of this survey, the Authority is compelled to draft a comprehensive and detailed plan with the objective of promoting the region’s rapid socio-economic development.  The implementation of such a plan as required by PD 813, is subject to the approval of the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA).  Furthermore, the implementation of plans relating to fisheries are specifically subject to the prior consensus of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) in order to make it consistent with the national fisheries plan (P.D. 813 Section 2(a), 1975).

LLDA was, however, not successful in this respect due to inherent institutional constraints such as lack of resources and trained personnel to undertake regional planning.

Chapter Contents

A.

Coordination of Plans

The legal framework bestowed upon LLDA the power to approve or disapprove all proposals and development activities within the lake region.  Relating to the approval of proposals, LLDA is granted the authority to issue necessary permits or clearances, provided such proposals are in consonance with those of the Authority and provided that these will not contribute to the unmanageable  pollution of Laguna de Bay.  In the implementation of this policy, LLDA is empowered to exact fees from proponents for the processing of such plans, programmes and projects.  Furthermore, the LLDA is granted the right to institute necessary legal proceedings against those who implement any project/plan/program in the region without the necessary clearance from the Authority.  However, for disapproved proposals, the LLDA may refer the proponents to appeal to NEDA within fifteen days from its decision.  These mechanisms were intended to facilitate the coordination of plans and procedures, with respect to Laguna de Bay, between the LLDA, the national and local government offices and public corporations for the purpose of drawing up a Laguna de Bay development plan.  For integration, this development plan becomes binding upon all parties concerned upon approval by the NEDA Board. (P.D. 813 section 2(d), 1975).

In respect to the above, there are overlapping functions and lack of coordination with the permit system of the DENR, DTI and the HLURB and the Local Government Units.

Chapter Contents

B.

Infrastructure Financing

When so required within the context of the development plans and programs in the region, the LLDA is complelled to plan, finance and/or undertake infrastructure projects such as river, flood and tidal control works, waste water and sewerage works, water supply, roads, port works, irrigation, housing and related works.  For any project financed wholly or in part by the LLDA, it is authorized to collect reasonable fees and tolls from beneficiaries in order to recover costs of construction, operation and maintenance of the project.  However, the amounts of such fees and tolls are subject to the approval of the NEDA Board.  Infrastructure projects which are classified by NEDA as “social overhead capital projects” can undertaken by the Authority with financial assistance from central government.  However, such projects shall be subjected to such terms and conditions that may be imposed by the government, upon the recommendation of the NEDA Board. (P.D. 813 section 2(f), 1975).

The major infrastructure projects so far completed are the Manggahan Floodway and the Napindan Hydraulic Control Structure.  However, it is sad to note that LLDA did not play a major role in these projects.  The irrigation projects of NIA  and the power projects of NAPOCOR should also have yielded some income to LLDA in terms of user fees due from water derived from the lake.  However, up to this point, such fees from abstracting lake waters have yet to be completely agreed upon through a Memorandum of Agreement.

Chapter Contents

C.

Lake Fisheries

For the purpose of effectively regulating and monitoring activities in Laguna de Bay, the Authority was granted exclusive jurisdiction to issue a new permit for the use of lake waters for any project or activities in or affecting the lake including navigation, construction and operation of fish pens, fish enclusures, fish corrals and the like.  To achieve this purpose, it can impose necessary safeguards for lake quality control and management and to collect necessary fees for said activities and projects.  Fees collected for fisheries may be shared between the Authority, other government agencies and local government authorities in such proportion as the President may determine.  Subject to Presidential approval, the Authority was also empowered to promulgate rules and regulations which govern fisheries development activities in Laguna de Bay. (P.D. 813 section 3(k), 1975).

While the above provision has been exercised, the recent enactment of the New Local Government Code (RA 7160) created some degree of confusion as to the authority of Local Government Units over municipal waters and fishing grounds.  The Central government, the legislature and ultimately the Supreme Court have yet to act on the issue to resolve such legal impasse.

Chapter Contents

D.

Water Quality Standards

The legal framework specifies that LLDA should act in coordination with existing government agencies in establishing water quality standards for industrial, agricultural and municipal waste discharges.  These standards are to be enforced in cooperation with said existing agencies, or they can be separately pursued by the Authority.  Penalty actions are provided elsewhere in the Act for the enforcement of such standards.  Any conflict on the appropriate water quality standard to be enforced is to be resolved through the NEDA Board (P.D. 813 section 3(n), 1975).

So far LLDA has been cooperating with the DENR through the EMB along this line.  The LLDA has yet to develop its own water quality standards for the lake in view of its unique characteristics and its huge assimilative capacity.  While coordination exist, it should be clear with DENR regional offices that LLDA is the Authority in the Lake Region.

Chapter Contents

E.

Financial/Managerial Control

The key influence of the legal framework is embodied in the provisions of Section 25, PD 813.  For budgetary control, the Authority has to submit audited financial statements to NEDA within sixty days after the close of the fiscal year.  For management control, the NEDA may at its own instance, initiate a management audit of the authority when there are reasonable grounds to believe that the Authority has been mismanaged.  The NEDA reserves the right to take appropriate measures as may be required should the audit indicate mismanagement.  (P.D. 813 section 25, 1975).

This provision was never observed, however, the necessary administrative action has been traditionally exercised by the DBM.

Chapter Contents

F.

Organizational Structure

The legal framework also defines the structure at the organizational level.  Executive Order 927 allowed the Authority to modify its structure, providing for the creation of the position of Deputy General Manager; upgrading the existing divisions into departments; and regrouping departments into offices.  More significantly, the composition of the Board of Directors for the Authority has been increased to ten members consisting: a representative of the office of the President; the Secretary of Economic Planning; the Secretary of Natural Resources; the Secretary of Trade and Industry; a representative of Laguna Province; a representative of Rizal Province; a representative of the Governor of the Metro Manila Commission; the President of the Laguna Lake Federation of Mayors, Inc.; a representative of the private investors; and the General Manager of the Laguna Lake Development Authority.  The General Manager for LLDA and the representative of the private investors are both appointed by the President. (E.O No. 927 section (1) and (5), 1983).

Organizational restructuring has yet to be realized.  Since its creation in 1969, LLDA has remained with its organizational framework, albeit with limited changes.  The magnitude and scope of its functions and the expectations of the general public for it to accomplish its objectives, it is of primary importance that central government should act to upgrade and strengthen the organizational capability of LLDA.

Chapter Contents

G. Scope of Jurisdiction

To effectively regulate and monitor activities in the Laguna de Bay region, the Authority is granted exclusive jurisdiction to issue permits for the use of all surface water for any project of activities affecting the said region.  For clarity of purpose, it was defined that the term “Laguna de Bay Region” shall refer to the Provinces of Rizal and Laguna; the cities of San Pablo, Pasay, Caloocan, Quezon, Manila and Tagaytay; the towns of Silang and Carmona in Cavite Province; the town of Lucban in Quezon Province; and the towns of Marikina, Pasig, Taguid, Muntinlupa and Pateros in Metro Manila. (E.O. No. 927 section (2), 1983).

While the jurisdiction of LLDA is clearly defined, it lacks the recognition it deserves from the LGUs, regional offices of the Central government as well as national agencies who should recognize it as special agency in charge of a special sub-region essential to national development.

Chapter Contents

3.1.3

THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND OPERATIONS OF LLDA

While policies are expressed and relationships are defined by the legal framework, the organizational structure gives meaning and substance to those policies and relationships.  In effect, it puts institutions into form.  The institutionalization of the legal and policy framework is characterized by the functional and structural nature of the policy-decision making system at the organizational level within LLDA.

To give essence and substance to the mandate of its empowering Act, the LLDA sought a lead role in the region.  Taking off from the findings and recommendations of the UNDP studies in Laguna de Bay, the LLDA, in cooperation with various international agencies, undertook in-depth studies on lake fisheries, water quality, water supply, industrial estate planning and irrigation.  These comprehensive studies resulted in the formulation of various programs and projects.

Chapter Contents

3.1.3.1

The LLDA Board of Directors

Structurally, the LLDA is directed by a Board of Directors which sets the policies for the operational level.  The Board of Directors acts to exercise the corporate powers vested in the Authority.  One of the major functions of the Board of Directors, as set forth in the legal framework, is “to formulate, prescribe, amend and repeal rules and regulations to govern the conduct of business of the Authority”

 (P.D. 813, Section 25.A(a), 1975)

 Based upon this function,  the LLDA formulated rules and regulations for the management and use of resources in Laguna de Bay.  A major example of policy which have been formulated and implemented is the “Rules and Regulations Governing the Construction and Operation of Fishpens of Fish Enclosures in Laguna de Bay” issued in 1976 and in 1983 the Lake Fisheries Zoning and Management Plan (ZOMAP).  To ensure the implementation of these rules and regulations, the LLDA can enlist the assistance of the judicial system through its corporate powers.  Penal provisions have been provided to give legal status to the organizational policies.  Likewise, the organizational set-up of LLDA includes a Legal Division which is charged with operationalizing the judicial process.

One of the striking aspects of the LLDA Board is the apparent dominance of central government representation.  Of the ten members that constitute the Board, four members are direct representatives of central government agencies.  Another two members indirectly represent central government.  The General Manager of LLDA and the representative of private investors, are both subject to Presidential appointment.  The remaining four members are representatives of the local governments in the region.  Apart from these local government representatives, who are indirectly elected by the public, there is no representation for interest groups from the region.  The absence of such representation in the policy-decision making process neglects one of the essential component in institutional arrangements for resource management.

Chapter Contents

3.1.3.2 The LLDA Divisions

To carry out its activities, the Authority was originally organized into seven divisions under the direct supervision of a General Manager and assisted by an Assistant General Manager.  These divisions are:  the Administrative Division, Legal Division, Finance Division, Project Management Division, Engineering and Construction Division, Environmental Protection Division and the Planning and Project Development Division.  In 1990, the Corporate Management Services Office, the Lake Management Division and the Community Development Division were created thereby modifying the organization structure to address the problems in the fishpen industry and the lakeshore communities.  Organizational structure.

The agency should have been reorganized.  However, this did not materialize due to central government inaction.  More recently, a new proposal is in the process of being finalized for submission to and approval by the Office of the President.

Chapter Contents

3.1.4

OTHER CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN THE  LAKE REGION

In Laguna de Bay, central government agencies also play an important role in the policy-decision making process.  Although the influence of these agencies is indirect, their role has been explicitly or implicitly defined in the legal framework.  The National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) and the DENR are the most significant government agencies which strongly influence the policy-decision making process in Laguna de Bay.  

Other central government agencies involved in the management of the lake’s resources mainly assist or advise the Authority in its activities.  Figure 3.3 shows the various agencies operating in the lake in various areas of concerns and in varying functional activities.

Chapter Contents

3.1.5 PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND INTEREST GROUPS

It has been pointed out that representation of legitimate interest groups in the policy-decision making process is an important social value in institutional arrangements.  Furthermore, a criterion for an “ideal” arrangement is one that would provide legislative and institutional mechanisms  not only to permit but to ensure public access and involvements.

In the lake region, the only vocal sectors are the fishermen and farmers who are relatively better organized.  Their concerns are primarily on lake fisheries and inundation of agricultural areas.  These concerns are largely socio-economic and partly environmental.  More recently a growing concern on environmental issues have shown an increasing participation from communities affected by industrial pollution.  Such involvement are, however, very limited.

The lake management agency is perceived as a non-political entity in the region.  It is not an arena of political activity to most people.  Generally, views from the public are aired through the existing local government units, such as the Municipal Council of the Provincial Board.  The absence of a formal relationship between LLDA planning units and local government planning units accounts for low participation of various groups of the population in the policy-decision making process of LLDA.  An institutional mechanism should therefore be developed to allow public input in the policy-decision making process (Francisco, 1985).

In the lake, the impetus for public involvement comes from public agencies, especially from professionals within these agencies who are trained to perceive and anticipate changes that may take place.  Depending on the political significance of any activity, professionals normally press the need to include situational analysis, needs analysis, socio-economic surveys, perception assessment, etc. in their recommendations.  Results of consultative discussions are then reported to decision-makers through the operational  level  of  the decision hierarchy.  Depending on the strength of recommendations as well as the political significance of the proposal, appropriate policy changes are instituted (Francisco, 1985).

Chapter Contents

3.2   INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES AND CONCERNS

Contents:

3.2.1

NATIONAL VS. REGIONAL VS. MUNICIPAL CONCERNS

3.2.1.1

Dominant Use Policy

3.2.1.2

Flood Control

3.2.1.3

Solid Waste Management

3.2.2

DELINEATION OF POWER, AUTHORITY, RESPONSIBILITY AND JURISDICTION

3.2.2.1

Functional

3.2.2.2

Territorial

3.2.3

SECTORAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

3.2.4

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING

3.2.5

ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS OF LLDA

3.2.5.1

Organizational Strengthening and Restructuring

3.2.5.2

Frequent Changes in Top Management

3.2.5.3

Lack of National Government Financial Subsidy

3.2.5.4

Equipment Upgrading

3.2.5.5

Inadequate/conflicting Quasi-judicial Authority

3.2.1

NATIONAL VS. REGIONAL VS. MUNICIPAL CONCERNS

In general, the resources of the lake area will be managed within the concept of an integrated lake basin approach to resource management.  The ultimate objective is to ensure that social and economic development activities put primary consideration on the conservation and protection of the lake ecosystems and environmental conditions of the whole lake basin.

However, in the process of development and resource utilization, there are conflicting interest that come to play within government between and among the interest of the central government, the regional interest, and the local municipal interest.  This could be illustrated using three examples below.

Chapter Contents

3.2.1.1

Dominant Use Policy

According to government policy, the lake is programmed to be source of domestic water supply in the near future not only for the regional populace but also for Metropolitan Manila where the seat of central government is located.  However, if we are to listen to the fishermen population around the lake, it should be for open lake fisheries and that it should be free from fishpen structures.  On the other hand, certain municipal governments would insist that the fishpens remain because they provide income to the local government through their share in fishpen fees.

Chapter Contents

3.2.1.2

Flood Control

In order to protect Metropolitan Manila from flooding, the Manggahan Floodway was constructed to divert floodwaters from the Marikina River into the lake thereby protecting the residents of communities around the Pasig River which include Malacañang Palace.  Such diversion of floodwaters would result in the inundation  of lakeshore municipalities in Laguna de Bay causing damage to agricultural lands, as well as health and properties of the regional population.

Chapter Contents

3.2.1.3

Solid Waste Management

Garbage disposal is one of the biggest problems in Metropolitan Manila today.  Ironically, it is also one of the growing concerns in the Laguna de Bay Region.  The absence of the space for additional dumpsites in the Metropolis  led to the construction of the San Mateo Sanitary Landfill in Rizal and the Carmona Sanitary Landfill in Cavite.  Both sites are within the lake watershed basin, however, such dumpsites are not intended for the lake region populace.  At present, many municipalities suffer from lack of solid waste disposal system and the solution  to the problem requires a regional approach.  Unfortunately, no municipalities would at their own expense accept the garbage of their own municipalities considering the detrimental effects to health and environment.  Yet the sanitary landfills in San Mateo and Carmona are the proof of how the interest of the region is sacrificed for Metro Manila.  At what social and environmental cost this would take and at whose expense?

Chapter Contents

3.2.2

DELINEATION OF POWER, AUTHORITY, RESPONSIBILITY AND JURISDICTION

Institutional problems associated with the confusion over the delineation of power, authority, responsibility and jurisdiction can be seen as both functional and territorial.

3.2.2.1

Functional

Several government agencies have some degree of jurisdiction  in the Laguna de Bay basin.  Some agencies include the basin in the scope of their activities and there is complexity of roles among agencies.  In many instances, there is overlapping or duplication of functions while in some cases there is fragmentation and virtually lack of coordination.  For example, there is too much over lapping in terms of planning and regulatory functions yet there is limited coordination in the enforcement of laws.

The overlapping responsibilities of major agencies can be seen in Fig. 3.3 (Malayang 1993) as well as in the Fig 3.4 (URSI 1993).   In terms of  functional responsibilities, there is confusion in the development planning , enforcement of  laws as well as setting of environmental standards.  Likewise, coordination problem exist in terms of project implementation such as in infrastructure development, fishery resource development, water resources, socio-economic development and  environmental management.

Certainly, within such a maze of overlapping roles and responsibilities there is likelihood of confusion and hiding from responsibility.  When there is lack of caring, for whatever reason, these conditions are characteristic of both agencies and individuals.  However, within the interest of these same agencies and personnel, there also lies enormous opportunities, although one must caution that recognition of potential may lead, also to competition for resources.  The key to developing such opportunities seems to be meaningful and balance participation.  If agencies and organizations feel that they have an active role in decision making, the realization of mutual gain can turn confusion and irresponsible attitudes into a cooperative application of their shared resources.  Similarly, recognizing that opportunity for personnel achievement lies within shared interest provide a powerful stimulus to develop a cohesive human resources.

Chapter Contents

3.2.2.2

Territorial

The above confusion pertaining to power, authority, responsibility and jurisdiction is also affected by territorial or spatial factors.  For one thing, the lake is within various political jurisdictions.  Foremost is the fact that it is a “special sub-region” in Region IV, however, it is not treated as such by the regional offices of national government agencies.  Its concerns are treated either as a provincial concern of Rizal or Laguna province but never as a lake region.

Secondly, the topographical basin boundaries of the lake trancends several provinces which include also certain towns in Batangas, Cavite, Quezon and Metro Manila.  While there are upstream and downstream implications of socio-economic activities in certain localities, these are not addressed as a lake region/lake basin concern but as local municipal or provincial concern by people who have neither regard nor accountability on the impacts of certain decisions on the lake.

A third concern is the lack of perception by the regional population on the ecological principles of managing the lake and its watershed basin.  The basic fact that everything in the watershed basin drains into the lake is not recognized by people and decision-makers when they disregard the environmental implications of human activities.  The denudation of forest, the inadequately planned construction of subdivisions, the indiscriminate dumping of garbage in open lots or rivers and many others create pressure on the ecology of the lake and its watershed.

