Anglistisches Institut I

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Chair of Medieval English Literature and Historical Linguistics

Chair of Medieval English Literature and Historical Linguistics

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ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE C, s.a. 1016
 

Transl. EHD I, with minor corr. Busse

0001 Her on þissum geare com Cnut mid his here and
0002 Eadric ealdorman mid him ofer Temese into Myrcum
0003 æt Cregelade, and wendon þa to Wærincwicscire
0004 innan þære middan wintres tide and heregodon and
0005 bærndon and slogon eal þæt hi to comon. Þa ongan se
0006 æþeling Eadmund to gaderigenne fyrde. Þa seo fyrd
0007 gesomnod wæs, þa ne onhagode heom þarto buton
0008 þæt wære þæt se cyng þær mid wære and hi hæfdon
0009 þære burhware fultum of Lundene. Geswicon þa þære
0010 fyrdinge, and ferde him ælc man ham. Þa æfter þære
0011 tide þa bead man eft fyrde be fullan wite þæt ælc man
0012 þe fere wære forþgewende, and man sende to þam
0013 cynge to Lundene and bæd hine þæt he come ongean
0014 þa fyrde mid þam fultume þe he gegaderian mihte. Þa
0015 hi ealle tosomne comon, þa ne beheold hit nanþinc þe
0016 ma þe hit oftor ær dyde. Þa cydde man þam cynge þæt
0017 hine man beswican wolde þa þe him on fultume beon
0018 sceoldon. Forlet þa þa fyrde and cyrde him eft to
0019 Lundene.


0020 Þa rad se Æþeling Eadmund to Norþhymbron to
0021 Uhtrede eorle, and wende ælc mon þæt hi woldon
0022 fyrde somnian ongean Cnut cyng. Þa fyrdedon hi into
0023 Stæffordscire and into Scrobsæton and to Legceastre,
0024 and hi heregodon on heora healfe and Cnut on his
0025 healfe. Wende him ut þuruh Buccingahamscire into
0026 Bedanfordscire, and þanon to Huntadunscire, swa into
0027 Hamtunscire andlang fennes to Stanforda, and þa into
0028 Lindcolnescire, þanon þa to Snotingahamscire, and
0029 swa  to Norþhymbran to Eoferwic weard. Þa Uhtred
0030 geahsode þis, þa forlet he his hergunge and efste
0031 norþweard and beah þa for nyde and ealle
0032 Norþhymbro mid him, and he gislode, and hine mon
0033 þeahhwæþere ofsloh þuruh Eadrices ræd
0034 ealdormannes, and Þurcytel Nafenan sunu mid him.
0035 And þa æfter þam gesette se cyng Yric into
0036 Norþhymbron him to eorle ealswa Uhtred wæs,
0037 and syþþan wende him suþwerd oþres weges
0038 eal be westan and com þa eal se here toforan
0039 þam Eastron to scypon. And se Æþeling Eadmund
0040 gewende to Lundene to his fæder, and þa æfter
0041 Eastron wende se cyng Cnut mid eallon his scipon to
0042 Lunden werd.


0043 Þa gelamp hit þæt se cyning Æþelred forþferde ær þa
0044 scypo comon. He geendode his dagas on Sancte
0045 Georgius mæssedæig, and he geheold his rice mid
0046 myclum geswince and earfoþnessum þa hwile þe his
0047 lif wæs. And þa æfter his ende ealle þa witan þa on
0048 Lundene wæron and seo burhwaru gecuron Eadmund
0049 to cyninge, and he his rice heardlice werode þa hwile
0050 þe his tima wæs. Þa comon þa scypo to Grenawic to
0051 þam gangdagum, and hi binnon lytlan fæce gewendon
0052 to Lundene, and hi þa dulfon ane mycle dic on
0053 suþhealfe and drogon hiora scypo on westhealfe þære
0054 bricge and bedicodon þa syþþan þa buruh uton þæt
0055 nan man ne mihte ne ing ne ut, and hi oft rædlice on
0056 þa buruh fuhton, ac hi him heardlice wiþstodon.


0057 Þa wæs Eadmund cyng ær þam gewend ut and gerad
0058 þa Westsexon, and him beah eal folc to, and raþe
0059 æfter þam he gefeaht wiþ þone here æt Peonnan wiþ
0060 Gillingaham, and oþer gefeoht he gefeaht æfter
0061 middan sumera æt Sceorstane, and þær mycel wæl
0062 feoll on ægþre healfe, and þa heras him sylfe toeodan;
0063 on þam gefeohte wæs Eadric ealdorman and Ælmær
0064 dyrling þam here on fultume ongean Eadmund
0065 kyning. And þa gegaderede he þryddan siþe fyrde,
0066 and ferde to Lundene eal be norþan Temese and swa
0067 ut þuruh Clæighangran, and þa buruhwaru ahredde
0068 and þæne here geflymde to hiora scypon. And þa þæs
0069 ymbe twa niht gewende se cyning ofer æt
0070 Bregentforda and þa wiþ þone here gefeaht and hine
0071 geflymde, and þær adranc mycel wæl Englisces folces
0072 for hiora agenre gymeleaste, þa þe ferdon beforan
0073 þære fyrde and woldan fon feng. And se cyning æfter
0074 þam gewende to Westseaxum and his fyrde samnode.


