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Corrections Statistics -
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Corrections facts at a glance
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Reentry Trends in the United States

Prison Statistics

Summary findings | BJS publications | Selected statistics |
Also by BJS staff | Related sites


Summary findings

On June 30, 2006--

-- 2,245,189 prisoners were held in Federal or State prisons or in local jails -- an increase of 2.8% from midyear 2005, less than the average annual growth of 3.4% since yearend 1995.
-- there were an estimated 497 prison inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents -- up from 411 at yearend 1995.
-- the number of women under the jurisdiction of State or Federal prison authorities increased 4.8% from midyear 2005, reaching 111,403 and the number of men rose 2.7%, totaling 1,445,115.

At yearend 2005 there were 3,145 black male sentenced prison inmates per 100,000 black males in the United States, compared to 1,244 Hispanic male inmates per 100,000 Hispanic males and 471 white male inmates per 100,000 white males.

Links to full  size graphic and data
In 2003 there were an estimated 650,400 State prisoners serving time for a violent offense. State prisons also held an estimated 262,000 property offenders and 250,900 drug offenders.

Click on the chart to view full sized version.

Most serious offense Percent of sentenced
State inmates
1995 2003

Total 100 % 100 %
Violent 47 52  
Property 23 21  
Drug 22 20  
Public-order 9 7  


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BJS Publications

This list is in order of the most recent publication first. Additional titles are listed on other topical pages and a comprehensive list is contained on the BJS publications page. To see a full abstract of a publication with links to electronic versions of the publication, click on the title below.

HIV in Prisons, 2005, 09/07. Provides the number of HIV-positive and active AIDS cases among State and Federal prisoners at yearend 2005. NCJ 218915

HIV in Prisons, 2004, 11/06. NCJ 213897
HIV in Prisons, 2003, 9/05. NCJ 210344
HIV in Prisons and Jails, 2002, 12/04. NCJ 205333
HIV in Prisons, 2001, 01/04. NCJ 202293
HIV in Prisons, 2000, 10/02. NCJ 196023
HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1999, 7/01. NCJ 187456
1998 tables on HIV in Prisons are available in spreadsheets in zip format (20K). 4/00
HIV in Prisons, 1997 11/99. NCJ 178284
HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1996, 7/99. NCJ 174437
HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1995, 8/97. NCJ 164260
HIV in Prisons, 1994, 3/96. NCJ 158020
HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1993, 8/95. NCJ 152765

Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2006, 8/07. Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2006, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities. NCJ 218914

Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2005, 7/06. NCJ 214646
Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2004, 7/05. NCJ 210333

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006, 6/07. Presents data on prison and jail inmates collected from National Prisoner Statistics counts and the Annual Survey of Jails, 2006. NCJ 217675

Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005, 5/06. NCJ 213133
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2004, 4/05. NCJ 208801
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2003, 5/04. NCJ 203947
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2002, 4/03. NCJ 198877
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2001, 4/02. NCJ 191702
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2000, 3/01. NCJ 185989
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 1999, 4/00. NCJ 181643
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 1998, 3/99. NCJ 173414
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 1997, 1/98. NCJ 167247
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 1996, 1/97. NCJ 162843
Prisoners at Midyear 1995: Press release, 12/95. NCJ 158021

Veterans in State and Federal Prison, 2004, 5/07. Presents data on the military and criminal backgrounds of incarcerated veterans, uses new measures to describe their substance abuse and dependence histories, and provides a detailed measure of their mental health problems. NCJ 217199

Medical Causes of Death in State Prisons, 2001-2004, 1/07. Describes the specific medical conditions causing deaths in State prisons nationwide during a four-year period. NCJ 216340

Prisoners in 2005, 11/06. Reports the number of persons in State and Federal prisons at yearend, compares the increase in the prison population during 2005 with that of the previous year, and gives the prison growth rates since 1995. NCJ 215092

Prisoners in 2004, 10/05. NCJ 210677
Prisoners in 2003, 11/04. NCJ 205335
Prisoners in 2002, 7/03. NCJ 200248
Prisoners in 2001, 7/02. NCJ 195189
Prisoners in 2000, 8/01. NCJ 188207
Prisoners in 1999, 8/00. NCJ 183476
Prisoners in 1998, 8/99. NCJ 175687
Prisoners in 1997, 8/98. NCJ 170014
Prisoners in 1996, 6/97. NCJ 164619
For 1995 see Prison and Jail Inmates, 1995, 8/96. NCJ 161132
Prisoners in 1994, 8/95. NCJ 151654

Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004, 10/06. Presents data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities on prisoners' prior use, dependence, and abuse of illegal drugs. NCJ 213530

Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates, 9/06. Presents estimates of the prevalence of mental health problems among prison and jail inmates using self-reported data on recent history and symptoms of mental disorders. NCJ 213600

Suicide and Homicide in State Prisons and Local Jails, 8/05. Describes historical trends in State prison and local jail inmate mortality rates based on inmate death records submitted by local jails (for 2000-2002) and State prisons (for 2001-2002). NCJ 210036