From the foregoing issues raised, it is therefore essential that institutional arrangements which clearly define power, authority, responsibility and jurisdiction over certain functions and territories be developed.  Where there are inconsistencies and confusion, these should be adequately and appropriately addressed.  Central to this would be the role of LLDA as the agency mandated to manage Laguna de Bay.  However, extremely essential to this issue is how government agencies, central or local regard the LLDA as the coordinating agency that would orchestrate and link all activities in managing the Laguna de Bay and its watershed. 

Chapter Contents

3.2.3

SECTORAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

A major part of institutional problems in Laguna de Bay arise out of sectoral conflicts and interest pertaining to access to and allocation of regional resources.  Because the lake has the character of a common property resource, it can accommodate multiple uses which are at times conflicting and competing.  For example, as earlier pointed out, there is a conflict between small fishermen engaged in open lake fishing with those of the fishpen operators who have now occupied a large portion of their traditional fishing ground.  Likewise, there is competition for space in the lake among groups of fishermen because of the limited space and increasing pressure brought about by their growing population.  Another issue of conflict is the dominant use of the lake which according to central government should be for domestic water supply while the fishermen and fishpen operators want it to be for fisheries.

Such sectoral conflicts and interests should be properly studied so that appropriate policy instruments and institutional arrangements are developed to properly and equitably allocate and provide access to regional resources.

Chapter Contents

3.2.4

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING

The process of decision-making in Laguna de Bay is characterized by the inadequacy of public participation in the LLDA.  While the composition of the Board of Directors include both local and central government, it cannot be safely assured that there is adequate public participation. It has been pointed out that there should be sectoral representation among fishermen, farmers, industry, and others within the LLDA Board.

Moreover, there is common perception among the basin populace that there is very little public participation due to a limited consultation process.  As such policy decisions are perceived to be ineffective because these are not seen to represent a shared vision or common purpose of the various stakeholders in the lake region.  These issues need to be addressed to the highest levels of the decision hierarchy both in the legislative and executive branches of government.

Chapter Contents

3.2.5 ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRAINTS OF LLDA

While LLDA was mandated through R.A. 4850 to manage the development of the Laguna de Bay Region, it has inherent organizational constraints which need to be addressed.  These institutional constraints which limit the responsiveness of LLDA as a regional development agency are presented below.

Chapter Contents

3.5.2.1

Organizational Strengthening and Restructuring

This is long overdue.  The current organizational structure of LLDA is no longer responsive to meet its enormous task.  Since its creation in 1969  as an office, the agency was never reorganized except for minor modification in staffing pattern.  It operates with very limited manpower due to frequent turnover or personnel which is affected by the relatively low compensation and limited incentives.  Position classification of its technical staff has to be upgraded and compensation schemes must be  improved to make the agency a more attractive employer.  A comprehensive reorganization program should finalized to address this issue.

Chapter Contents

3.5.2.2 Frequent Changes in Top Management

For the past 25 years since it was organized, the LLDA has had ten (10) General Managers.  Simply put, there was on the average a change of administration every 2 1/2 years.  The frequent change in the top management play a vital role in the operation of LLDA.  Such a change in management have also been to a large extent influenced by changes in the Presidency of the country.   For every in the country’s top leadership, there is an automatic change in LLDA management  since this is a politically appointed office.  If this trend is not corrected (not only in LLDA but in many government agencies), there will never be a continuity of efforts in the management of the Laguna de Bay Region.

Neophytes appointed to LLDA would normally require about two (2) years to learn the ropes.  But more often than not, General Managers would impose on their views without consideration of previous plans and programs.  By the time they get to appreciate the issues and match these with their intentions, they are already on their way out for  a change to a new administration.

Moreover, the sad part is the coterie of advisers and cordon sanitaire that normally accompany every change in LLDA management. Many of the original and technically trained senior staff get boxed out in the decision-making process where policy decision more often than not are made with very limited or inappropriate technical bases. This brings about failure in policy implementation and frustration among senior personnel.  The worst effect would be the the exodus of such trained personnel for whom the government have spent time and resources to educate and prepare for such technical expertise.

Furthermore, because such political appointees lack the appropriate technical background and foresight, discontinuity of programs and misguided planning normally result in overspending, overspread deployment of resources (due to politicking and accommodation of protégés) and lack of focus or attention to strategic issues.

Chapter Contents

3.5.2.3 Lack of National Government Financial Subsidy

While the LLDA has a corporate character, its revenues are not adequate to support its social overhead projects.  Revenues from regulatory functions are not also adequate to support its environmental quality monitoring efforts.  Socio-economic development efforts, such as community organizing, public information, education and motivation campaign for environmental awareness, river clearing operations, cooperatives development are activities that require financial resources which LLDA has been subsidizing on its own in the past two decades.  National government  subsidy is essential for LLDA to meet its social commitments and developmental objectives.

Chapter Contents

3.5.2.4

Equipment Upgrading

There is a need for extensive replacement and rehabilitation of laboratory and field equipment and facilities in order for LLDA to effectively undertake its monitoring activities as part of its regulatory functions.  Monitoring and surveying equipment, water crafts an transport vehicles are inadequate and laboratory equipment are outmoded, although the LLDA laboratory used to be among the best in Asia in the 1970s.  Moreover, LLDA need to keep abreast with updated technology in monitoring, surveying and laboratory analysis.

It should be noted that at present LLDA does not have any watercraft to patrol the 90,000 hectares of surface water to monitor activities in the lake.

Chapter Contents

3.2.5.5

Inadequate/conflicting Quasi-judicial Authority

Related to overlapping, duplication and fragmentation amongst government agencies, LLDA is perceived to be weak in terms of its quasi-judicial authority.  Its ability to enforce its regulatory functions has been questioned due to conflicts with other agencies and inadequacy of its policy instruments.  Moreover, this has been exacerbated by various institutional constraints such as those earlier identified.

There is need to streamline the permits and licensing system in view of limited manpower and monitoring equipment.  Considering the huge volume of water and the expanse of the lake region, it is also essential for LLDA to develop a separate environmental quality standards.  Such standards should be tied up with the assimilative capacity of the lake.  The regulatory function should also be reviewed to look into the appropriateness of fees, fines and penalties imposed on use of environmental resources and violations of environmental laws.  This should all be tied up with a package of economic incentives and  disincentives to ensure equity and efficiency in resource use as well as compliance with rules and regulations for managing the lake basin and its resources.  A primary example is the appropriateness of the P5,000 administrative fine imposed by LLDA.

Another issue is the absence of police powers to ensure enforcement of rules and regulations promulgated by LLDA.  While many are of the opinion that enforcement could be achieved through coordination with relevant police agencies, still many believe the LLDA should be granted with limited police powers akin to an environmental police.

Another area of concern is the formulation and approval of developmental plans.  Other government agencies and LGUs prepare plans and programs without due regard to LLDA’s thrusts and directions.  While the R.A. 4850 provides such mandate for LLDA to approve plans and programs within the region, such was never really exercised apart from individual business proponents who are required to secure LLDA clearance as a form of approval.

In view of the foregoing, there is an important necessity to  undertake a thorough review of LLDA’s legal mandates and come up with a legislative agenda to correct, reinforce and/or strengthen the authority of LLDA in the region.

Chapter Contents

4.0   DEVELOPMENT ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS

Contents:

4.1   ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

Contents:

4.1.1

WATER QUALITY ISSUES

4.1.1.1

Eutrophication

4.1.1.2

Salinity

4.1.1.3

Turbidity

4.1.1.4

Toxic and Hazardous Substances (THS)

4.1.1.5

Water Quality Assessment

4.1.2   

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

4.1.2.1

Industrial Pollution

4.1.2.2

Domestic Waste

4.1.2.3

Agricultural Pollution

4.1.2.4

Unmanaged Volume of Solid Waste

4.1.3

FISHERIES PROBLEMS AND ISSUES

4.1.3.1

Fishery Activities as Sources of Pollution

4.1.3.2

Fishery Problems in Laguna Lake

a.

Fishpen Industry

b.     

Livestock Wastes

4.1.3.3

Other Related Problems to Fisheries

a.

Algal Bloom

b.

Proliferation and Massive Growth of Water Hyacinth

c.

Occurrence of Fish Diseases

d.

Siltation and Sedimentation

4.1.1

WATER QUALITY ISSUES

The water quality monitoring of Laguna de Bay and its tributaries started in 1973 as part of the Water Quality Management Program of the LLDA.  Lake sampling (Figure 4.1) is done twice a month while sampling of major tributaries is done once a month (Sampling Stations).  Through this regular monitoring program, the relative environmental quality of the lake and its basin is established.  Various parameters are measured to provide indicators on the state of environmental quality of not only the lake itself but the level of environmental degradation in the watersheds where pollutants and nutrients originate and which are transported through surface run-off into the rivers and streams that drain into the lake.  Presented below are major water quality issues and indicators which amply describe the state of the environmental quality in the lake and its watershed basin.

Chapter Contents

4.1.1.1

Eutrophication

Eutrophication is the process of aging by a body of water due to the presence of excessive nutrients which results in abundant plant growth like algae.

The cultural eutrophication of the lake happens as a result of increasing nutrient wasteloads from domestic households, expanded agricultural and livestock production, intensive fishpen operations, and soil erosion from denuded watersheds.

The level of eutrophication is normally measured by the nitrogen and phosphorus levels which determine the flow of nutrients into the lake.  A review of literature on nitrogen losses and environmental quality of the lake made in 1972 (SOGREAH, 1973) revealed that nitrogen flows out directly with run-off water under conditions where the rate of nitrogen application is high; the topography is sloping; the rainfall is intense; plant cover is low; and, the soils have low rates of infiltration.

A trend analysis of data shows that the average nutrient load for the period of 1978-1984 has increased by 10.8% for nitrogen and 24% for phosphorus.  Maintaining these increased rates, total inflow of nutrients to the lake today should be about 5,500 t/year Nitrogen and 1,200 t/year Phosphorus (SOGREAH, 1991).

Water quality monitoring of the lake and its tributaries shows that the major cause of increase of nutrients to the lake was mainly resulting from tremendous deterioration of the two rivers namely the San Pedro River and Morong River.  In San Pedro River (between 1973 and 1983), yearly loads increased by 400% for nitrogen and 600% for phosphorus.  In Morong River, such increase was a result of draining effluents from hog farms (SOGREAH, 1991).

More recently, the San Cristobal River (Calamba, Laguna) is said to have deteriorated much and is now considered as one of the major sources of nutrient loading.

Eutrophication results in the general deterioration of water quality as indicated by algal blooms and subsequent die-offs resulting to oxygen depletion and the occurrence of fishkills thereby causing a reduction in the lake’s fish productivity.

Eutrophication is the process of aging by a body of water due to the presence of excessive nutrients which results in abundant plant growth like algae.

The cultural eutrophication of the lake happens as a result of increasing nutrient wasteloads from domestic households, expanded agricultural and livestock production, intensive fishpen operations, and soil erosion from denuded watersheds.

The level of eutrophication is normally measured by the nitrogen and phosphorus levels which determine the flow of nutrients into the lake.  A review of literature on nitrogen losses and environmental quality of the lake made in 1972 (SOGREAH, 1973) revealed that nitrogen flows out directly with run-off water under conditions where the rate of nitrogen application is high; the topography is sloping; the rainfall is intense; plant cover is low; and, the soils have low rates of infiltration.

A trend analysis of data shows that the average nutrient load for the period of 1978-1984 has increased by 10.8% for nitrogen and 24% for phosphorus.  Maintaining these increased rates, total inflow of nutrients to the lake today should be about 5,500 t/year Nitrogen and 1,200 t/year Phosphorus (SOGREAH, 1991).

Water quality monitoring of the lake and its tributaries shows that the major cause of increase of nutrients to the lake was mainly resulting from tremendous deterioration of the two rivers namely the San Pedro River and Morong River.  In San Pedro River (between 1973 and 1983), yearly loads increased by 400% for nitrogen and 600% for phosphorus.  In Morong River, such increase was a result of draining effluents from hog farms (SOGREAH, 1991).

More recently, the San Cristobal River (Calamba, Laguna) is said to have deteriorated much and is now considered as one of the major sources of nutrient loading.

Eutrophication results in the general deterioration of water quality as indicated by algal blooms and subsequent die-offs resulting to oxygen depletion and the occurrence of fishkills thereby causing a reduction in the lake’s fish productivity.

Chapter Contents

4.1.1.2 Salinity

During dry months a flow reversal takes place in the Pasig River, with the result that saline and polluted water from Manila Bay and Greater Manila Area enter the lake in large quantities, causing an increasing in lake salinity and rendering the lake unsuitable for water supply and irrigation.  This backflow further results in an advanced settling of suspended solids due to auto-flocculation as a consequence of high salinity.  Such an occurrence is extremely desirable among the fishery sector.  However, this conflicts with the other uses of the lake such as for drinking water and irrigation.

According to the 1990 Philippine National Standards (Revised Water Quality Criteria) for Drinking Water, the maximum permissible level of total chloride content should not exceed 250 mg/l.  Generally, however, the present average concentration of chloride in the lake in 1990 is above this threshold limit (see Table 4.01)

The salinity of the lake water is at the forefront of the conflicting demand for water of the fishermen and the farmers.  An adequate amount of saline water is needed for fishery but not for dry season irrigation for rice and vegetable production and for sources of drinking water.  With the construction of the NHOS, the salinity of the lake can be decreased to an acceptable level for water supply if it is operated in accordance with the agreed rule curve.  The problem, however, lies in the need to establish the optimum level of saline water to be allowed in order to avoid conflict with fisheries.  This has to be technically determined.

Chapter Contents

4.1.2.3 Turbidity

Turbidity is a measure of the suspended particle such as silt, clay, organic matter, plankton, and microscopic organisms which in water are usually held in suspension by turbulent flow and random movement.

There are three (3) major factors which account for high turbidity.  These include mineral turbidity from the streams and the lake sediments; turbidity due to high algal concentrations; and, turbidity from detritus.

Excessive turbidity interferes with the penetration of light thereby reducing photosynthesis, leading to a decrease in the primary production upon which the fish food organisms depend.  As a result, fish production decreases.

TURBIDITY is generally presented as increasing in the lake since the last decade.  Two main reasons explain this problem.  The first is a Physical Reason.  Because of its shallow depth, the bottom sediments of the lake can easily be resuspended in water as a result of wind induced currents.  The second is a Chemical Reason.  With the closing of the NHCS, saline water is prevented from entering the lake.  Presence of salts in water is essential to help the flocculation of colloids thus increasing sedimentation and increasing transparency of water.

Inorganic turbidity of the lake measured as Si02, is increasing rapidly in recent years.  This is due to sediments transported from denuded catchment areas.  Some studies (JICA, 1991) reveal that seasonal variation of turbidity is conspicuous.  There are indications that turbidity is inversely correlated with rainfall, that is; when rainfall is higher, turbidity is lower, and vice versa.  This seem to indicate that the turbidity of the lake is caused not much by direct river inflow containing large amounts of sediments but rather mainly by stirring up effects of water currents caused by river inflow and winds.

In 1994, the annual mean values of lake turbidity ranged from 58 to 84 mg/l Si02 presented a minimum average of 12 mg/1 and a maximum value of 263 mg/1 Si02.  It was also observed that the lake exhibited peak turbidity at the start of the 4th quarter of the year which could be attributed to the strong wind condition.

The annual turbidity values for all the rivers monitored were all below 50 mg/l Si02 except for T2 (San Pedro River) which exhibited an average of 52 mg/1 Si02 (LLDA, 1994).  The turbidity of water for recreational purposes is recommended to be from 5 to 50 JTU (Jackson Turbidity Unit) (Inland Water Directorate Water Quality Sources Bood, 1976).

Chapter Contents

4.1.1.4 Toxic and Hazardous Substances (THS)

“HAZARDOUS WASTES” are residual substances discharged to the environment which constitute a substantial present or potential danger to living organisms and human health.  “TOXIC WASTES” are residuals which contain substances which can be lethal to living organisms.

The Laguna de Bay Basin has experienced intensified use by new and expanding agro-industrial activities and a general rural to urban transformation.  This has undoubtedly contributed to the widespread perception of a diminishing level of water quality in the lake and this condition can be expected to continue for sometime in the future.

The predominant contributions of THS wastes (principally heavy metals and agricultural pesticides) are derived from the sub-basins of Laguna flowing into West Bay, encompassing Metro Manila and the western shoreline.

Results of a survey in 1989 (URSI) covering 70 THS are presented in Table 4.02.  According to the results the most abundant THS discharge in the lake are:

1989

2010

(Projected)

PHENOL

7.9 tons/day

49.5 Tons/Day

Methyl - alcohol

0.8 tons/day

5.2 tons/day

2-4 Dimethyl-Phenol

0.8 tons/day

 5.0 tons/day

The toxic substances can settly in the sediments where the concentrations may increase to unacceptable level. In the lake water itself, aquatic organisms may magnify the heavy metal and pesticides up to 1,000 times of their initial concentraltion.  Those concentrated toxic substances will eventually find their way through the food chain thus adversely affecting human population.  According to the surveys and analysis results, the THS levels still remain consistent with the expected use of the water and safe consumption of fishery products.  But, even if each THS is below the recommended limit, it does not mean a zero-toxicity effect on the water.

The cumulative effect on aquatic organisms and the phenomenon of biological magnification is a continuous process.  The threath of THS is certainly most serious and can definitely hamper the use of the lake water for domestic purpose.  The safe consumption of fishery products also becomes a major threat.

The effects of metals in water and wastewater range from beneficial to troublesome to dangerously toxic.  Some metals are essential, others may adversely affect water consumers, wastewater treatment systems, and receiving waters.  Some metals may be either beneficial or toxic depending on their concentrations.

The results of analysis of lake water samples collected in 1984 shows the zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, chromium and arsenic met the Class “C” standard.  (Table 4.03), whereas the results of analysis of all lake sediments (also collected in 1984) indicated  that chromium alone met the Clay standard of 90 mg/kg of dry weight while lead met the standard only in stations I, VI, and VII (Table 4.04).  All the other metals as copper, zinc, and manganese were found exceeding the maximum allowable Clay standard (LLDA, 1987).