0075 Þa gewende se here sona to Lundene and þa buruh
0076 utan embsæt and hyre stearclice onfeaht ægþer ge be
0077 wætere ge be lande, ac se ælmihtiga God hi ahredde.
0078 Se here gewende þa æfter þam fram Lundene mid
0079 hyra scypum into Arewan, and þær up foron and
0080 ferdon on Myrcan and slogon and bærndon swa hwæt
0081 swa hi oferforan, swa hira gewuna is, and him metes
0082 tilodon, and hi drifon ægþer ge scipu ge hyra drafa
0083 into Medwæge. Þa gesamnode Eadmund cyng feorþan
0084 siþe ealle his fyrde and ferde ofer Temese æt
0085 Brentforda and ferde innon Kent, and se here him
0086 fleah beforan mid hiora horsum into Sceapige, and se
0087 cyning ofsloh heora swa fela swa he offaran mihte,
0088 and Eadric ealdorman gewende þa þone cyning
0089 ongean æt Egelesforda, næs nan mara unræd geræd
0090 þonne se wæs. Se here gewende eft up on Eastsexan
0091 and ferde into Myrcum and fordyde eall þæt he
0092 oforferde.


0093 Þa se cyning geahsode þæt se here uppe wæs, þa
0094 gesomnode he fiftan siþe ealle Engla þeode and ferde
0095 him æt hindan and offerde hi on Eastsexum æt þære
0096 dune þe man hæt Assandun, and þar togædere
0097 heardlice fengon. Þa dyde Eadric ealdorman swa swa
0098 he ær oftor dyde, astealde þæne fleam ærest mid
0099 Magesæton, and aswac swa his cynehlaforde and
0100 ealre Angelcynnes þeode. Þær ahte Cnut sige and
0101 gefeht him ealle Engla þeode. Þær wearþ Eadnoþ
0102 bisceop ofslagen and Wulfsige abbud and Ælfric
0103 ealdorman and Godwine ealdorman on Lindesige and
0104 Ulfcytel on Eastenglum and Æþelweard Æþelwines
0105 sunu ealdormannes, and eal Angelcynnes duguþ þar
0106 wearþ fordon.


0107 Þa æfter þissum gefeohte gewende Cnut kyninge up
0108 mid his here to Gleauceastrescire þær he ofahsade þæt
0109 se cyning wæs Eadmund. Þa gerædde Eadric
0110 ealdorman and þa witan þe þar wæron þæt þa cynegas
0111 seht naman him betwynan, and hi gislas him
0112 betwynan sealdon, and þa cynegas comon togædere
0113 æt Olanege and hira freondscype þær gefæstnodon ge
0114 mid wedde ge mid aþe and þæt gyld setton wiþ þone
0115 here, and hi tohwurfon þa mid þissum sehte, and feng
0116 Eadmund to Westsexan and Cnut to Myrcan. And se
0117 here gewende þa to scypon mid þam þingon þe hi
0118 gefangen hæfdon, and Lundenwaru griþode wiþ þone
0119 here and him friþ gebohton, and se here gebrohton
0120 hyra scipu on Lundene and him wintersetl þærinne
0121 namon.


0122 Þa to Sancte Andreas mæssan forþferde se kyning
0123 Eadmund, and his lic liþ on Glæstingabyrig mid his
0124 ealdan fæder Eadgare. And on þam ilcan geare
0125 forþferde Wulfgar abbud on Abbandune, and
0126 Æþelsige feng to þam abbodrice.


[© ed. Rositzke (1940), pp. ]

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Here in this year Cnut came with his enemy army, and
Ealdorman Eadric with him, across the Thames into Mercia
at Cricklade, and they turned then into Warwickshire
within the Christmas season, and ravaged and burnt
and killed all they came across. Then the atheling Edmund
began to gather an army. When the army was assembled,
nothing would satisfy them except that the king should be
there with them and they should have the assistance of the
citizens of London. They then desisted from that expedition
and each man took himself home. Then after that festival, the army was ordered out again on pain of the full penalty, every man to go forth who was capable of service. And word was sent to the king in London, begging him to come to join the army with the forces which he could muster. When
they all came together, it availed nothing, no more than it  had often done before. The king was then informed
that those wished to betray him who should support
him. He then left the army and returned to
London.