American Indians and Crime: A BJS Statistical Profile, 1992-2002, 12/04. Reports the rates and characteristics of violent crimes experienced by American Indians and summarizes data on American Indians in the criminal justice system. NCJ 203097

Profile of Nonviolent Offenders Exiting State Prisons, 05/02. Provides a description of the general characteristics of prison populations serving time for nonviolent crimes as they exit State prisons. NCJ 207081

Cross-National Studies in Crime and Justice, 09/04. Summarizes the results from a study that documents crime and criminal punishment trends from 1981 to 1999 in eight countries: Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. NCJ 200988

Data Collections for the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, 07/04. Reports on the status of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) efforts to measure the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within the Nation's correctional facilities. NCJ 206109

State Prison Expenditures, 2001, 06/04. Presents comparative data on the cost of operating the Nation's State prisons. The study is based on institutional corrections elements of the Fiscal 2001 Survey of Government Finances which State budget officers reported to the U.S. Census Bureau. NCJ 202949

State Prison Expenditures, 1996, 8/99. NCJ 172211

Hepatitis Testing and Treatment in State Prisons, 4/04. Presents facility policies related to Hepatitis C testing and treatment and hepatitis B vaccinations, based on the 2000 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, which gathered data from 1,584 State institutions. NCJ 199173

Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released from Prison in 1994, 11/03. Presents, for the first time, data on the rearrest, reconviction, and reimprisonment of 9,691 male sex offenders, including 4,295 child molesters, who were tracked for 3 years after their release from prisons in 15 States in 1994. NCJ 198281

Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2000, 8/03. Presents information on facilities, inmates, programs, and staff of State and Federal correctional facilities throughout the Nation. NCJ 198272

Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 1995, 8/97. NCJ 166582

Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001, 08/03. Presents estimates of the number of living persons in the United States, 1974 to 2001, who have ever been to State or Federal prison. NCJ 197976

Education and Correctional Populations, 01/03. Compares educational attainment of State and Federal prison inmates, jail inmates, and probationers to that of the general population. NCJ 195670

Correctional Populations in the United States, Presents data on the number of persons in the United States who were under some form of correctional supervision.

In electronic formats only:

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1998 - Statistical tables, 09/02. NCJ 192929

In print and electronic formats:

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997, 11/00. Includes the Survey of State and Federal inmates.
Full report NCJ 177613
Executive Summary NCJ 177614

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1996, 4/99. Includes the survey of Inmates in local jails.
Full report NCJ 170013
Executive Summary NCJ 171684

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1995, 5/97. Summarizes the 1995 Census of State and Federal Adult Correction Facilities.
Full report NCJ 163916
Executive Summary NCJ 163917

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1994, 7/96. Includes data on military corrections.
Full report NCJ 160091
Executive Summary NCJ 161559

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1993, 10/95. Includes State-by-State data about local jails.
Full report NCJ 156241
Executive Summary NCJ 156675

Right arrow Previous editions (non-electronic)

Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994, 6/02. Reports on the rearrest, reconviction, and reincarceration of former inmates who were tracked for 3 years after their release from prisons in 15 States in 1994. NCJ 193427.

Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983, 4/89. NCJ 116261

Firearm Use by Offenders, 11/01. Describes firearm use of State and Federal prison inmates including types of firearms used, characteristics of inmates using firearms, why and where inmates used their firearms, and where they obtained their firearms. NCJ 189369.

Mental Health Treatment in State Prisons, 2000, 7/01. Reports on facility policies related to screening of inmates at intake, conducting psychiatric or psychological evaluations, and providing treatment (including 24-hour mental health care, therapy/counseling, and use of psychotropic medications). NCJ 188215.

Medical Problems of Inmates, 1997, 1/01 Presents survey data on offenders who were in prison who reported a medical problem since admission or a physical impairment or mental condition. NCJ 181644

Defense Counsel in Criminal Cases, 11/00. Examines issues of legal representation for defendants in Federal district court and large local jurisdictions, and inmates in local jails and Federal and State prison. NCJ 179023

Incarcerated Parents and Their Children, 8/00. Presents data from the 1997 Surveys of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities concerning inmates with children under the age of 18, whether or not inmates lived with their children prior to admission, and the children's current care givers. NCJ 182335

Profile of State Prisoners under Age 18, 1985-97, 2/00. Presents trend data from 1985 to 1997 on persons under 18 in State prison, focusing primarily on persons admitted to prison under the age of 18: their demographic characteristics, offenses, average sentence length, and expected time served. NCJ 176989

Veterans in Prison or Jail, 1/00. Presents data from the 1997 Surveys of Inmates in Adult State and Federal Correctional Facilities and the 1996 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails concerning inmates' prior military service. NCJ 178888

Time Served in Prison by Federal Prison by Federal Offenders, 1986-97, 6/99. Describes changes in sentences imposed and time served brought about by the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 by cohorts of offenders entering and exiting Federal prison between 1986 and 1997. NCJ 171682