The 1988, monitoring results in the lake indicated that arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium and mercury met the Class “C” standard.  Results for sediment analysis show that only copper failed meeting the Clay standard (Tables 4.05 and 4.06). (LLDA, 1988)

Chapter Contents

4.1.1.5 Water Quality Assessment
Presented below are discussion and observations on these parameters.

i).     Temperature

The temperature is defined as the condition of a body which determines the transfer of heat to, or from, other bodies.  The temperature of a water is primarily a reflection of the climatic regime; however, man can modify water temperatures.  Water used for cooling in power plants transfer heat into receiving waters.  The discharge of many industrial wastes may also elevate water temperature above ambient levels in limited area.  Based on observations, industrial cooling water discharged from the NPC Thermal Power Plants show as increase of about 2oC in temperature.

Increasing water temperature decreases the solubility of oxygen in water while increasing the oxygen demand of fish.  Higher temperature increases the solubility of many chemical compounds and may influence the effect of pollutants on aquatic life.

ii).     Nitrate

Nitrate (N03) is the principal form of combined nitrogen found in natural waters.  The highly soluble nitrate ion, which is the most stable form of combined nitrogen in surface waters, results from the complete oxidation of nitrogen compounds.  Nitrogen compounds come from chemical fertilizers from cultivated lands and drainage from livestock feed-lots, as well as domestic and industrial waters.

Excessive concentrations of nitrate in drinking water are considered hazardous to infants, who may develop mehaemoglobinaemia.

In surface waters, nitrate is a common nutrient taken up by plant and converted into cell protein.  Since nitrates stimulate plant growth, aquatic organisms (such as algae) flourish in the presence of nitrates and excessive amounts of nitrate may result in the prolific growth of aquatic plants.

The nitrate concentrations in the lake had annual means ranging from 106 to 201 ug/1 to 495 ug/l.  The criteria for Class “C” water is 10,000 ug/l (Table 4.01).  The annual means of nitrate concentrations for tributaries ranged from 124 ug/l to 621/l.  Pagsanjan River showed the lowest nitrate level while San Juan exhibited the highest nitrate level which indicates the presence of high domestic wastes (Table 4.07).

iii)     Dissolved Oxygen

Oxygen is one of the gases that is found in natural surface waters.  The oxygen dissolved in water may be derived from either the atmosphere or from photosynthesis by aquatic plant (phytoplankton).  Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations yield no adverse physiological effect on man, however, ample amounts of dissolved oxygen available is essential to the fish and other aquatic organisms for growth and survival.  Insufficient dissolved oxygen in surface waters may contribute to an unfavorable environment for aquatic life and the absence of dissolved oxygen may give rise to odoriferous products of anaerobic decomposition or may cause fish death due to suffocation.  It is therefore important that D.O. levels in the lake should be maintained within acceptable standards.

Supersaturation of D.O. during daytime is also observed in some portions of the lake especially during algal blooms.  This may cause “gas bubble” disease in some fish species.

For Class “C” waters the minimum D.O. standard is set at 5 mg/l.  The annual mean values for daytime dissolved oxygen of the lake ranged from 6.1 to 6.8 mg/l. (Table 4.01).  For tributaries, in terms of annual averages, the following rivers met the D.O. requirement:  Sta. Cruz River, Pagsanjan River and Bay River (Table 4.07)

iv.     pH:  (Alkalinity or Acidity)

The pH of natural water is usually governed by carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate equilibria and lies in the range between 4.5 and 8.5.  The pH of water may be affected by humic substance, by changes in the carbonate equilibria due to the bioactivity of plants and in some cases, by hydrolyzable salts.  The effect of pH on the chemical and biological properties of liquids makes its determination very significant, e.g. for controlling corrosion and for the control of water or waste-treatment processes.  Moreover, the pH of water may influence the species composition of an aquatic environment and affect the availability of nutrients and relative toxicity of many trace elements.

The annual mean values for the pH of the lake ranged from 7.8 to 8.4 (Table 4.01) which was more on the alkaline side.  The permissible range of pH for Class “C” and Class “A” waters is 6.5 to 8.5.  For tributaries, the annual mean values ranged from 7.8 to 8.0.

v.  Total Dissolved Solids

Total dissolved solids (TDS) which is an index of the amount of dissolved substances in water, consist mainly of carbonates, bicarbonates, chloride, sulfates, phosphates, and possibly nitrates of Ca, Mg, Na, K, with traces of Fe, Mn, and other substances.

High concentrations of TDS limit the suitability of water as a drinking source and for irrigation.  High surface run-off and overland flow contribute dissolved materials to receiving bodies of water.  Significant contribution to the TDS loads are authropogenic in the form of municipal and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, and aerosol fall-out.

Observations in the lake show that the TDS annual mean values ranged from 609 mg/l to 841 mg/l (Table 4.01).  The annual average TDS concentrations in all the rivers monitored were below the minimum permissible TDS limit for Class “C” water which is 1,000 mg/l.

vi.  Inorganic Phosphate

Inorganic phosphate, a non-metallic element occurs in numerous organic and inorganic forms and can be present as a dissolved or particulate species.  It may occur in surface or ground water as a result of leaching from minerals or ores in natural processes of degradation of organic matter, and as an element of municipal sewage and industrial effluents.

The discharge of excessive amount of phosphates to streams or lakes may result in an over-abundance of algae.  Upon decay, dead algae compete for the dissolved oxygen endangering fish life and giving off unpleasant odor.  Phosphates seldom exhibit toxic effects upon fish and other aquatic life and may be beneficial to fish culture.

The annual averages for inorganic phosphate ranged from 60 ug/l to 90 ug/l were recorded in 1994.  The maximum standard for inorganic phosphate allowed for lakes and reservoir is 100 ug/l.  The phosphate concentration in all rivers exceeded the desirable concentrations except for T8 which exhibited an annual mean value of 97 ug/l, (LLDA, 1994).  These concentration levels are contributing to lake eutrophication.

vii.  Coliform

The coliform group includes all the aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram negative, non-spore forming, rod-shaped bacteria which ferment lactose with gas formation within 48 hours at 35oC.

High counts of coliform bacteria, especially fecal coliform indicate the presence of animal wastes, which may support pathogenic organisms.  Such waters are unsuitable for domestic, recreational, agricultural and some industrial applications.

Observations of MPN (Most Probable Number) of coliform are highly variable in the lake and the Class “C” standard of 5000 MPN/100 ml is exceeded 6% of the time in all the lake stations monitored.  For tributaries, all the rivers exceeded the standard for Class “C” and Class “A” waters of 5000 MPN/100 ml.  This, therefore indicates that human and animal wastes finding its way into the lake is quite high.

The San Pedro River (Laguna) at all times yielded the highest coliform density of 24 x 106MPN/100 ml. (LLDA, 1994).  It should be noted that this river is the most polluted among all lake tributaries.

Chapter Contents

4.1.2. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Inimical to the sustainability of the lake and its resources is the worsening situation of the quality of the environment in the region.  The growing development pressures brought about by population growth, industrialization, urbanization and increasing resources utilization result in environmental degradation, most notable of which is pollution.  It is estimated that domestic sources account for 29.83% of the total pollution in the lake while 30.35% comes from industrial sources.  Agricultural waste on the other hand  account for about 39.82% of lake pollution sources (Figure 4.2).

Chapter Contents

4.1.2.1 Industrial Pollution

Industrial pollution contribute about 30.35% to the degradation of water quality and the resulting economic and environmental effects.  As of 1994, there are 1,481 industrial establishments in the lake basin, mostly concentrated on the western shore.  These are dominated by the chemical products, food processing and metal sectors.  About 32% are classified as wet industries, discharging wastewater directly or indirectly to the lake.  Of these, 69% have wastewater treatment facilities (Table 4.08).  According to the 1988 classification, 11% were highly pollutive, 59%  pollutive while the remaining 30% are non-pollutive (Table 4.09).

In 1988, total daily wasteload from industries reported by LLDA were as follows: BOD = 405 MT, TSS = 988 MT, oil and grease = 8 MT (Table 4.10).  Based on the NEDA projected growth for the manufacturing sector until the year 2000, the generation of pollutants from industries within the Laguna de Bay basin is assumed at an average of 10% annually (NEDA  Region IV , 1992).  

The threat of toxic and hazardous substances (THS) is certainly the most serious which can definitely hamper the use of the lakewater for domestic purpose and the safe consumption of ishery products.  The survey of URSI (1989) showed that 41% of the industries located within the Laguna de Bay basin, discharged THS which exceed the chronic criteria  for the protection of aquatic life (Table 4.11).  The total THS loading in kg/day is presented in Table 4.02 and projects these values to the year 1995, 2000 and 2010.  Also shown in Figure 4.3, are the areas with possible high THS.

The lakewater being used for industrial cooling purposes generate thermal pollution upon the discharge of water.  This form of thermal pollution affects the solubility of dissolved oxygen in water.  This will have concomitant effects on aquatic life and on the existing water quality.  In addition, the wastewater contains chlorine (CL) which affects the primary productivity of the lake.  In a 1973 survey near Sucat, the total number of phytoplankton dropped from approximately 1 Million/ml to about 200,000/ml (BCEOM, 1984).

Barging and oil transport operations in Laguna de Bay (Figure 4.4) poses the risk of collision and oil spills which is obviously dangerous to water quality.  As of 1991, the volume of fuel transported each day is as follows: 50,000 barrels from Sucat to Malaya; 1,300 barrels from PPC refinery to Pillila Gas Turbine; 3,300 barrels from PPC refinery in Pillila to Manila and 15,000 barrels from Sucat to PPC refinery.

Chapter Contents

4.1.2.2

Domestic Waste

Of the 8.4 Million present population at the Laguna de Bay Region, about 60% of the total households discharge liquid and solid wastes directly into the lake or into the tributary rivers of the lake (LLDA, 1994).  Except in plush housing developments, no piped domestic sewerage system exists in the Laguna de Bay Region.  Wastewater is mostly discharged directly into the ground, open drains, tributaries and Laguna de Bay.

Seventy six percent (76%) of the basin residents are in non-lakeshore municipalities while twenty-four percent (24%) are located in lakeshore areas.  Almost eighty percent (80%) of the population reside in urbanized areas of the region.  Due to increasing demand for residential areas, more subdivisions mushroomed in the region.  In 1989, around 1,898 subdivisions were developed, most of these concentrated in East Bay.

Domestic sources of pollution account for about 70% of the organic wastes discharged into the lake and for the highly pollutive leachate from solid wastes.

Chapter Contents

4.1.2.3

Agricultural Pollution

a.     Fertilizers and Pesticides Application

Fifty two percent (52%) of the total land area of Laguna de Bay Region is devoted to agriculture which includes 30,000 ha of irrigated rice paddies (Figure 4.5).

The principal crops grown in the area include rice, sugarcane and coconut.  Significant quantities of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium base fertilizers and Organo Chlorine and Organo Phosphorus Pesticides (principally insecticides and herbicides but includes fungicides and molluscicides) are applied to agricultural areas to enhance the quality and quantity of production of these crops.  Various proportions of these chemicals may reach rivers and lake via irrigation water and/or from run-off during rainfall and thus add to the pollution load.  It is noted that DDT is widely used unofficially despite its undesirable persistence in the environment (LLDA, 1978).  Agricultural return flow is of great concern in Laguna de Bay because of the relatively high fertilizer application in rice paddies and the fact that the rice paddies are located in the lowlands bordering the lake.  Agricultural return flow is a significant source of Nitrogen inflow to the lake in view of large scale irrigation projects under implementation.  Agricultural pollution is more difficult to control than a point source pollution because the former cannot be economically collected for treatment.  Nitrogen is presently the most damaging pollutant  which result in the proliferation of algae which influence eutrophication.

Nitrogen from agricultural sources is about 60% of the total in 1975-76 and 53% of the projected total in 2000 (SOGREAH, 1974).

Chapter Contents

b.     Livestock Wastes 

About 5% of the Nitrogen in chicken waste may be introduced to the lake due to washdown from chicken production.  Likewise, about 25% od duck waste is washed into the lake from commercial sources and that 50% is added from backyard farms.  For swine production, about one-third (1/3) of the swine waste enters the lake from commercial farms away from the lakeshore and the two-thirds (2/3) of the waste enters the lake from those farms that are near the lake.  Approximately one-fourth (1/4) of the commercial farms are in the latter category. It is assumed that 5% of the waste from backyard farms enter the drainage system.  For cattle, it is assumed that 5% of the waste reaches the lake. 

This trend will continue if nothing is done until it reaches massive proportions since the demand for food is increasing exponentially. 

In 1975, animal pollution generation is estimated at 38,500 MT BOD, 10,000 MT BOD, 10,000 MT of Nitrogen and 3,500 MT of Phosphorus.  This will increase to 112,500 MT of BOD, 24,500 MT of Nitrogen and 10,200 MT of Phosphorus by the year 2000 (LLDA, 1978).

Chapter Contents

4.1.2.4

Unmanaged Volume of Solid Waste

The rapid urbanization of the region and the residential, commercial and industrial encroachment occurring principally along the northern and western shores of the lake pose a serious problem on solid waste management and will become worse when its population grows to more than 11 million by the year 2000.  It is estimated that by that time, the refuse coming from the households/residential establishments, commercial, industrial and other sources will be 6,362 tons per day.

Presently, the total solid waste generation is estimate at 5,565 tons/day or 2.3 million tons annually for Metro Manila Area (MMA) and 392 tons/day and 473 tons/day for Laguna and Rizal respectively.  The existing solid waste disposal system numbering 7 in Metro Manila and 21 for Laguna and Rizal respectively (JICA, 1991).

Overall, about one-third (1/3) of the solid waste generated in the basin is collected.  The remaining two-thirds (2/3) are either composted, thrown on vacant lots, scattered on streets, which will eventually find their way to sewers and other water courses carried by storm water runoff and subsequently discharged to Laguna de Bay.  This indiscriminate disposal of domestic waste contributes around 30% of the pollution load of the lake.  Aside from health problems, garbage impedes the flow of water and contributes further to the flooding of low-lying areas.

The Nitrogen inflow into the lake from solid waste was estimated in 1989 to be 3,000 MT (Lopez, 1989).  As urbanization and industrialization increases, more wastes will enter the water courses because less and less land would be available for satisfactory disposal methods.

Chapter Contents

4.1.3.

FISHERIES PROBLEMS AND ISSUES

The fisheries in Laguna de Bay is a major concern in resource management.  It is both an advantage and a problem which has to be properly addressed to maximize its beneficial uses.  The deterioration of water quality due to lake pollution has quantitatively and qualitatively affected the fishery of the lake.  On the other hand, the fishery activities are also seen as a cause of water quality deterioration.  Aside from pollution there are other problems related to fisheries which have to be addressed to make fishery resource utilization more efficient.  

Chapter Contents

4.1.3.1

Fishery Activities as Sources of Pollution

Practices in open fisheries and aquaculture are also identified as sources of pollution.  In the operations of fishpens and fishcages, pollutants come from non-biodegradable nets and twines, decaying bamboo materials, inorganic feeds, fish fecal matters as well as organic wastes, suspended solids, nutrients, toxic and hazardous substances discarded by fishpen caretakers staying in guardhouses in the lake.

In open lake fishing, discarded nets and other fishing gears as well as gasoline and oil spills from boats also contribute to pollution loading in the lake.  Moreover, certain fishing practices such as snail gathering which involves scraping of the sediments allows the release of nutrients and toxic and hazardous substance that have accumulated in the lake bottom.  However, it was reported by MEIP (MEIP, 1994) that no estimates has been made of the contribution of fishery activities to the pollution of the lake.

Chapter Contents

4.1.3.2

Fishery Problems in Laguna Lake

a.   Fishpen Industry

i)   Uncontrolled Stocking of Fingerlings

The uncontrolled stocking of fishpens resulted to low fish productivity and mass mortality of fish stocks.  In 1977 survey (LLDA, 1978), the stocking density of milkfish in the lake per hectare ranged from 100,000 to 1 million fingerlings.  It shows that more than 76% of the fishpen have stocked at a maximum of 250, 000 fingerling/hectare while 23% have stocked to as much as 1 million fingerlings/hectare.  The maximum fingerlings mortality recorded in the Central, East & South Bays were 60%, 90% and 80% respectively.  Most of the operators attributed the mortality to the synergetic effect of improper handling and transport of fingerlings.

It was pointed out in one of the studies (SOGREAH 1991) that the excessive fishpen development in 1984 did not only involve area development but also over supply of fingerlings.  As reported, oversupply reaches 50,000 to 60,000 fingerlings/ha. instead of 4,000 to 5,000 fingerlings/ha. as recommended by the LLDA.  As the potential food production of the Lake become exhausted, fish productivity in the lake is also expected to decline.

ii)  Poor Site Selection and Uncontrolled Fishpen Construction

Many of the enclosures are constructed indiscriminately which resulted in the blocking of local access to communities, river, outlets, navigational channels and obstructing lake circulation pattern.  The proliferation of fishpens reduced the area available for open fishing and caused other problems like the recurrence of algal bloom and dense growth of water hyacinth.

iii)  Practice of Inappropriate Fish Culture Schemes by the Fishpen Operators

The production potential of the fishpen must be optimized in order to maintain a well balanced food chain.  However, report shows that the monopoly of milkfish culture in fishpens discriminates the introduction of other high quality species, either in mono or polyculture (LLDA, 1978).  Milkfish by feeding habit is a herbivore and is expected not to convert all the feed produced in the lake into usable fish flesh, thus, there is a need for a polyculture method of fish culture.

The balance utilization of feeds in the lake is not attained due to lack of technology know-how or study on the use of the different fish species of varying behavior and feed habitat.  The introduction of inappropriate polyculture scheme could have also resulted in food competition and ecological imbalance in the lake as it disrupts various linkages in the food chain/trophic levels.