Then the atheling Edmund rode to Northumbria to
Earl Uhtred, and everyone thought that they would
collect an army against King Cnut. Then they led an army
into Staffordshire and into Shropshire and to Leicester,
and they ravaged on their side and Cnut on his
side. He then went out through Buckinghamshire into
Bedfordshire, from there to Huntingdonshire, and so into
Northamptonshire, along the fen to Stamford, and then into
Lincolnshire; then from there to Nottinghamshire and
so into Northumbria towards York. When Uhtred
learned this, he left his ravaging and hastened
northwards, and submitted then out of necessity, and with
him all the Northumbrians, and he gave hostages. And
nevertheless he was killed by the advice of Ealdorman
Eadric, and with him Thurcetel, Nafena's son.
And then after that the king [i.e. Cnut] appointed Eric for the
Northumbrians, as their earl, just as Uhtred had been,
and then turned southward by another route, keeping
to the west, and the whole enemy army then reached
the ships before Easter. And the atheling Edmund
went to London to his father. And then after
Easter, King Cnut turned with all his ships
towards London.


Then it happened that King Ethelred died before the
ships arrived. He ended his days on St George's
day, and he had held his kingdom with
great toil and difficulties as long as his
life lasted. And then after his death, all the councillors who
were in London and the citizens chose Edmund
as king, and he stoutly defended his kingdom while
his life lasted. Then the ships came to Greenwich at the
Rogation days, and within a short space of time they turned
to London. And they then dug a large ditch on the south
side and dragged their ships on to the west side of the
bridge, and then afterwards surrounded the borough with a
ditch, so that no man could go in or out, and repeatedly
attacked the borough, but they withstood them stoutly.


King Edmund had previously gone out and he took posses-
sion of Wessex, and all the warriors submitted to him. And
soon after that he fought against the army at Penselwood
near Gillingham, and he fought a second battle after
midsummer at Sherston, and a great number on both sides fell there, and the armies separated on their own accord;
in that battle Ealdorman Eadric and Ælfmær
Darling were supporting the enemy army against King Edmund. Then he collected the army for the third time,
and went to London, keeping north of the Thames, and so
out through Clayhanger, and relieved the citizens
and sent the enemy in flight to their ships. And then two
days after that, the king crossed over at Brentford,
and then fought against the enemy army and put it to
flight; and a great number of the English warriors who went ahead of the main force [72-3], wishing to get booty [73],
were drowned there through their own carelessness. And
the king turned to Wessex after that and collected his army.


Then the enemy army returned at once to London, and
besieged the borough, attacking it strongly both by water
and by land, but the Almighty God delivered it.
The enemy army then turned after that with their ships from
London into Orwell, and went inland there, and
went into Mercia, slaying and burning whatever was in
their path, as is their custom, and procured provisions
for themselves; and they drove both their ships and their
herds into the Medway. Then King Edmund collected all his
army for the fourth time, and crossed the Thames at
Brentford, and went into Kent, and the enemy army fled
before him with their horses into Sheppey, and the
king killed as many of them as he could overtake,
and Ealdorman Eadric came to meet the king
at Aylesford, no greater folly was ever agreed to than
that was. The enemy army went again inland into Essex,
and proceeded into Mercia and destroyed everything in its path.


When the king learned that the enemy army had gone in-
land, for the fifth time he collected all the English nation,
and pursued them and overtook them in Essex at the
hill which is called Ashingdon, and they stoutly joined
battle there. Then Ealdorman Eadric did as he had often
done before, he was the first to start the flight with the
Magonsæte [i.e. of Herefordshire], and thus betrayed his
liege lord and all the people of England. There Cnut had the victory and won for himself all the English people. There
was Bishop Eadnoth killed, and Abbot Wulfsige, and Ealdor-
man Ælfric, and Godwine, the ealdorman of Lindsey, and Ulf-
cetel of East Anglia, and Æthelweard, son of Ealdorman
Æthelwine, and all the nobility of England was there
destroyed.


Then after this battle King Cnut went inland with his
army to Gloucester, where he had learned that King
Edmund was. Then Ealdorman Eadric advised, and the
councillors who were there that the kings
should be reconciled, and they exchanged
hostages, and the kings met at
Alney and established their friendship there both with
pledge and with oath, and fixed the payment for the enemy
army, and with this reconciliation they separated, and
Edmund succeeded to Wessex and Cnut to Mercia. And the
enemy army then went to the ships with the things they had
captured, and the Londoners came to terms with the army
and bought peace for themselves; and the army brought
their ships into London and took up winter quarters
inside.


Then on St Andrew's day King Edmund died,
and his body is buried in Glastonbury along with his
grandfather Edgar. And in the same year died
Wulfgar, abbot of Abingdon, and
Æthelsige succeeded to the abbacy.

 

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