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Country Profile: Peru (Republic of Peru)

1. Geography
Area: 1,285,216 sq.km.; three main zones � dry coastal plain in the west where most of the cities and industry are located, high Andean plateau which is more agricultural, and Amazon jungles in the east.
Population: 25,661,669 in 2000; 29,885,322 in 2010; 35,518,199 in 2025
Capital: Lima (7,350,000)
Other major cities: Arequipa (656,000); Trujillo (530,000); Iquitos (275,000)

2. Peoples
Amerindian: 54.7%
Highland peoples: 51.7%
Lowland peoples: 3%
Mestizo: 32%
White: 12%
Other: 1.3%

3. Economy
Climatic changes during the 1990s and the devastation of guerrilla insurgency led to the collapse of the fishing and mining industries and reduced the majority of the population to desperate poverty with raging hyper-inflation. Fujimori�s government brought about a dramatic turnaround between 1992 and 1997 with inflation tamed and an economic recovery. The Asian recession and El Nino weather upheavals were then major setbacks. Over 40% of the population live in extreme poverty.
Exports: gold, copper fish and fish products, zinc
Export destinations: US 25.4%, UK 13.5%, Japan 6.6%, China 6.1%
Imports: intermediate goods, capital goods, consumer goods
Main origins of imports: US 30.5%, Spain 8.9%, Chile 8.1%, Colombia 4.1%
Currency: Nuevo Sol (New Sols)
GDP $54.0 billion
GDP per head $2,070
Average annual growth: 3.6% (1991-2001)
New Soles per $ 3.51% (end 2002)

4. Politics
Fully independent from Spain in 1824. A long history of dictatorships and repressive military rule. Democratic government between 1980 and 1991 was not able to reform the inequalities in society nor deal with the corrupt judiciary and police. Two violent, extremist and Maoist terrorist movements brought the country to its knees in 15 years of guerrilla warfare. Over 30,000 perished through the terrorists or the equally cruel military reactions. Needed repairs to the infrastructure of the country is estimated to ultimately cost $US25 billion. President Fujimori was elected in 1990 and 1995. He won the war against terrorism but became increasingly autocratic. A dubiously managed election to an unconstitutional third term in 2000 was followed a few months later with his resignation in the face of exposed political manipulation. New elections were held in 2001.

5. Religions
Christian: 23,110,900 adherents (90.06% of population)
Non-religious/other: 2,135,051 adherents (8.32% of population)
Traditional ethnic: 307,940 adherents (1.20% of population)
Buddhist: 79,551 adherents (0.31% of population)
Baha�i: 23,096 adherents (0.09% of population)
Jewish: 5,132 adherents (0.02% of population)

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