Moreover, the introduction of exotic species such as Clarias batrachus resulted in the displacement of native hito Clarias macrocephalus.  The proliferation of golden snail in the lake may result in the extinction of aquatic macrophytes.  Lately, the African giant catfish (Clarias gariepines) a voracious predator endangers the native fish in the lake such as the dulong, ayungin and shrimp.  

Chapter Contents

Open Lake Fishery

The main problems identified by (SOGREAH, 1991) has been the over-exploitation of the lake fishery resources through the following:

i)     Increase Fishing Pressure

Table 4.12 presents the evolution of fishermen population over the years.  The increase in total number of fishermen resulted in declining fish catch due to the corresponding increase in fishing activities.

ii)     Illegal Fishing Activities

The fishing practices of fishermen is influenced by the growing competition for fish catch.  As such, practices such as electro-fishing, use of poisons, use of fine meshed nets and push nets became rampant.

iii)     Continuous Snail Gathering Activities

The snails are usually collected by dredging or trawling operations.  SOGREAH (1991) reported that about 160,000 to 180,000 tons of snails are harvested annually.  This represents about 2.0 tons of snails per hectare per year.

The effect of this intensive snail gathering thru dredging include the destruction of benthos and rooted plants and increased lake turbidity.

Chapter Contents

 

b.   Open Lake Fishery

The main problems identified by (SOGREAH, 1991) has been the over-exploitation of the lake fishery resources through the following:

i)     Increase Fishing Pressure

Table 4.12 presents the evolution of fishermen population over the years.  The increase in total number of fishermen resulted in declining fish catch due to the corresponding increase in fishing activities.

ii)     Illegal Fishing Activities

The fishing practices of fishermen is influenced by the growing competition for fish catch.  As such, practices such as electro-fishing, use of poisons, use of fine meshed nets and push nets became rampant.

iii)     Continuous Snail Gathering Activities

The snails are usually collected by dredging or trawling operations.  SOGREAH (1991) reported that about 160,000 to 180,000 tons of snails are harvested annually.  This represents about 2.0 tons of snails per hectare per year.

The effect of this intensive snail gathering thru dredging include the destruction of benthos and rooted plants and increased lake turbidity.

Chapter Contents

4.1.3.3

Other Related Problems to Fisheries

a.     Algal Bloom

SOGREAH (1991) categorized the lake as hypereutrophic due to high levels of phosphate and nitrogen influenced the occurrence of algal bloom.  Identified bloom forming algae in the lake include Microsystis, Anabaena and Oscillatoria species all blue green algae.

The damages caused by algal bloom to fisheries include:

i)     Low market value of fish due to tainted flesh and mud-like bad taste.

ii)     Massive fishkills due to oxygen depletion during occurrence of algal respiration at night time and algal die-off and decay.  Fishstocks trapped in fishpens and fishcages usually die of asphyxiation.

LLDA (1978) stressed that the magnitude of losses due to algal bloom is expected to increase in proportion to the pollutants input.  

Chapter Contents

b.     Proliferation and Massive Growth of Water Hyacinth

This problem is also influenced by the eutrophic condition of the lake.  Water hyacinth (a floating aquatic plant more commonly referred to as waterlily) usually abounds along the shorelines, in-between fishpens/cages and in tributary streams and rivers.  The distribution and dense accumulation of water hyacinth depends on the direction of wind and wave action.  The problems to fisheries caused by the thick accumulation of water hyacinth include:

i.     Poor productivity due to poor water circulation

ii.     Difficulty in lake navigation

iii.     Fishkill due to death and decay of the aquatic plant

iv.     Destruction of fishpens/cages structures

v.     Increase water losses due to over transpiration

Chapter Contents

c.     Occurrence of Fish Diseases

The fish diseases which caused considerable losses to lake fisheries include the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) locally referred to as “kurikong” and fungal infection.

EUS maybe caused by a bacterium known as Aeromonas hydrophila which commonly affects bottom feeding fresh water species such as mudfish, carps and “gouramy”.  The occurrence of this disease is observed to occur in poor water quality characterized by low temperature, low productivity, strong winds and high turbidity.

Fungal infection on the other hand develop when the fish suffer bruises, wounds and loss of scales during handling and transport of fishstocks.  Fungus attacjs the injured parts initially, and then later spreads to other healthy parts of the body causing death to fish.  

Chapter Contents

d.     Siltation and Sedimentation

Rapid siltation leads to accelerated aging of the lake and the continuous turbid condition of the water which in turn results in poor fishery production.  MEIP (1994) attributed the sedimentation of the lake to the continuing soil erosion due to deforestation and also poor agricultural practices within the basin.  JICA (1991) noted that 47% of the basin is susceptible to soil erosion with Marikina having the largest erodible area.

Chapter Contents

4.2   CONSTRAINTS ON LAND RESOURCES  

Contents:

The following problems and issues discussed were established from the major studies undertaken on the Laguna de Bay and its basin resources.  During the multi-sectoral consultation on the proposed Master Plan these were validated in the workshop/discussion.

4.2.1

LAND USE

4.2.1.1

Irrational Land Use

4.2.2.

DEFORESTATION / DENUDATION

4.2.2.1

Loss of Biodiversity  

4.2.2.2.     

Erosion

4.2.3

LAND CONVERSION

4.2.4

INCREASING CONCERN ON GROUND/SURFACE WATER DUE TO CONTAMINATION FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES

4.2.5

UNCONTROLLED URBANIZATION OF THE  WATERSHED

4.2.6.

PRIVATIZATION/TITLING OF LAKESHORE AREAS

4.2.1

LAND USE

The Laguna Lake Region comprises a number of catchment areas.  Land use activities in these areas, such as those related to the forest cover, agriculture, urban development, energy production, mining, and lake draw-down affect both the watershed and the lake.

The traditional land use pattern in the Basin - the series of small compact urban centers in Metro Manila contained by vast rice paddies, coconut, sugarcane plantations and orchards in the rest of the Basin has been rapidly changing due to physical social and political factors among which include the following: (1) population growth (in-migration for economic opportunity), (2) the creation of Metro Manila as a political entity in 1975 and adoption of the intermediate urban area system for urban expansion, (3) Presidential proclamation of a dispersal policy for industry whereby major industrial development could no longer the located within 50 km radius from the Luneta Park, (4) Construction of the South Super Highway which promoted corridor movement from Manila south to Calamba, and (5) the sustainability of much of the area for economic development thereby accelerating industrial expansion (URSI, 1989).  These factos have contributed to the continuing encroachment of built-up areas into agricultural lands and heavy deforestation in the upland areas of the watershed.  The western rim of the lake gives evidence of urban sprawl-- suburbanization and strip development north of Manila to Montalban and southeasterly as far as Los Baños.

Industrialization and growth of major urban centers in the northwestern and southwestern portions of the basins are generally influenced by the economic growth fostered by Metro Manila.

All types of industries in the basin are clustered in the north from Manila to Marikina and Antipolo along the western growth corridor from Muntinlupa south to Calamba.  Agro-industry (which includes livestock raising, particularly hogs and poultry) is principally centered in two locations-- in the northern area around Montalban, San Mateo, Angono and Baras in Rizal Province and the southeast focused on Sta. Cruz, Pila and Victoria in Laguna Province.

The Basin is also rich in industrial materials.  At least ten municipalities currently have some form of mining, quarrying or extractive activity underway.  Several municipalities are the source of significant water or power supply.  Montalban and Tanay dams supply water to Manila, Pililla and Cavinti which are centers of electric power generation and Bay which is the center of geothermal development (URSI, 1989).

In 1974, SOGREAH suggested a land zoning for the lakeshores.  This was a result of the proposed rule curve and thus, probable lake levels due to the flooding effect on the lake.  The extent of potential flooding along the Laguna lakeshore, defined as the area between 10.5 m and 14.6 m above LLDA datum level, was calculated in 1975 to be 26,000 has.  The land use in this area consisted in the same year of 1,992 has.  residential, 14,478 has.  agricultural, 323 has. industrial and 102 has. commercial consisting 63% of the total, with the rest being marshes and swamps.  Rapid urbanization in the flood plains has increased the potential for flood damage (JICA, 1991).  More than 14,000 has. are subject to flooding every year.  Present observation of the lakeshore concludes that the development which occured along the shoreline does not respect the 12.5 m. limit nor the basic recommendation regarding land occupation (SOGREAH,  1991).

Chapter Contents

4.2.1.1

Irrational Land Use

a.    Settlements and Urban Development

Due to its proximity, the development of the Laguna de Bay region has been influenced by the growth of Metro Manila in socio-economic and physical terms.  Especially, the urbanization in the provinces adjacent to Metro Manila has been mainly caused by spillover of the population economically linked to it (JICA,  1991).   The suburbanization in the areas in the region has taken forms of private subdivision of lands,  government-sponsored low cost housing and site and services programs, and spontaneous development of residential areas in existing towns.  Five main directions are identified:

i.

Along the road from Metro Manial to Bacoor Rosario in and Cavite;

ii.

Along the Aguinaldo Highway toward Dasmariñas in Cavite;

iii.

Along the Manila South road and the South Superhighway to the south in Laguna;

iv.

Along the road from Marikina to Montalban to the north of Rizal;  and

v.

 Along the road from Cainta to Tagaytay/Angono to the east in Rizal.

 

Some environmental issues related to human settlements are those affecting their location, expansion and issues related to their management, regulation and maintenance.

The absence of a regional land use plan, concrete land ownership structures and explicit government intervention strategies are perhaps the main factors contributing to “illegal” settlements and chaotic urban sprawl in the Region today.  These situations are mainly characterized by primitive facilities, overcrowding/congestion and poor sanitation linked to an unhealthy environment.

Proximity to basic services and facilities and sources of livelihood remain to be logical consideration for determining the location of rural and urban communitues in the Region.  The uncontrolled physical expansion of urban communities make provision for housing, roads, water supply, sewers and public services prohibitively expensive in financial;  technical and environmental terms.  Urban communities have been, lately, built in the most productive agricultural lands resulting in permanent loss of precious land resources.  In general, urban growth have often preceded the establishment of a solid, diversified economic base to support the build-up of housing, infrastructure and employment.

In the Philippines, there are neither explicit urban development policies nor are there organizations specializing in urban development.  Recently, however, the importance of urban development in economic development has been recognized, and a physical framework for Luzon has been established by NEDA.  However, the physical framework is nothing more than indicative at best.

Chapter Contents

4.2.2

DEFORESTATION / DENUDATION

The watershed covers an area of about  382,000 has.  Originally, it was covered by dense equatorial forest.  Now, little of the original forest cover remains, except in reserves.  But even in these areas, illegal cutting and land clearing continue.  Between the mid-1940s and mid 1980s, forest cover decreased from about 53% to about 8% of basin cover ( URSI, 1989) and is now estimated to be less than 5% (FMB,1989).  Forest cover persists only on the steepest slopes and in the most isolated highland areas of the basin.

Forests are crucial for maintaining and improving the productivity of agricultural lands.  Yet agricultural expansion, a growing timber demand, and woodfuel demand have destroyed much forest cover.  Growing populations and the decreasing availability of arable land lead poor farmers in the region to seek new land in forests to grow more food.  There is nothing inherently wrong with clearing forests for farming: provided that the land is the best there is for new farming;  it can support the occupants expected to settle upon it;  and, it is not already serving a more useful function, such as watershed protection.  But often forests are cleared without forethought or planning.  Deforestation most severely disrupts mountainous areas, upland watersheds and the upland ecosystems that depend on them.  The uplands influence precipitation and the state of their soil and vegetation systems influence how this precipitation is released into the streams and rivers and onto the croplands of the plains below.  The growing numbers and the severity of both floods and droughts in many parts of the Region have been linked to the deforestation of upland watersheds.

Chapter Contents

4.2.2.1

Loss of Biodiversity

Uncontrolled development activities in the Laguna de Bay Basin have substantially reduced the population and number of flora and fauna species in the region.  This is because of the modification of the natural environment caused by extensive urban and industrial development and agricultural area expansion.

Forests in the basin are a rich source of forest products; timber for construction, furniture and fuel wood.  Also, many species of forest vegetation have important medical applications and some are in demand for landscaping.

From 1946 to 1977 alone, a considerable hectare of forest land of about 14,800 has. had been denude in the upland towns of  Rizal bordering the foothills of the mountains (BCEOM 1984).   As a result, sizeable areas of unproductive grasslands are now found in these areas.

Of the 21 species of dipterocarps, most are now rare or endangered; bamboo areas have been depleted and many species of palms are rare or endangered because of the loss of natural forest habitat.  For animal species: as many as 11 of the 35 mammal species are now endangered as a result of habitat loss and 77 species of birds are endangered and those migratory ones no longer visit the area (URSI, 1989).  In addition to the development impacts, many species of wildlife have been affected by the continued capture and collection by poachers.  These harmful practices still continue inspite of the conservation laws and area isolation of the national parks and watershed reservation in the region.

Chapter Contents

4.2.2.2

Erosion

Increasing economic activities in the Region have often extende into marginal lands prone to erosion.  Erosion makes soil less able to retain water, depletes it of nutrients, destroys the soil profile and reduces the depth available for plant roots to take hold.  As a result, land productivity declines.

Laguna de Bay has lost much of its fertile lakebed where fish feeds.  This could be attributed to the denude watershed in the upland towns of Rizal and Laguna.  During the monsoon rains, flashfloods bring down the eroded topsoil down the Laguna Lake and to the valleys below, causing siltation.  This process has reduced the yield of the once fertile farmlands of Rizal, rendering the water in the lake to become shallow and causing the water in the river to rise and inundate the towns around the lake including Metro Manila.

Chapter Contents

4.2.3 LAND CONVERSION

Conversion of forest to agricultural lands and into other uses has been a persistent issue in the Laguna de Bay Region.  This conversion is a problem in that the best agricultural soils become irreversibly lost.  We may note that some countries have adopted strategies to save their best soils for agriculture.  For example, in Korea, only rocky hilly land not suited for agriclture can be converted into cemeteries.  Still  very limited information on land conversion is presently available for the Region.  The Calabarzon Master Plan study noted that if municipality/city land use plan had been approved by June 15, 1988, land transaction in conformity with the land use plan are not subjected to the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP).  If municipalities/cities do not have land use plan, land conversion from agricultural land to other uses must follow the DAR Administrative Order No.1 and No.2, series of 1990 as amended by DAR Administrative Order No. 12, series of 1994.  However, due to the requirements imposed by DAO No.12 which are tedious enough for any land developer to comply, a serious implication could be illegal convesion and red tape in the bureaucracy.

Expansion of urbanized area from Metro Manila has been applying conversion pressure on prime agricultural lands.  Similar problems are observed around other secondary towns.  Land use plans of provincial government are only indicative, and effectiveness of existing laws and regulations to control land use is still uncertain.

Two schools of thought exist on the conversion of land uses in the Philippines.  One, based on CARP, tries to seek regulation of transactions of agricultural use.  The other argues that agricultural land should be converted to other uses of higher economic returns.  The latter tends to be supported by those promoting land development for urban/industrial uses.

Conversion from rural to urban land is continuing at a rapid rate.  Between 1975 and 2000, urban areas could more than double in size.  In particular, land conversion for some industrial estates has been drawing serious attention of people.  Future land conversion will be subject to the relevant administrative orders under CARP, although a few individual cases may remain to be an issue.  A real issue in this conversion is the absence of land use plan for most cities and municipalities in the Region which are official, detailed enough and providing effective tools for regulating future land use.

Chapter Contents

4.2.4

INCREASING CONCERN ON GROUND/SURFACE WATER DUE TO CONTAMINATION  FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES

Water  pollution directly and indirectly endangers human health and economic activities.  There are serious health implications brought about by water-borne diseases such as typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, poliomylitis and gastroenteritis.  While most sources of pollution have been identified, both surface and groudwater still continue to be threatened by nutrient and toxic contaminant loadings due to settlement and urban development, industrial development and agricultural practices.

About 52% of the total land area of the region is used for agriculture and livestock production.  In 1976, the total pesticide applications in the basin amounted to 104,000 kg. (dry form) and 184,000 l (liquid form) and are expected to increase by 20% to 25%.  The annual load to the lake of nitrogen increased from 3,492 tons in 1973 to 6,200 tons in 1978 and phosphorus from 942 tons to 1,600 tons in the same period.  By the year 2000, nitrogen loading is estimated to increase to 11,200 t/a and phosphorus loading is expected to increase to 29,000 t/a (WHO 1978).

Extensive deforestation of the watershed has also resulted in decreasing recharge of the aquifers which further affects the highly sensitive groundwater system.  This situation has increasingly threatened the quality and quantity of the groundwater which has been deteriorating rapidly.

The absence of a piped domestic sewerage in the region further placed the surface and groundwater resources into a very alarming stage.  Most wastewater from domestic and agricultural sources and from industrial establishments are all discharged directly in open drains, streams, rivers or infiltrated into the ground.  The presence of numerous wet industries, which are concentrated in the northwest and the west part of the basin, further endanger  the quality of ground/surface water.  Of the total 344 wet industries, only 48 industries or merely 14% have acceptable effluent quality, while the remaining 86% have either non-acceptable or unknown effluent quality.

Chapter Contents

4.2.5

UNCONTROLLED URBANIZATION OF THE  WATERSHED

Urban development, particularly in the southern shore communities, will further increase the loading of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake.  Problems in slope stability and soil erosion are expected because construction during development stage often proceeded without due care for slopes and vegetation.

The rapid deterioration of the watershed resulted to sediment input to the lake of approximately 1.5 x 106 x m3 /a (BCEOM 1984).  This increased sediment input to the lake will shorten its life by about 700 years (Environment Resources Ltd. 1985).

Chapter Contents

4.2.6

PRIVATIZATION/TITLING OF LAKESHORE AREA

Back in the 1920s, life along the  Laguna lakeshore was prosperous due to abundant fish catch for small fishermen.  Settlements gradually encroached upon the lakeshore to a degree so alarming that in 1936, the government issued a law to stop titling of lakeshore lands.  During the 1960s, industries expanded on the shore of Pasig River and moved on to locate along the coastal towns of Laguna de Bay.  People speculating of greater economic returns brought about by industrialization and urbanization have strategically located on prime lakeshore areas.  Thus, the cycle continued as attested by the present alarming number of squatters, land speculators and the like on valuable lakeshore areas.

Chapter Contents

4.3.   SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONCERNS

Contents:

4.3.1

CONFLICTING USES OF LAGUNA DE BAY

4.3.1.1

Open Fisheries vs. Aquaculture

4.3.1.2

Fisheries vs. Irrigation

4.3.1.3

Fisheries vs. Water Supply

4.3.1.4

Power Generation vs. Fisheries

4.3.1.5

Power Generation vs. Irrigation

4.3.1.6

Water Sink vs. Other Beneficial Uses

4.3.1.7

Flood Reservoir vs. Other Beneficial Uses

4.3.1.8

Navigation vs. Fishery and Domestic Water Supply

4.3.2

FISHERIES OF LAGUNA DE BAY

4.3.2.1

Proliferation of Fishpens

4.3.2.2

Increasing Fishermen Population

4.3.2.3

Declining Fishery Productivity

4.3.3

LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES

4.3.4

SKILLS TRAINING NEEDS

4.3.1

CONFLICTING USES OF LAGUNA DE BAY

4.3.1.1.

Open Fisheries vs. Aquaculture

Over the years, there was a consistent debate on the conflict between the two types of fishery - aquaculture which is evidenced by the fishpens and fishcages and open fishery which allows fishermen to fish in open areas.

Aquaculture and open water fishery are conflicting with each other with respect to lake occupancy.  In 1983, the aquaculture industry reached its peak with approximately one third of the lake occupied by the fishpens, scattered all over.  As a result, small fishermen found themselves almost displaced from their main occupation.  In 1986, the total fishpen area was reduced from 30,000 has.to 6,000 has.   However, fishermen view the lake as an open resource.

Proliferation of fishpens had likewise caused a reduction in snail production, thereby, affecting the duck raising industry.  The clamor then was for the immediate and complete dismantling of the fishpens to increase the area for open fishing.  Presently, the Zoning and Management Plan for Laguna de Bay is partly implemented and needs further review.  The total area occupied by fishpens as of 1994 is approximately 13,700 has.

Because of the opportunities and potential of the fishing industry in Laguna de Bay, this became the dominant use.  As such, the resource was viewed by some sectors primarily for fishery and claimed that the entry of saline water is very relevant to fishery production.  This runs counter to the water quality needed for irrigation and water supply.  Presently, the species of fish that thrive in the lake are predominantly brackish which is layman’s term is a combination of saline and fresh water.

Chapter Contents

4.3.1.2

Fisheries vs. Irrigation

On the other hand, the National Irrigation Administration is implementing large scale irrigation projects by abstracting water from Laguna de Bay.  Included in these projects are the 11,500-hectare farmland in Rizal and Laguna provinces including 1,280 has. of additional arable land along the East Bay area of the region.  To be irrigated are 13,160 has. in Cavite Friar Lands from a pumping station located in Putatan, Muntinlupa, Metro Manila.

The use of the lake for irrigation depends both  on the quantity and quality of the lake water.  A dependable volume of water should be made available to ensure the viability of these irrigation projects.  The water requirements would be adequately supplied by operating the Napindan Hydraulic Control Structure and the Manggahan Floodway based on a rule curve formulate for such amount of water drawdown.  In addition, the control structure is important in preventing the backflow of saline and polluted water from Manila.  While salinity is perceived as vital to fish nutrient growth, it it detrimental to irrigation development if it exceeds the acceptable level.  Obviously, the water needed for irrigation will be freshwater.  

Chapter Contents

4.3.1.3

Fisheries vs. Water Supply

The Laguna de Bay was originally intended to be tapped for water supply in the year 2000.  Based on the LLDA mandate, it will be tapped as a source of domestic water supply for Metro Manila and many of the provinces around the lake after the present sources have been exhausted.   Utilizing the irrigation pumps of NIA located at Putatan, Muntinlupa, this MWSS project could provide water to Muntinlupa, Parañaque, Cavite City and other municipalities.  In addition, nine municipalities of the Province of Rizal will abstract water from the lake for domestic use, also under MWSS Waster Supply Project.

To make the lake suitable for water supply, the water quality criteria of the lake will have to be upgraded from Class C to Class A which means more stringent from standards.  Support structures such as interceptors would have to be constructed to control pollution loading from communities and agricultural run-off.  Likewise, large scale aquaculture will have to be phased out due to their use of extreme fertilization, intensive feeding, storage of potentially hazardous materials such as oil, improper sanitation practices and regulation of lakeshore development.  Most importantly the Napindan Hydraulic Control Structure shall be operated effectively to control saline intrusion which contradicts with the need of fisheries.

There are already existing infrastructure facilities to harness the water quality requirement for irrigation and water supply and the fishery sector is claiming that the operation of these facilities is detrimental to their industry.  These conflicts point to the need to come up with a water resources allocation plan.  A tentative water balance is presented in Table 4.13.

Chapter Contents

4.3.1.4

Power Generation vs. Fisheries

The lake is also used to generate power.  The Kalayaan Pump Storage Power Plant is presently generating 300 megawatts of electricity for the Luzon grid.  The plant generates power by releasing water from the Caliraya reservoir to turn its turbines.  Water is pumped from Laguna de Bay using excess electricity for subsequent operation and thereby producing electricity.

Although water abstraction of this power plant is considered negligible, the release of water causes thermal pollution resulting in the death of aquatic plants which are very vital for fishery production.

Chapter Contents

4.3.1.5

Power Generation vs. Irrigation

Power generation is in conflict with irrigation with regard to water quantity, especially during summer, when irrigation water is much in demand and lake elevation is at 10.5 m.  A lake elevation lower than 10.5 m during the months of  April, May and  June will affect the plant’s pumping capacity.

Chapter Contents

4.3.1.6

Water Sink vs. Other Beneficial Uses

With the horrendous garbage problem in Metro Manila and other municipalities, one alternative is to “kill” the lake altogether and use it as a refuse area.  The lake serves as a huge waste sink for industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes.  This use of the lake is perceived as removing the economic burden for communities and industries to provide waste treatment facilities which according to them is counter productive because of the huge investment costs involved in putting them up.

The continuing pollution of  Laguna de Bay poses a threat to the thriving fishery industry.  Cases of fishkill and fish diseases have been reported in several parts of the lake and these were attributed to pollution.  Likewise, the plan to use the lake as a domestic water supply might not push through because of the continued deterioration of water quality, thus, new possible inexpensive and sufficient sources of water should be explore to fill in the increasing demand for water in the communities.

Chapter Contents

4.3.1.7

Flood Reservoir vs. Other Beneficial Uses

The lake is used as reservoir of flash floods coming from the Marikina River.  The Manggahan Floodway was constructed to divert the flood water from Metro Manila to Laguna de Bay at the expense of the surrounding communities that will be inundated when water at the Marikina River reach beyond tolerable level and diverted to the bay.

However, since the hydraulic regime of the Laguna de Bay is being controlled by the Hydraulic Control Structure, the rise and fall of the lake elevation between 10.50 m. and 12.50 m. should be viewed as merely tidal fluctuation.  In addition, since the surrounding communities have been used to this “normal” lake elevation, the rise of water higher than 12.50 m. is perceived as flooding.

In diverting water into the lake, sediment transport should be minimized and the water quality should be of the strictest requirement for the aforesaid uses.  Thus, the operation rule curves for the Manggahan Floodway and Hydraulic Control Structure should be observed.  This has implications on the fishing industry in terms of salinity requirement.

Chapter Contents

4.3.1.8

Navigation vs. Fishery and Domestic Water Supply

The lake is being used as a navigation route by residents of Talim Island and other people in Laguna and Rizal for lack of alternative land transport network and/or to evade the hassles of traffic.  It is also used to transport oil and oil products and other manufacturing inputs using barges.

This use is in conflict with the aquaculture industry because of the obstruction of fishpen structures to the navigation channel.  Oil spills and leaks, likewise, are detrimental to the water quality of the lake, which in the end will affect the fishery industry.

Chapter Contents

4.3.2

FISHERIES OF LAGUNA DE BAY

4.3.2.1

Proliferation of Fishpens

In 1973, when fishpen culture of milkfish (Chanos chanos) had just begun, 4,800 has. of the lake surface area were occupied by fishpens and fishcages.  The technology which was originally for the small fishermen, attracted instead several businessmen and entrepreneurs because of promising high yield and profits.  The area of fishpen increased rapidly to as high as 35,000 has. in 1983 or 1/3 of the lake surface (SOGREAH,  1991 p.26).  In addition, stocking of fishpens was not regulated.  This resulted in several problems, such as, slow fish growth and lower yield, reduction of open lake for traditional fishermen and fish catches and navigation difficulties.

The huge investment cost involved in putting up a fishpen and the opportunities it offers, caught the interest of  big capitalists at the expense of small fishermen.  Thus, the fishpens in the lake area are now controlled by big businessmen whose residences are outside of the lake basin.

Proliferation of fishpens affected the fishery yield of the capture fishery since the area for open fishing decreased.  In addition, fishery production was affected by the fishpen structures.

Mounting environmental problems and socio-economic unrest forced the gradual demolition of fishpens and fishcages in 1986 through the implementation of the lake Fishery Zoning and Management Plan (ZOMAP).  The primary purpose of the ZOMAP is to rationalize the distribution of fishpens in accordance with navigation requirements and to reduce the total fishpen area in accordance with the lake’s carrying capacity.  In 1989, the total fishpen area went down to 5,700 has.   As of 1994, LLDA records show a total of 11,518 has. aside from the structures registered with the Local  Government Units which is approximately 2,000 has.   The mushrooming of fishpens in the 1990’s may be attributed to the unclear implementation of R.A. 7160 otherwise known as the Local Government Code.

The clamor now of the small fishermen is the dismantling of big fishpen owned by corporations, the owners of which are politicians, retired military personnel and other influential persons with strong connections to the government.  Fishermen associations are pushing for the proper allocation of the allowable area to include fishermen cooperatives.   Table 4.14 shows that only 17% of the total fishpen area of 13,701 has.  are owned by fishermen cooperatives while 10,485 has. (76%) is owned by corporations.  By policy, LLDA allows only 5 has. for cooperatives and individuals and 50 has. for corporations.

Chapter Contents

4.3.2.2 Increasing Fishermen Population

In 1963, full-time fishermen numbered 6,511 and part-time fishermen, 6,489 or a total o 13,000 fisherfolks.  Due to the declining fishery yield of 796 kgs./ha./yr. to 434 kgs./ha./yr., the fishermen population decreased to 9,813; 7,674 of which are full-time fishermen and 2,319 part-time fishermen (T. Ingledow, 1970 p.473).  The increase in full time fishermen and the decrease in part-time fishermen suggests an increasing specialization and increased mechanization.  The latter is supported by the increase in use of motorized bancas.  It is also construed that the decrease in part-time fishermen is due to the shift in occupation in the area particularly in municipalities where more industries are being established.

In succeeding years, it can be noted in Table 4.12 that the total number of fishermen has been increasing.  This can be attributed to the increasing population around the lake area (from natural birth to migration) brought about by the attraction of the lake for fishery resources.  In 1990, LLDA recorded a total of 17,901 small fishermen highly dependent on Laguna de Bay for their livelihood.

Chapter Contents

4.3.2.3

Declining Fishery Productivity

In the early sixties, the Laguna de Bay had a low fish productivity of approximately 434 kgs./ha./yr. resulting in average gross return of P45,000,000.00  The most distributing was the declining fish yield of the lake from 796 kgs./ha. in 1963 to 434 kgs./ha. in 1968, of which most of the species caught in the lake were silver perch (Therapon plumbeus), white goby (Glossogobius gurius), mudfish (Ophicephalus striatus), all with low commercial value (T. Ingledow, 1970).

In 1970, a UN fishery study recommended the introduction of fish species with high market value, through fishpen culture to improve the fishermen’s income and to satisfy the increasing demand for fish in Metro Manila.  During that time, fish thrived solely on the natural food in the lake.  An ecological balance existed which was found ideal for culturing fish in captivity.  The ideal conditions delivered their promise of high fish production (Table 4.15).

The new technology was soon followed by the increase in population, industrialization, new agricultural technology using commercial inputs and the deforestation of the watershed.  In addition, infrastructure facilities were constructed such as the Napindan Hydraulic Structure and the Manggahan Floodway.

It can be stated that hand in hand with the expansion of fishpens is the increase in capture fishery which reached its peak in 1984  at 230,000 metric tons.  The demolition of fishpens in 1986 was accompanied by a dwindling fishery production that fell to 47,700 metric tons in 1988.  Thus, the total fishery production more or less paralleled to the growth of the fishpen industry.

In some ways it can be implied that the presence of fishpens in the lake contributed to the fishery yield of capture fishery because of accidental tearing and natural demolition of aquaculture structures by typhoon (MEIP, 1994).  On the other hand, the increase in number of fishermen in Laguna de Bay which compete with each other for fish produced in the lake should be noted also.  Furthermore, the increasing pollution of the lake and the presence of infrastructure facilities are also factors to the decreasing fishery population.

Chapter Contents

4.3.3

LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES

The small fishermen sector remains to be highly dependent on the lake fishery resources for their livelihood despite of dwindling fishery catch in terms of volume and value.  Unfortunately, because of their low income and lack of collaterals, they are considered non-bankable and, therefore, have limited or no access to existing credit lending facilities.  Furthermore, they have limited technical and entrepreneurial skills to enable them to engage in other agribusiness ventures and micro-enterprises, aside from fishery.

Therefore, the role of the government, through the LLDA and other concerned government agencies and financial institutions, is to provide new opportunities and a conducive environment to enable fishing households to expand their income opportunities.  Along this direction, the LLDA in the past launched and implemented a fishpen development project for small fishermen of Laguna de Bay with financial assistance from the Asian Development Bank and OPEC and a livelihood development program jointly with the Provinces of Rizal and Laguna.  However, 1988, Cabinet Resolution No.29 was issued by limiting government agencies authorized to engage in credit lending.  Unfortunately, LLDA was not included.

Because the LLDA is authorized by its Charter to extend financial assistance, this policy issue should be resolved immediately so as to bridge the income gap of small fishing households to at least meet the poverty line.

Chapter Contents

4.3.4

SKILLS TRAINING NEEDS

The package for livelihood assistance should be able to provide fishing communities/households, aside from technical skills for specific types of projects to be implemented, skills in project identification and entrepreneurial skills for small fishermen in managing their selected micro-enterprises or agro-based small-scale industries.

Chapter Contents

  

5.0   DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR THE LAGUNA DE BAY BASIN

Contents:

The development plan for the Laguna de Bay region shall be based on a proposed regional development framework which would focus on the natural resource attributes and the current development trends in the region.  Using the proposed regional development strategy a package of proposed programs and projects are formulated in response to the development problems, issues and constraints earlier identified.  It should be noted, however, that the development plan proposed in this Master Plan should still undergo a series of continuing consultation to gain advocacy and acceptability.  The institutional changes propounded in this Master Plan are essential.  The adoption of such would determine the attainment/accomplishment of the target programs and projects.

5.1   PROPOSED REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK

Contents:

In view of the ultimate objective of ensuring the sustainability of Laguna de Bay as a vital resource for the Lake region and the Metro Manila area and in consideration of the problems and issues associated with population growth, urbanization and industrialization which collectively create environmental pressures on the lake and its watershed, a regional development strategy is hereby proposed.

It is suggested that the lake and its watershed be zoned into three major areas, the industrial, watershed protection and shoreland zones in order to ensure the sustainability of the lake and its resources (Fig. 5.1).

Since it is already an existing reality that the western corridor of the Lake region is utilized as an area for industrial activities, it is recommended that this area be maintained as such and therefore to be designated as the Industrial Zone (Fig. 5.2).   However, the spill over effects of industrialization and urbanization should be controlled and their expansion be limited up to a delineated area.  To be effective in this aspect, it is essential to mark the possible extent of industrialization and urbanization through natural and distinguishable topographical and geomorphological boundaries.

The foot of Mt. Makiling to the south end of the lake presents a natural boundary for industrial development.  Since this area is a national park, it would be a good delineating point for controlling the expansion of industrial activities and urban growth.

In the northeastern part of the lake, the ridges of the hills dividing the Municipalities of Binangonan and Cardona, Rizal, present  a natural topographical boundary to mark the limit for high density urban development and industrialization.   The ridges dividing the two municipalities should likewise be projected up north to the hills and mountains of the towns of Teresa, Antipolo, San Mateo and Rodriguez (Montalban) in Rizal Province.

While the above area as described can be designated as an industrial/urbanization zone, it should be clarified that this shall be within the context of an ecologically sound and controlled level of industrial development.

Based on the above delineation, the areas from Cardona, Teresa, Antipolo, San Mateo and Rodrigues in Rizal Province, up to the upper watershed of the Sierra Madre Mountain ranges, down to the Banahaw and Makiling mountains in the south end if the lake shall then be designated as a Watershed Protection Zone (Fig. 5.3).  These areas shall be rehabilitated and conserved in order to ensure that the annual water balance and recharge of the Laguna de Bay is ecologically sustained.

It should be noted that the watershed protection zone is the natural reservoir of the lake since the vegetative cover in these areas are still relatively thick.   Moreover, about 35% to 45% of the freshwater flowing into the lake comes from the major tributaries in these areas namely:  Pagsanjan and Sta. Cruz Rivers.  In order to ensure that freshwater and a balanced hydrologic cycle is maintained, rehabilitation and restoration of forest cover in these areas must be undertaken.  It should be noted, however, that while this boundary is set, it should not be construed that no amount of industrialization would not be allowed in this area.

The delineation of the watershed into two prominent zones should likewise be reflected in the manner by which the lake resources should be allocated.   Fig. 5.4 shows the proposed lake resources management zones.  As such, the East Bay of Laguna de Bay should be conserved to allow a freshwater status and a quality that would sustain various uses such as domestic water supply, irrigation,  power generation and fisheries.   The Cental Bay and parts of West Bay from Binangonan and around Talim Island shall be designated for aquaculture since these areas are more protected from winds and where higher primary productivity is observed due to seawater intrusion influence.  The western side of the West Bay shall be kept open and restricted from aquaculture in order to allow for a more rigid water quality monitoring as well as to enable rehabilitation work in the area.  In-depth studied on the effects of salinity and industrial pollution must be undertaken in this area.

The South Bay shall be further studied since the potential for aquaculture is poor due to its rocky bottom.  A proposed reclamation project is being considered in this area, however, an  environmental and socio-economic impact study need to be undertaken to ensure that the project will not result in adverse social and environmental impacts.  All open areas shall be allowed for lake fishing.

The land and water inter-phase consisting of areas which  are alternately submerged and exposed as a result of rising and lowering of lake water level should be considered as a natural buffer zone.  These areas located between elevations 12.5m down to 10.5m elevation, called the Shoreland Areas, which is approximately 14,100 has.  should be protected and its use regulated and controlled (Fig.  5.5).   A shorelands Policy is being finalized by LLDA to regulate use of these areas.

As presented in the CALABARZON Master Plan, the tourism potentials of the region can be linked to existing Tourism Circuits (Fig. 5.6) and the agricultural potentials of the watershed basin can be delineated accordingly into Agricultural sub-regions such as lowland, upland, agro-forestry and coconut plantation agricultural areas (Fig. 5.7).

5.2   PROPOSED LAGUNA DE BAY REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS

Contents:

Presented below is a compendium of proposed program and projects which are intended to address the development problems, issues and constraints earlier identified in the major studies on the Laguna de Bay Region which the planning team reviewed exhaustively.   Such problems and issues were also validated through a consultation process with various sectors.

It should be noted that some of the proposed programs and projects were likewise identified in the past major studies.  Moreover, many of these are new ideas brought about by recent technological trends as well as new developments which are based on new paradigms attuned to more recent common concepts  such as resource management, non-structural approaches, ecosystems approach and the most over-used term called “sustainable development”.    The Master Plan carries with it the potential to reconcile human affairs with natural laws and for both to thrive in the process.  Simply put, it is a plan that works with nature and not against it.

Unlike past recommendations where programs mainly focused on resource utilization (water supply, power generation, irrigation, land development, etc.) and infrastructures (spillways, floodways, control structures, reclamation, etc.) the present Master Plan would emphasize more on resource management through reassessment (re-inventory) of available resources, development of information-based decisions, policy review, institutional approaches (such as public participation, strategic communication support and community development) and with little emphasis on structural solutions.  Moreover, emphasis would be given on drawing more attention on the watershed domain (especially the upland areas, agriculture and lake shoreland areas) and on public involvement in decision-making (through information, education and community organizing) as well as organizational development (through LLDA reorganization, capability building and networking).

The proposed programs and projects will be presented in detail in the attached sectoral programs (Appendices A-I) where project profiles have been tentatively outlined.  It should be noted, however, that traditional concerns such as education, social services, utilities, health, telecommunications, industrial development and the like were not dealt with. It is presumed that these sectoral concerns can be addressed by relevant sectoral agencies and that coordination and integration can be resolved through appropriate institutional linkages.  Of main focus in this Master Plan are resource-based sectoral concerns which are essentially tied-up to the management of the most vital regional resource which is the lake itself.

Presented below are the brief descriptions of the general program framework and the component projects for each sectoral concern.

Contents:

5.2.1

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

5.2.1.1    

OBJECTIVES

5.2.1.2    

STRATEGIES

a.

Resource Inventory

b.

Environmental Monitoring

c.

Policy Review and Development

d.

Infrastructure Development

e.

Regionwide IEC/Community Development

5.2.1.3    

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a.

Water Quality Monitoring Programs

b.

Pollution Control Programs

c.

Re-assessment of Earlier Major Recommendations on Environmental Management

d.

Water Resources Management Programs

5.2.2

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

5.2.2.1    

DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE

5.2.2.2    

PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES

a.

Development of Improved Land Management Practices

b.

Policy Review

c.

Socio-economic Approach

d.

Operational Watershed Management Planning System

e.

Decentralization

f.

Management Re-orientation

5.2.2.3    

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a.

Primary Development Components

b.

Support Component

5.2.3

FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

5.2.3.1

OBJECTIVES

5.2.3.2

STRATEGIES

5.2.3.3

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a.

Fishery Regulation

b.

Fishery Management

c.

Aquaculture Development Program

d.

Development of Post harvest Technologies  

e.

Institution Building and Support Services

5.2.4

AGRICULTURE  DEVELOPMENT  PROGRAM FOR  THE LAGUNA DE BAY REGION

5.2.4.1

DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE

5.2.4.2

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

a.

Land Use Reassessment and Prioritization

b.

Application of Efficient Farm and Land Management Techniques

c.

Development and Promotion of Alternative Farming Technologies

d.

Regulation and Monitoring and Agricultural Pollution

e.

Continuing Research, Development and Dissemination of Technologies

f.

Enhancement of Delivery of Agricultural Support Components

g.

Policy Development and Institutional Capability Build-Up

5.2.4.3

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a.

Agricultural Spatial Development

b.

Agricultural Resource Management for Sustainable Development

c.

Agricultural Ecosystem Protection and Waste Management

d.

Alternative Livestock and Poultry Development

e.

Agricultural Support Program

f.

Research and Technology Development

g.

Information, Extension and Community Development

h.

Institutional Arrangement for Agricultural Development

5.2.5

COTTAGE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

5.2.5.1

OBJECTIVES

5.2.5.2

STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION

a.

Intensification of Manpower Development in the Region

b.

Establishment of a Cottage Industries Display Center

c.

Formation of Fishermen’s/Farmers’ Association

d.

Development Communication Support

e.

Inter-agency Coordination/Linkages

 5.2.5.3

PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR COTTAGE INDUSTRIES

a.

Laguna de Bay Livelihood Training Program

b.

Trade House Art and Crafts Center

5.2.6

INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

5.2.6.1

OBJECTIVES

5.2.6.2

INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a.

Restructure the Decision-making Process, Ensure Public Participation and Strengthen the Coordinative Powers of the Laguna Lake Development Authority

b.

Proposal to Reorganize the Laguna Lake Development Authority

c.

Proposal to Strengthen the Financial Resources and Fiscal Capability of the Laguna Lake Development Authority

d.

Human Resources Development Project

5.2.7

LAKE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION SUPPORT PROGRAM

5.2.7.1

OBJECTIVES

5.2.7.2

STRATEGIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION

a.

Conceptual Framework

b.

Participatory Approach

5.2.7.3

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a.

Organizational Development Project

b.

Environmental Consciousness Promotion Project

c.

IEC Materials Production Project

5.2.8.1

DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE

5.2.8.2

STRATEGIES

5.2.8.3

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a.

Community Organizing Project

b.

Skills Training/Capability Building

c.

Mobilization Program : (Bantay Lawa/Bantay Kapaligiran Project)

5.2.9

RESEARCH AGENDA

5.2.9.1

THE PROPOSED RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR THE LAGUNA DE BAY BASIN

5.2.1

ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

5.2.1.1

OBJECTIVES

The overall objective of the Environmental Management Program is to formulate, improve and implement development and regulatory programs for the Laguna de Bay Region which would address water quality and environmental degradation issues, resource utilization and allocation and policy measures for environmental protection.  Specifically, the program is aimed to:

a.

Systematize environmental quality (especially water quality) data processing and information packaging to assess accurately the suitability of the lake and its watershed resources for all its present and intended beneficial uses.

b.

Evaluate the inputs of development activities on the lake’s water quality and quantity as important tools for environmental planning, legislation and management.

c.

Prevent the continuous discharge of pollutants, determine the pollution loading from various sources and improve environmental quality in the Region particularly Laguna de Bay.

d.

Re-assess environmental programs earlier recommended by previous studies, specifically major infrastructure projects and technical surveys.

e.

Identify mechanisms and institutional arrangements which could be operationalized to manage the utilization of lakewater specifically for domestic water supply and resolve conflicts of interests among agencies and stakeholders.

f.

Define policy measures for environmental protection through an effective licensing, permitting and levying system and controlling land development through an efficient land use planning.

Chapter Contents

5.2.1.2

STRATEGIES

a)     Resource Inventory

This is concerned with the establishment of an environmental data base system which is essential for an effective environmental management program.  This will also serve as guide to planners and policy makers  for making rational decisions towards environmental management.  Of similar importance is the development of an Industrial Data Base for pollution sources for effective industrial environment management.

Chapter Contents

b)     Environmental Monitoring

i)     Water Quality Monitoring

This will include region-wide monitoring activities concerning river and lakewater quality and surveillance, fish diseases, lake productivity and other inland waters in the region.  These monitoring activities will not only be the bases for the license, permit and levy systems of the Laguna Lake Development Authority but also for the success of the proposed environmental programs.

ii)     Ambient Air Monitoring

This strategy will involve the monitoring of emissions from industries and disposal sites to determine deleterious effects to the environment and human health and institute possible mitigation measures.

iii)     Monitoring of Land Use Changes

This strategy will involve the monitoring of land use changes through a system of permits and licensing for development projects such as the conversion of agricultural lands to industrial or residential purposes.  Proper land use zoning shall be implemented in coordination with the LGUs.  Urbanization and industrialization shall be regulated and monitored in order to protect the encroachment of critical areas such as prime agricultural lands, forest reserves and lake shorelands activities.

Chapter Contents

c)     Policy Review and Development

This  will include the re-assessment of the existing licensing  and permitting system of the Laguna Lake Development Authority.  Gaps will be identified for amendment and further strengthening of the said agency.

Another strategy is the application of economic incentives and disincentives in the pollution control and abatement program.  This will not only penalize violators but also provide some form of reward to firms that meet the standards.

Further is the development of a framework for resource allocation in the region for rational management of lake resources and its watershed.

Chapter Contents

d)     Infrastructure Development

A strategy for environmental amelioration through the construction of infrastructure will be pursued.  This will include the Parañaque Spillway which will prevent flooding in the Laguna de Bay, the Underwater Petroleum Pipeline which will reduce the risk of oil spill and the Regional Interceptor which is vital to domestic and industrial wastewater management.

Chapter Contents

e)     Regionwide IEC/Community Development

The success of any program depends on the level of participation of stakeholders.  Making the difficult choices in achieving sustaining in environmental management depends on the widespread support and involvement of an informed public and of NGOs, the scientific community and industry.  Their rights, roles and responsibilities in environmental management must be expanded.  There must be a no-nonsense Information, Education and communication campaign to be complemented by an effective community organizing methods to ensure the success of the projects.

Chapter Contents

5.2.1.3

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a)  Water Quality Monitoring Programs

The proximity of Laguna de Bay to Manila makes the basin conducive to rapid development and susceptible to pollution.  The lake’s use as a waste sink for the whole basin threatens its other uses, such as fishery, irrigation, industrial and most importantly domestic water supply.  In order to detect/assess the continuous degradation of the lake water quality, a comprehensive water quality monitoring program for Laguna de Bay has been ongoing since the seventies with the following objectives:

  • to systematically collect water quality data needed to assess accurately the suitability of the Lake for all its present and intended beneficial uses.

  • to evaluate the impact of the development activities on the lake’s water quality trends that will serve as important tools to environmental planning, legislation and management

To attain the above objectives, the following programs are being implemented:

i)         Laguna de Bay Sampling and Monitoring

The LLDA has been monitoring the water quality of the lake since it was started by SOGREAH in 1973.  Originally, there were 9 established sampling stations in the lake representing the West, Central and East Bays.  Later, it was reduced to 4 stations in 1983 since the data generated did not vary significantly.  In September 1986, another station was added at the South Bay.  Monitoring is conducted regularly on a bi-monthly basis.

ii)  Laguna de Bay Primary Productivity Studies

The LLDA conducts lake primary productivity (LPP) measurements regularly (at least twice a month) in four selected stations located at the West Bay (Binangonan, Rizal), Central Bay (Cardona and Pililla in Rizal) and at east bay (Sta. Cruz, Laguna).  LPP data are very useful in assessing the quantity of natural food supply in the lake and predicting the potential fish yields or the lake’s carrying capacity.

iii)  Tributary Rivers Water Quality Monitoring Program

There are quite a number of tributary rivers around the lake wherein the effects of uncontrolled development and industrialization on their water quality is strikingly visible.  It is, therefore, necessary to have a continuous baseline information on the various lake tributaries to identify which water course(s) need rehabilitation to improve water quality.

iv)  Fish Diseases Monitoring Program

The monitoring of fish diseases is a continuing activity of the LLDA.  The occurrence of fish disease such as the EUS or epizootic ulcerative syndrome (locally known as “kurikong”) affects the livelihood of fishermen in the lake

v)  Sampling and Monitoring of Other Lakes in the Region

There are also lakes within the Laguna de Bay Region aside from Laguna Lake.  At present, the LLDA continuously monitors the water quality of Tadlac Lake in Los Baños, Laguna and the seven lakes of San Pablo City which include Sampaloc, Calibato, Mohicap, Palakpakin, Bunot, Pandin and Yambo Lakes.

vi)  LLDA Laboratory Upgrading Project

The Environmental Laboratory of the LLDA plays an important role in the management of Laguna de Bay Region especially with respect to water quality.  It was established in 1973 as a Water Quality Laboratory with UNDP funding.  Through the years in its operation, additional demands on laboratory services have been manifested.

In support of the above programs, it is essential however, that the current laboratory facilities (of LLDA) be upgraded.  Top-of-the-line analytical equipment need to be acquired to improve efficiency and ensure reliability.  In view thereof, a laboratory upgrading program is also proposed.

Chapter Contents

b)     Pollution Control Programs

An effective Pollution Control Program must be carried out to prevent the discharge of pollutants and improve the quality of the environment particularly in the Laguna de Bay Region.  To assess the performance of the program, the various wastes generated and those eventually reaching the lake should be characterized to be able to determine the pollution load in the lake on a regular basis.  Decrease in the pollution with a concominant improvement of water quality is a good indicator of an effective control program.

To achieve this objective, the following are needed:

i)         Industrial Waste Management

  •  Waste Minimization Project within the Laguna de Bay Region

This proposed strategy for industrial wastewater pollution control aims to encourage and promote the adoption of waste minimization strategy focusing on improved processing techniques and clean technologies.  This approach provide opportunity cost benefits to firms, through the realization of a reduction in production of waste and treatment costs.  Waste treatment can be in some form of improved efficiency in the manufacturing process, recycling and waste exchange or adoption of different technology.

  • A Project for the Upgrading of the Self monitoring System for Industries

The project will review the sampling and flow measurement techniques used by industries and the analytical techniques used by laboratories.  Fifteen plants in the region which submitted self-monitored data will be randomly chosen as a pilot group for the project.  This project will later be institutionalized to include all industries with wastewater treatment facilities as well as emission source installations.

  • Pilot Common Wastewater Treatment Facilities Project

The project involves the entire design, construction and operation of a common treatment facility (CTF) to serve industrial enterprises located in close proximity to one another, particularly those which are small to moderate in size.  The CTF could also be applied to industrial enterprises with similar wastewater characteristics.

This CTF will serve as a model for similar groups of industries.  In the future, it will be applied to adjacent industries unable to put up their own wastewater treatment facilities.

  • Air Quality Management Project

All industries that are sources of combustion-derived pollutants, such as soot, fly ash, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur account for numerous toxic health effects.

The contribution of the industrial sector in the air emission loading in the air emission loading in the Laguna de Bay Region is not yet established.  The goals of this project are to quantify the air emissions burden from industrial activities, identify mitigation techniques to improve air quality and recommend techniques in monitoring, testing and reporting to ensure compliance with existing air quality emissions standards.

  • Study for the Introduction of Economictives and Disincentives to Promote Water Pollution Prevention and Abatement in the Laguna de Bay Region

Wastewater is always an add-on to a firm’s operating costs and as such, there is always a reluctance to provide the necessary treatment facilities.  Only 69% of the wet industries within the Region are provided with wastewater treatment facilities.  The project focuses on the use of economic incentives and disincentives to stimulate industrial activities to reduce the total loads of pollutants in the lakewater and to ensure adequate funding for the implementation of environmental management programs.

  • Pollution Control and Rehabilitation of Laguna de Bay through Biotechnology and Ecotechnology

This program will be a technical cooperative research between the National Institute for Environmental Studies - University of Tsukuba (Japan), the University of the Philippines at Los Baños and the Laguna Lake Development Authority.  It shall focus on the following alternative strategies to rehabilitate the lake:

  • control of point sources of pollution (e.g. electroplating, piggery, human and household wastes before they are discharged into the lake.

  • improve the sediment quality through the degradation of its nutrients and other organic substances

  • remove organisms such as Microcystic sp. and pollutants (usually at low levels) from the water to render it potable

Waste Treatment Plant Operator Training

One of the major findings of the Waste Minimization Study conducted by the Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program (MEIP) that needed immediate action is the limited experience and knowledge of firms’ treatment operations staff in the operation, maintenance and supervision of treatment facilities.  This training program aims to provide adeauate technology to industries to meet standards and reduce environmental pollution risk. 

Industrial Pollution Source Database Project

Environmental management, protection and conservation is the major concern of LLDA.  To ensure that such concerns can be effectively addressed, an Environmental Database Management Program, particularly an Industrial Pollution Source Database, is proposed to be established.

ii.  Agricultural Waste Management

Agricultural waste pollution contributes about 50% of the total nutrient loading in Laguna de Bay (SOGREAH, 1974).  This comes from waste nitrogen and phosphorous coming from fertilizer used in agricultural farms and from wastes generated by livestock and poultry animals.  The raising of ducks along the lakeshore is specifically one of the biggest contributors of pollution since almost 100% of duck wastes flow directly to the lake.  The use of pesticides and other chemicals contributes to pollution through air drift of chemicals of through run off from pesticide treated farms which contaminate the water system and Laguna de Bay.

The management and control of agricultural pollution specially excess nutrient loading of nitrogen and phosphorous and contamination from agro-chemicals will be instituted in the region as a priority concern for both the environment and agriculture sectors.  Because of the underlying effect of the problem to environmental integrity which ultimately manifest in the declining productivity of the lake and the resultant pollution in irrigation systems and other agricultural resource base, a program for the minimization of agricultural waste has been included as a component of the Agricultural Development Program under this Master Plan.

iii.  Domestic Waste Management

Lack of sewerage facilities is the main culprit in the mismanagement of domestic wastewater in the Region.  Separation of storm drainage from sewer water shall be recommended.  The re-assessment of the Region/River  Interceptor Studies are strongly recommended for possible infrastructure development in the very near future.

iv.  Solid Waste Management

Solid waste disposal is one of the most visible environmental problem that plagues the Region.  It is recommended that a study should be undertaken to create or define the entity that will manage solid waste at the regional level.  Included proposals are the Rehabilitation of the Disposal Sites and the use of solid waste for power generation.

v.  Toxic and  Hazardous Waste Management

Toxic and Hazardous Wastes (THW) cause adverse effects not only on the environment but also to human health.  Although lesser in quantity, the are difficult to handle and require special equipment/gadgets and modern technology to dispose.  The proposal includes the creation of a comprehensive database for THW detected in the Region and the design of the necessary facilities for its management.

The rationale, program description and the estimated annual budget for the Pollution Control Programs identified above are presented in Annex 3B.

Chapter Contents

c)     Re-assessment of Earlier Major Recommendations on Environmental Management

It is recommended that the environmental programs earlier recommended in previous studies be immediately reviewed and prioritized for immediate implementation. Presented in Annex 3C are the project profiles of technical surveys and major infrastructure projects which were earlier reiterated by SOGREAH in 1991.

i)         Technical Surveys

Theses projects are necessary to have a reliable information data base required in lake management.

·          Bathymetric Survey

·          Hydrological Re-assessment

·          Topographic Survey of Lakeshores

·          Extension of Telemetric Network

ii.  Infrastructure Projects

Various infrastructure projects have already been identified in previous studies which are seen as essential components for the rational management of the Laguna de Bay environment.  Feasibility studies have in fact already been prepared for these projects.  This Master Plan also recommends that these projects be reviewed and the feasibility studies earlier made be updated.

·          Re-assessment of Interceptor Study

·          Re-assessment of Petroleum Pipeline Project

·          Re-assessment of Parañaque Spillway Project  

Chapter Contents

d.     Water Resources Management Programs

i)         Framework for the Formulation of a Water Resources Utilization Policy

The various uses of the water resources of the lake which would affect the volume of the resource include irrigation, industrial cooling, power generation and domestic water supply.  While it has been established that about 4 billion m3 is displaced annually from the lake, about 1 billion m3 is probably lost to evapo-transpiration and discharged to Pasig River.  Effectively, about 3 billion m3 is available for utilization before it drains in Manila Bay.

The development and utilization of the Laguna de Bay water resources has created problems and issues which threaten not only the sustainability of these activities but also the life of the lake itself.  The conflicting economic uses of the lake affect both the quality and quantity of the resources available.  It is for these reasons that a Water Resources Utilization Policy needs to be formulated in order to optimize the economic beneficial uses of the lake.  This will ensure the equitable access and efficient utilization of the resources; and in order to reduce or resolve potential social conflicts arising from competing uses.  A tentative water balance is presented in Table 4.13

ii)        Study of the Laguna de Bay as Potential Domestic Water Supply Source

The worsening water shortage that plagues the Metropolitan Manila Area and its suburbs necessitates tapping the Laguna de Bay as the next source of raw water for domestic consumption.  This study will determine the potential of the lake; although the lake has sufficient quantity, tertiary treatment costs are very expensive.  This study will also look into the modeling of salt water intrusion as an essential factor both for water supply and fisheries.

The rationale, project description and estimated cost are discussed in Annex 3.0.

iii)  Groundwater Management Project

Groundwater is an important resource for the people of Laguna de Bay Region.  It is a common source of water supply, but its reliability to sustain increasing demand has not been established.  Also, there is an increasing evidence of groundwater contamination (from leachate of dumpsites, septic tanks, etc.), thus it is necessary to conduct a study to determine the degree of contamination and a rational management system.

Chapter Contents

5.2.2

WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

5.2.2.1

DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE

The general objective of the Laguna de Bay Region Watershed Management Program is to enhance the capabilities of the LLDA and other government agencies in the management of the natural resources the Laguna de Bay Region Watershed and river catchments towards a more sustainable and socially equitable basis. 

More specifically, it shall attempt to achieve the following:

a.

To reexamine the critical watershed environment and development issues and to formulate appropriate and responsive proposals for dealing with them.

b.

To propose a new form of regional cooperation on these issues which will influence municipal, provincial and regional policies and institutional restructuring for the direction of the needed changes in watershed management in the Region.

c.

To raise the levels of commitment to action of individuals, local communities, NGOs, businesses, institutions and the government for the promotion of improved catchment management pratices in the Region.

d.

To explore and fully understand the constraints of LLDA’S operations, the socio-economic and technical features contibuting to the management of the lake water quality and using these considerations, to direct the needed changes for LLDA and the areas under its jurisdiction.

e.

To ensure the availability of high quality water through the development of improved upland farming and forest management practices that offer short-term productive benefits and sustainability.

f.

To enumerate the goals for the environmental quality of the Laguna de Bay Watershed Region commensurate with the various uses and define the necessary steps to achieve the goals.

g.

To provide a schedule for action and achievement of the watershed management goals.

Chapter Contents

5.2.2.2

PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES

The development of a sustainable watershed management program for the Region commences with adherence to the basic ecological principles and processes.  The LLDA identified rapid siltation and sedimentation as among the major causes of accelerated euthrophication of the lake which in turn result to poor fishery production and deterioration of the lake water quality.  MEIP (1994), attributed the sedimentation of the lake to the continuing soil erosion due to deforestation and irrational land use practices in the Basin.  The program requires more than the identification and installation of remedial anti-erosion technologies designed to reduce downstream sedimentation.  It shall proceed with the following strategies:

Chapter Contents

a.     Development of Improved Land Management Practices

It is concerned with the development of improved land management practices for a range of alternative land uses (agriculture, livestock, forestry, wildlife, tourism, etc.), suited to the biophysical and socio-economic circumstances of the specific catchment area.  Primary consideration goes to the identification of practices that when adopted, would provide economic benefits (e.g. livelihoods) to users of the catchment while sustaining the natural resources of the area (catchment protection).  To operationalize this strategy, separate projects on a pilot and integrated approach shall be established in the Pagsanjan subwatershed and portions of the Marikina watershed.  

Chapter Contents

b.     Policy Review

In addition to catchment management practices for field level implementation, it is equally an important strategy to consider whether there is a need to change the policy and institutional environment (and if so how) so as to enable such technological options to achieve the design objective of productive and sustainable catchment development.

Policy review will include studies to cover the inclusion of upland farmers in the watershed and critical forest reservations to develop partnership with upland communities for an integrated watershed management and protection intervention.

Chapter Contents

c.     Socioeconomic Approach

Effective catchment management requires that attention should first be directed to identify the ultimate cause of the degradation.  Experience suggests that this will, more often than not, have a socio-economic (e.g., poverty, security of land tenure, limited access to improved technologies) rather than biophysical origin.  This will be addressed in the social and cultural characterization component of the program.  

Chapter Contents

d.     Operational Watershed Management Planning System

The strategy entails the operationalization of a watershed management planning system aimed at increasing the effectiveness of watershed management technology-related activities. The management strategy will largely depend on the processes of the various sectors involved.  It shall therefore include systematizing these processes for the preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of watershed management strategies of the different sectors in the Region.

The proposed establishment of the Watershed Management Council operationalizes this strategy by enlisting the different concerns especially those of the marginal sectors.  

Chapter Contents

e.     Decentralization

In support of decentralization, the program will veer away from centrally-planned and centrally-managed watershed development strategies, and will focus on regional and community participation -- from the inception to the implementation and evaluation of watershed management projects.  

Chapter Contents

f.     Management Reorientation

Most importantly, the program calls for a massive reorientation of LLDA’s management and technical capabilities in the light of current watershed management directions in the Region.  The systematic and participative processes of watershed management planning give assurance of a better focused, more effective and sustained support and assistance to the task of watershed management of LLDA, DENR, and other concerned agencies.

Chapter Contents

5.2.2.3

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

In line with the above strategies and options, the following primary and support components should be undertaken for the program to be effective and successful.  Each component is briefly described and presented as separate project proposal for implementation by LLDA and other coordination agencies in the Region.

Chapter Contents

a.     Primary Development Components

i)     Establishment of a Regional Watershed Management Council

Central to coordination is the consolidation and synchronization of development efforts and concerns of the different lake stakeholders.  This shall be operationalized through the establishment of a Watershed Management Council, a regional consultative and recommendatory body for the implementation of plans and programs on watershed management in the Region.

Corollary to this, a Watershed Management Program Office shall be established with LLDA to provide oversight function and overall coordination of the activities of the LLDA, DENR, LGUs and other agencies.  It shall provide the logistical and administrative support for the other components at the regional level, and facilitate coordination with Project Managers and administrative staff at the local level.  It is also tasked with the overall evaluation of results of the activities, their wide dissemination and for follow up activities.  One task involves the consolidation of watershed development and rehabilitation plans for the individual catchment areas.

ii)       Watershed Resources Information System

Before any development plan is evolved, a detailed investigation and inventory of existing resources should be undertaken within each specific river catchment.  A major activity of this component is spatial analysis to include aerial photo survey, mapping out of the extent and degree of soil erosion, present land uses, vegetative cover and the census of forest occupants.

A major output of this component will be a regional ecological profile to include a regional land-use map and the establishment of a regional watershed management information system which could serve as basis for land use planning in the Region.

iii)     Pilot Upland Management Project (Pagsanjan and Marikina Subwatersheds):  Managing the Lake from the Uplands 

This project will be a showcase to address in a pilot and integrated approach the country’s Medium Term Regional Development Plan.  It shall be responsible for such concerns as poverty alleviation in the marginal uplands, employment generation, equitable distribution of wealth through security of land tenure, enhancement of ecological balance, resources depletion and overall sustainable and economic development.

There are two sites selected for this Project.  One would be the upland areas of the Pagsanjan River Subwatershed, the second largest of the 21 sub basins covering 43,800 hectares in the Region and one of the biggest contributors of pollution loading to Laguna Lake.  The other one is the Marikina Watershed (forest reserve) which occupies a total of 55,400 has.  In the latter, LLDA would serve as support agency to DENR in implementing specific action projects in the area.

The project will also serve as an opportunity to conduct policy review and research studies on various aspects of lake as well as watershed management.

iv)     Development of a Policy Framework for Watershed Resources Protection

This component shall be implemented on a multi-agency and multi-sectoral approach and shall be pursued with a very strong environmental awareness strategy. Focus shall be given on the river systems of the wateshed by strict enforcement of anti-pollution measures, implementation of effective waste collection and disposal system, protection on further encroachment of lake shoreland areas and demonstration of soil and water conservation measures through vegetative as well as structural means.

A precondition for the effective implementation of this component is the organization and mobilization of upland communities, lowland dwellers and relevant stakeholders groups which have particular interest in the watershed resources.

This component should be strongly linked with the Community Organization Program of the Master Plan.

v)  Regional Land Use Planning Project

A workable and environmentally sound land-use scheme shall be evolved in this component.  This is intended to strike a balance between land supply and demand in the Region to achieve optimum land utilization.

The Project will pursue such specific concerns as:

  •  Exact location of deforested and heavily eroded areas requiring immediate attention

  •  Development and land acquisition along the lakeshore which are closely linked to lake management and protection

  •  Detailed land use of municipalities vital to population forecasts, location of large infrastructure projects like spillway, interceptors, etc.

  •  Proposed areas for development

vi)  Laguna de Bay Shorelands Management Project

This Project shall address the issues and concerns on the use and occupancy of the lake shoreland.  Specifically, it shall focus on the formulation of policies, rules and regulations towards management and protection of the same.  

Chapter Contents

b.     Support Component

Supportive development components of great importance to make the program viable shall be pursued.  Activities will focus on the following areas:

i)      Policy reorientation/strengthening

ii)     Institutional and manpower development/training/ education

iii)    Research

Chapter Contents

5.2.3

FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

5.2.3.1

OBJECTIVES

In order to address the problems and issues in lake fisheries, it is essential to establish that the ultimate objectives in formulating the Laguna de Bay Fisheries Development Program is to ensure the sustainability of its resources.  Specifically, the program aims to achieve the following;

a)       To develop and implement policy measures in conservation, management and development of lake fisheries and aquatic resources.

b)       To maximize and enhance productivity of the fishery resources and thereby, help fisherfolk obtain best returns on their investments without sacrificing its ecological integrity.

c)       To alleviate poverty among municipal fisherfolk by strengthening on-going projects through the provision of support facilities and services.  

Chapter Contents

5.2.3.2

STRATEGIES

Fishery development in Laguna Lake is a complex task that requires the input and support of many agencies both in public and private sector particularly those in the field of research and technology.  This development should focus both on regulation in resource use to ensure sustainability and development of other potentials to maximize benefits.

Chapter Contents

a)       Coordination in the Enforcement of Policies and Regulations

The existing fishery rules and regulation set by BFAR through the Fishery Code spells out the conditions under which open fishing may be lawfully allowed.  The LLDA in cooperation with the Philippine Coast Guard, BFAR and several fisherfolks’ association has been implementing fishery regulations and policies in Laguna Lake in order to protect and conserve its aquatic resources.  But considering the area coverage, the wide scope of responsibilities and the limited manpower of the above agencies, the mission cannot be fully accomplished.

In this aspect, the role of the local government units (LGU) is very vital especially with their devolved powers.  They are in the better position to monitor fisherfolks activities in close to their jurisdiction.  A strong linkage and coordination at the operational level is also necessary.  One way of doing this is through the participation of fishermen organizations and the federation of mayors league represented in the Board of LLDA.  This approach will ensure consistency and can avoid incongruity and duplicity particularly in the matters of enforcement.

b)       Development of Other Fishery Potentials and Strategies For Fishery Development

The waters of Laguna de Bay is an essential and renewable natural resource which supports and promotes the socio-economic development of the lake region.  While the lake is utilized for various uses, nobody seems to be concerned with the trend of going-on development.  Moreover, very little attention is given on the development of its other potentials in fishery production since everyone seems to be content with the fishpen industry in the lake.  Presented below are development potentials to further optimize lake fishery use.

i)

Aquarium fish production

ii)

Land-based aquaculture/hatcheries

iii)

Polyculture technology

iv)

Post harvest technology

v)

Freshwater pearl culture method

vi)

Research on the propagation of indigenous species

Chapter Contents

5.2.3.3

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

In order to improve the fishery productivity in Laguna Lake,five elements of sustainable fishery development approach should be emphasized.  First is fishery law enforcement in order to prevent illegal fishing methods such as electro fishing, chemical fishing and the use of fine meshed nets.  Second, is the management of the fishery resources.  This involves research and development to maintain the existing and restore the endemic freshwater aquatice species in the lake.  Third is the enhancement of fish production.  This involves the introduction of new technologies in aquaculture.  Fourth is the efficient utilization of fish and other fishery products through the development of proper post harvest technologies which include proper handling, storage and processing of fish and related products.  Fifth is the provision of support services and institutional building for credit, financing and marketing purposes.

To operationalize the above fishery development approaches, the sub-programs are presented below:

Chapter Contents

a.     Fishery Regulation

Fishery production in Laguna de Bay has decreased drastically.  There are several arguments to explain this phenomenon such as pollution and siltation.  However, among the major reasons are over fishing and illegal fishing activities.  These activities not only cause depletion of fish resources but also destruction of natural fish habitats.  Fishery regulation shall include the following components:

i)     Rationalization of the Fishpen Industry

The proliferation of fishpens in Laguna de Bay brought about ecological and social problems.  At present, there is a growing concern among fishpen operators and open fishermen on the low fish production.  This decline in production is somehow attributed to the decrease on availability of natural feeds in the lake.  This may also be due to over fishing and conflict of use among snail gatherers, illegal fishers and fishpen operators.

1.     Action Plan for the Demolition on Illegal Fishpen

To address the problems on illegal aquastructures in the Laguna de Bay, the LLDA has come up with OPLAN LINIS LAWA likewise known as the Action Plan for the Demolition of Illegal Fishpens.

The action plan involves three important phases, the pre-dismantling, dismantling and post operational review.  The first phase includes fishpen inventory for demolition, organization of inter-agency Task Force on Illegal Fishpen (TFIF), notification/advice to fishpen owners for demolition and coordination with the LGUs and all concerned agency for the implementation of the demolition plan.

The second phase will focus on the Actual Demolition/Dismantling operation to include the disposal of the dismantled fishpen materials.

The third phase will be the post operational activities.  This will involve evaluation and preparation of Final Accomplishment Report on the number of fishpens removed, the corresponding area covered and monitoring of the demolished fishpens.

However, the conflict which lies between LGUs and LLDA regarding issuance of permits for fishpen and fishcage structures must be resolved first before LLDA could execute the demolition of the illegal structures.

2.     Reformulation of the Zoning and Management Plan (ZOMAP)

The ZOMAP which was prepared to reassess and redirect the policies and regulations of the LLDA on development and utilization of fishery resources in the lake remains unimplemented.  The technical bases of the ZOMAP need to be reconsidered.  Primary productivity as basis of fish production need to be reassessed.  The conversion factor from primary production seems to be unrealistic.  The carrying capacity for lake  aquaculture needs to be reconsidered in order to determine the recommended area for fishpen culture.  Likewise, various environmental features need to be considered in formulating the ZOMAP, these include:  bathymetry and geological features of the lake bottom; wind velocity and directions vis-a-vis fishpen belts; lake water circulation in relation to nutrient dynamics; pollution loading from tributary river; social acceptability from lakeshore communities and fisherfolks sector; and others.

From the above considerations it is thus essential that the fishery zoning and management plan be reviewed and reformulated.  As such it should also consider a transition plan to democratize ownership of the fishpens by providing greater access and privilege to small fisherfolks.  This strategy could be affected by a temporary phase-out of the fishpens while the ZOMAP is being reviewed and the policies are being set in place.

A redistributive policy framework should be adopted to give priority to small fisherfolks cooperatives and to people’s organization rather than big-time capitalists many of whom do not even come from Laguna de Bay.  Such would jibe with the Social Reform Agenda of the Ramos Administration.

ii)     Community Mobilization Project for Law Enforcement on Illegal Fishing (Bantay Lawa Project)

The over-all responsibility in the implementation of fishery rules and regulation in Laguna de Bay remains with BFAR.  While this is so, the public expects LLDA to be responsible in enforcing anti-illegal fishing and piracy operations.  Thus, there is confusion regarding law enforcement as far as Laguna de Bay is concerned.  Therefore, as part of the Master Plan, LLDA formulated a proposed Executive Order to further strengthen the powers, functions and coordinative authority of LLDA stating the inclusion of the exclusive jurisdiction over fisheries in Laguna de Bay Region in its mandates.

In this case, LLDA shall have the full responsibility over fisheries in the region.  Regular patrolling system and other activities pertaining to lake fisheries law enforcement shall be implemented to control illegal fishing.  Training aspect of this project shall be integrated under the Community Development Program of the Master Plan.

iii)     Training/Seminar on Deputation, Conservation and Protection

To ensure effective public participation it is essential to equip the people and make them aware of their important role in the community particularly on environmental protection. The fisherfolks around the lake are not an exemption to this.  Lack of such awareness may further result in total degradation of the lake region and the continuous destruction of fishery resources in Laguna Lake.  It is therefore necessary that proper training and seminar be given to accredited groups of fisherfolks on the essentials of environmental conservation and protection.

Community organizations and formation of Resource Management Councils (RMC) will be tremendously effective in helping the government in enforcing rules and regulations once proper orientation and training are provided.  

Chapter Contents

b.     Fishery Management

For a region greatly dependent on its fishery resources for food and work for its people, the management of such fishery resources is a matter of great concern.  The following components will be given priority to ensure an efficient and effective management of fishery resources.

i)     Establishment of a Fisheries and Limnological Research Center

The Research Center project aims to develop appropriate information and technologies which support lake management strategies.  This will ensure that facilities and human resources are available for research and programs, which will strengthen the database on the lake characteristics and dynamics.  The Center shall provide reliable information on natural lake productivity and on factors affecting lake production.

ii)     Resource Assessment/Inventory of Aquatic Fauna

Assessment of the aquatic fauna is essential because this will provide information on indigenous species that may be utilized for aquaculture technology instead of importing exotic species which may otherwise adversely affect the local fish population.  Consequently, this systematic survey is needed because this provide information on the status of endangered species which are important for conservation purposes.  Special attention should focus on the benthic fauna as these are not yet well understood in the lake.

iii)     Research on the Propagation of Indigenous Fish Species

The modification of the natural environment due to uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization has led to substantial reduction of indigenous species present in the lake.  This substantial reduction has a great impact on the lake’s fish production in the municipal and commercial fishery sectors.

Previously, there were about 25 species in the lake, however, some experts claim that less than 15 species can only be found in the lake at present.  This clearly manifests the loss of bio-diversity in the lake.

t is therefore recommended that research should be made on the propagation and reintroduction of the indigenous species to restore the productivity and the ecological balance of the lake.

iv)     Establishment of Additional Fish Sanctuaries

The five thousand hectares of fish sanctuary located at Talim point fronting the towns of Laguna may not be equitably located. At present, LLDA divided the lake into six(6) zones for fishery management purposes.  It would be more practical and manageable if eight (8) hectare sanctuaries will be put up in each zone.  Fishermen association within each zone with the assistance of an LLDA Field Officer and the concerned LGU Officials will do the monitoring and related activities to manage the sanctuary.

Chapter Contents

c.     Aquaculture Development Program  

For the past years, aquaculture development in Laguna de Bay focused only on fishpen and fishcage culture specifically on milkfish, carp and tilapia species.  There is really a great need to develop the fishery industry, thus, the proposed program encourage the introduction of new technologies such as presented below:

i)         Freshwater Pearl Culture

The focus is on the culture processes of freshwater pearl as an income generating project.  It is a model project to develop for technology transfer to people’s organization and cooperatives in the region.  Studies are already available on the technology of freshwater pearl culture.  It would be ideal to try this in Laguna de Bay.

ii)  Freshwater Aquarium Fishes Production

Traditional fishfarmer must be encouraged to include in their operation the production of aquarium fishes.  One strategy to increase the awareness of the fishfarmers is to put up various freshwater aquarium fishfarms within the region coupled with well defined marketing channels extending to international markets.  The LLDA has to extend the necessary support for the development of the industry by establishing projects for aquarium fishes aimed at showcasing the promising venture the industry has to offer. The project to be established must operate on a commercial scale and shall become a consolidation center once the production of aquarium fishes in the region proliferates.  Working arrangements are underway to jointly implement the project with UPLB, PCAMRRD, DOST and the Private Sector. (LLDA, 1995).

iii)  Polyculture of Macrobrachium sp. and Tilapia sp

A study on polyculture of Tilapia sp., Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium sp. was done by Guerrero and Gonzales in 1977.  The feasibility study on the polyculture of the said species found out the freshwater shrimp (Macrobarium sp.) did not affect the growth and survival of the fish (Tilapia sp. and Cyprinus carpio).  The rearing of different species of fish of proper number and species combinations resulted in the efficient utilization of all the available food niches/zone in the pond/lake area.  Due to the freshwater shrimp’s potential as a cheap source of protein, the project also aims to maximize the use of the region’s resources to provide an alternative income generating opportunity to fishermen organizations.  This will also encourage fishfarmers to practice the technology introduced, particularly polyculture for the improvement and optimination of the fishery industry.

Chapter Contents

d.     Development of Post harvest Technologies  

Being endowed with a lake with a surface area of 90,000-hectare, the region’s major source of income is fishing.  One of the constraints to future fishery development is the lack of post harvest technologies to ensure rational management and maintain or improve the quality of the fish produce.  The quality of the fish greatly affects its price, and therefore, it must be preserved to ensure best return on investment.  In order to achieve this, the following activities should be given priority:

i)     Survey of Market Needs of the Fishery sector

Surveys on the social, acceptability as far as value added products is concerned, is a very important factor to consider to determine what facilities should be given priority so as to promote the wider acceptability of products.  This will further identify other needs of the region that must be provided such as support services.

ii)     Rehabilitation of Selected Existing Ports

In 1987, there were 61 landing sites around the Laguna Lake.  Sixteen (16) of these were located in the lakeshore communities of Rizal, 14 in Laguna and 31 in Talim island.  Only 48 of these landing sites including 14  in Rizal, 4 in Laguna and 30 in Talim island are with landing structures, the rest have none, most of them are government funded and maintained.

These sites are primarily used to handle cargo and passenger boats.  They are not provided with facilities for the convenience of passengers, traders and the using public like adequate berth, passenger sheds, landing, repair and beaching areas and handling facilities.

Generally, the rehabilitation of selected existing ports around the Laguna de Bay (Annex 2 Figure 5) shall benefit all the lakeshore communities of Rizal, Laguna and Metro Manila.  This will include installation of cold storage - ice plant; small-time canning, smoking, drying, salting factories to develop the value-added products.

The rehabilitation of the above existing ports shall be coordinated with DPWH, BFAR and the Philippine Ports Authority for possible funding and implementation.

iii)     Seminar/Workshop/Training on the Proper Handling and Processing of Fish

The activity will provide awareness to the fisherfolks on the value and importance of post harvest technology.  The said technology includes handling and processing of fish.

The seminar/trainings will include demonstrations on proper fish handling and processing.  This will involve washing, pre-chilling and icing in order to prolong the freshness of the fish.  Processing, on the other hand, will include canning, smoking, deboning, fish curing, drying, salting (fermenting), etc.  These technologies will also provide the fisherfolks a supplementary source of livelihood when there are surplus of fish caught during the peak months making available the processed product with longer shelf life at affordable prices during lean months.

iv)     Improvement of Fish Transport Systems

Taking into consideration that fish is highly perishable, fish transport systems should be given attention so as to maintain the quality of the fish catch.  The implementing agencies will endeavor to ensure the essential infrastructure for the transport systems.  Farm-to-market roads, bridges and ports needing repair and construction should be identified.  LLDA can coordinate in this activity with DPWH and LGUs for the speedy construction and repair of such infrastructures.

Chapter Contents

e.     Institution Building and Support Services  

i)     Fisherfolk Cooperative Formation

In line with the national goal for fishery development, cooperativism development should be promoted.  Formation of more fisherfolk cooperatives will enhance community development through its collective efforts.  Organized fisherfolk groups will have the opportunity and the proper training to acquire built-in mechanisms for capital formation.  It will also enable government institutions as well as other funding institutions (private and foreign) to offer services to the clients more effectively.  This project will be integrated with the Community Development Program.

ii)     Funding and Credit Facilities

The proposed development plan particularly on fisheries should be implemented by increasing government budget allocation for credits in order to meet the vast demand of small fisherfolks.  Guarantee funds should be increased to encourage private financing institutions to provide loans to fisherfolk groups and cooperatives.  One important thing that funding or lending agencies should do is to open more branches or offices within the lake region to increase visibility and accessibility to fisherfolk cooperatives.

The LLDA for its part should strengthen its financial capability and allocate subsidy to finance projects of fisherfolks and farmers.  Consequently, its Livelihood Development Program which was deferred temporarily should be reviewed.  In the meantime, LLDA will initiate efforts to link-up with existing credit facilities of other government agencies implementing livelihood assistance/funding projects.

iii)     Marketing Assistance

To avoid problems on wastage and over production, marketing information should be extended to producers for them to be aware where to market their harvest.  At present the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics has an on going marketing information services program in other regions.  This should be enhanced by other concerned institutions in order to have adequate information on the current operation among producers and cooperatives in the region.

Chapter Contents

5.2.4 

AGRICULTURE  DEVELOPMENT  PROGRAM FOR  THE LAGUNA DE BAY REGION

Considering the basin and Laguna de Bay as a resource critical to the environment and its present exploited State, there is a need to direct development approaches towards a holistic ecological view.  It is in this context that the development of the basin should be directed towards the protection of the environment and preservation of its resources without prejudice to the economic growth planned for the area.  Thus, this Master Plan will adopt programs in line with resource management principles, where agricultural economic activities will be harmonized with resource protection and ecological balance.  

Chapter Contents

5.2.4.1

DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE

The primary objectives for the development of agriculture in the region are:

i)     To promote the long-term sustainability of agricultural farms through proper and judicious utilization of agricultural lands;

ii)     To conserve and protect agriculture production areas of the region from random and haphazard land conversion;

iii)     To minimize pollution loading of agricultural waste into the water systems of the basin through development of alternative farming technologies and waste management systems, and

iv)     To enhance production and economic viability of the agriculture sector through the development and dissemination of efficient zoning technologies and effective delivery of support services.

Chapter Contents

5.2.4.2

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

a.     Land Use Reassessment and Prioritization

As immediate measure, a study on priority land uses for the remaining agricultural resources should be conducted.  This study should include options for the presently underutilized grass and shrub lands in the region particularly found on the northern side of Laguna de Bay for possible agricultural expansion with recommendations on their proper management and utilization.  Land zoning should be completed and adhered to for each municipality in the region and strict implementation of DAR regulations on land conversion should be made to control loss of agricultural lands.  The LLDA for its part should come out with criteria that will define the environmental implication of land conversion in terms of effects on soil stability especially mixed sloping areas, levels of ground water reserves, extraction and pollution, waste disposal, and surface water contamination that may affect the quality of irrigation and domestic water sources of agricultural communities.  

Chapter Contents

b.     Application of Efficient Farm and Land Management Techniques

Farm management techniques should be developed to shift from subsistence farming and monoculture which are inefficient in terms of production and resource utilization.  Farming technologies such as crop diversification, integrated farming, and incorporation of livelihood activities in farming activities should be encouraged.

Soil and water management can best be achieved through the cooperation of farmers.  Intensive information dissemination on applicable technologies (that can be adopted) should be conducted with the aid of the Department of Agriculture and Laguna Lake Development Authority stressing the benefits, not only on the environment, but also on the economic sustainability of farm areas.  Additional researches on technology development and application should also be conducted.  

Chapter Contents

c.     Development and Promotion of Alternative Farming Technologies

Alternative farming practices and technologies such as organic fertilizer and pesticide-free farming will be promoted to minimize the utilization  of pollutive agro-chemicals in farm areas especially near the lakeshore and water systems of the basin.

The shift from commercially prepared agro-chemicals should be achieved through the institutionalization of the different agricultural practices developed and applied mostly by independent farmers who pioneered on organic farming.  To ensure viability of these practices, researches on their application and management should be conducted and given attention by the different agricultural institutions especially the Department of Agriculture.  Extensive information and extension campaign should also be conducted.  

Chapter Contents

d.     Regulation and Monitoring and Agricultural Pollution

Agricultural pollution will be minimized through a regular monitoring of uses and sources of agricultural waste.  The use of fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and other agro-chemicals should also be monitored and regulated particularly in farms near the lake.  Alternative methods of pest control and should be developed and fertilizer application should be developed and institutionalized.

To prevent contamination of irrigation waters, regular monitoring of water sources should be conducted due to their susceptibility to pollution.  This may occur because of the presence of industrial establishments, agricultural pollution and urban development in surrounding areas.  

Chapter Contents

e.     Continuing Research, Development and Dissemination of Technologies  

Research and development on agricultural production will focus on innovative agricultural technologies and alternative farming methods including the raising of non-traditional but economically or commercially promising crops.  This will complement existing research programs of the various agencies, particularly the Department of Agriculture. In addition, the ecological ramification of progress in agricultural techniques and practices should be well established as basis for future policy development and technology enhancement.

Methods for effective agricultural extension and information dissemination will be developed as a means for community development dissemination.  Primarily, the Department of Agriculture with its network of extension workers should intensify its information and technology transfer programs.  Intensive extension will also be conducted to promote community participation in the implementation and promulgation of environmentally concerned programs.  

Chapter Contents

f.     Enhancement of Delivery of Agricultural Support Components  

Basic to agricultural development is the availability of support services that could ensure not only productivity but the realization of fair returns on the farmers’ efforts and investments. To attain projected development, i.e. increased and sustained production and income of farmers above the level of poverty, development of support services and structures should be provided through a sustained regional development program.

A redefinition of policy and development strategies especially in the promotion of farming practices that will enhance agricultural resource base accompany the basic package of support services.  

Chapter Contents

g.     Policy Development and Institutional Capability Build-Up  

Certain institutional deficiencies could be attributed to the implementation of agricultural programs in the region particularly on reconciling the environmental priorities of the watershed with agri-industrial development.  Specific policy issues for instance should be resolved such as priority land uses, extensive agri-modernization against environmental repercussions, distribution of institutional responsibilities among involved agencies and organizations, and others.

The resolution of policy conflicts and gaps should provide the overall directions for effective agricultural development while an institutional framework based on a clear definition of responsibilities and inter-agency coordination system should facilitate the delivery of services required by the sector.

The Laguna Lake Development Authority, as the main agency responsible for the development and management of resources within the region should (in cooperation and the DA and the LGUs) take an active role role towards this end.

Chapter Contents

5.2.4.3

PROGRAM COMPONENTS

a.     Agricultural Spatial Development

The framework for spatial development of agricultural areas will follow those laid for the designation of development zones in the basin area where the western corridor nearest Metro Manila will be maintained as urban and industrial corridor.  The eastern half of the basin will be designated for resource management and protection of the watershed.

Applied to agricultural development, this will mean that land conversion will be more liberally allowed west of Laguna de Bay towards Metro Manila under specific rules and environmental standards and subject to reassessment of land use and prioritization in the area.  The remaining agricultural lands in the province of Rizal should also be reassessed immediately in view of the rapid urbanization of the province to determine lands that could still be used for agricultural cultivation.  Prime lands occurring on the south and east sides of the lake will be placed under protected agricultural areas and will be maintained for primary production purposes.

The reclassification of forest dominated by grass and shrublands especially on the northern side of Laguna de Bay should also be considered.  The northern tip of the basin dominated by high reliefs of the Sierra Madre mountains and the Marikina Watershed as well as the mountains of Jalajala peninsula and Talim island will be excluded from extensive agricultural activities and other forms of land conversion to protect the environment.  The same will apply to Mt. Makiling, Mt. Cristobal, Mt. Banahaw and other areas of high reliefs with slopes of 25%.  These areas are susceptible to environmental degradation which can destroy natural bio-diversity, destroy soil profile due to soil erosion and cause flash floods and siltation of water systems and eventually, dry up the water sources of Laguna de Bay.

Corollary to spatial development and land use, the framework will take into account the overall ecological implication of agricultural land conversion on designated urban and industrial zones to complement resource management and minimize environmental hazards that may be created.

i)     Basic Strategies

  • Land use assessment

  • Identification and maintenance of Agriculture Protected Areas

  • Environmental planning and monitoring of designated Urban and Industrial zones

  • Inter-agency coordination on the implementation of land conversion rules and regulations

  • Agricultural integration with urban and watershed protection

ii)        Land Use Assessment Targets and Measures for Agricultural Areas

  • Laguna de Bay Regional Development Zones:

WEST LAGUNA DE BAY     -     Urban and Industrial Zone

EAST LAGUNA DE BAY      -      Watershed Protection Zone

Breakdown of Regional Assessment Zones:

  • Metro Manila

  • North-west shores from Taguig and Muntinlupa radiating towards Manila Bay covering  the urban centers of Metro Manila.

  • Urban and Industrial Center

Rizal Province

  • Includes the north shores from Taytay to Tanay;  the upland areas of Rizal (Marikina) and lowland areas along the periphery of Metro Manila boundary except Talim Island and upper Marikina watershed.

  • Land use assessment and prioritization to rationalize land conversion of lowland agricultural areas;

  • Assessment of land use in the upland areas and grasslands to determine possible areas for agricultural production and pasture expansion and or forest protection;