Mental Health and Treatment of Inmates and Probationers, 7/99 Presents survey data on offenders who were in prison or jail or on probation and who reported prior treatment for a mental or emotional problem. NCJ 174463

DWI Offenders under Correctional Supervision, 6/99 Provides data on offenders in jail, in prison, or on probation for driving while intoxicated. NCJ 172212

Prior Abuse Reported by Inmates and Probationers, 4/99. Describes prior physical and sexual abuse reported by persons in prison, in jail, or on probation. NCJ 172879

Assessing the Accuracy of State Prisoner Statistics, 2/99. Compares two series of data on characteristics of State prisoners: State prison records and State court records. NCJ 173413

Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons, 1/99. Describes the development and use of truth-in-sentencing (TIS) laws and presents data on the growing number of States that have adopted TIS and the increasing amount of time offenders are serving in State prison. NCJ 170032

Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997, 1/99. Presents data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in Adult State and Federal Correctional Facilities concerning prisoners' use of alcohol and illegal drugs and the substance abuse treatment they received. NCJ 172871

State and Federal Corrections Information Systems , 10/98. Reports on a recently completed inventory of information systems in State and Federal departments of adult corrections. The inventory establishes a basis for improving the capacity to provide comparable data and to facilitate cross-jurisdictional research. NCJ 170016

Crime and Justice in the United States and in England and Wales, 1981-96, 10/98. Presents data that compares crime in the United States and England with respect to crime rates (as measured both by victimization surveys and police statistics), conviction rates, incarceration rates, and length of sentences. NCJ 169284

Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison, 3/97. Describes characteristics of persons admitted to prison for the first time, compares lifetime and one-day prevalence rates, considers changes in admission rates since 1991, and discusses the estimation techniques. NCJ 160092

Prison and Jail Inmates, 1995, 8/96. Reports that at the end of 1995, there were almost 1.6 million men and women in the Nation's jails and prisons. NCJ 161132

National Corrections Reporting Program, 1992, 10/94, NCJ 145862 Describes the demographic characteristics, offenses, sentence length, and time served of persons admitted to and released from the Nation's prison and parole systems.

Tables for subsequent years are available in spreadsheets as listed below.

Performance Measures for the Criminal Justice System, 10/93 . This compendium of Discussion Papers represents the work of the BJS-Princeton University Study Group on Criminal Justice Performance Measures. NCJ 143505

Survey of State Prison Inmates, 1991, 5/93. Presents new data about State prison inmates: their background and families, criminal histories, gang membership, drug and alcohol use, HIV/AIDS infection, gun use and possession, sentence, time served, and participation in prison programs. NCJ 136949

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Selected statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States - Statistical tables
in spreadsheet and portable document format files. Subjects include:

  • Jail inmates
  • Probation
  • Prisoners
  • Parole
  • Capital Punishment
  • U.S. military corrections

1998 data are currently available, 9/02

National trends

Suicide and Homicide rates, 1980-2003
Prison population by offense type, 1980-99

Correctional populations, 1980-2004

Correctional populations by gender, 1986-97

Proportion of the population under correctional supervision
by gender, 1986-97


Correctional populations by race, 1986-97

Proportion of the population under correctional supervision
by race, 1986-97


Incarceration rate trends,1986-2004
National Corrections Reporting Program:
State-by-State and Federal

Incarceration rates for prisoners, under State or Federal jurisdiction, per 100,000 residents, 1977-98, 9/00, Spreadsheet (21K)

Year-end totals

  • Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, Federal and State-by-State, 1977-2004, 12/05
    All prisoners, Spreadsheet (22K)
    Female prisoners, Spreadsheet (24K)
    Male prisoners, Spreadsheet (20K)

  • Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction sentenced to more than one year, Federal and State-by-State, 1977-2004, 12/05
    All prisoners Spreadsheet (23K)
    Male prisoners Spreadsheet (22K)
    Female prisoners Spreadsheet (22K)

  • Prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, Federal and State-by-State, 9/00
    Prisoners in custody, 1977-98, Spreadsheet (11K)
    Prisoners sentenced to more than a year, 1977-98, Spreadsheet (83K)
    Female prisoners, 1983-98, Spreadsheet (5K)
    Male prisoners, 1983-98, Spreadsheet (5K)

Annual admissions

  • Prisoners sentenced to more than one year who were admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, 1977-98, 9/00
    All prisoners Spreadsheet (22K)
    Male prisoners Spreadsheet (22K)
    Female prisoners Spreadsheet (22K)

  • New court commitments sentenced to more than one year who were admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, 1977-98, 9/00
    All inmates Spreadsheet (22K)
    Male inmates Spreadsheet (22K)
    Female inmates Spreadsheet (22K)

  • Conditional release violators sentenced to more than one year, returned to State or Federal jurisdiction, 1977-98, 9/00
    All violators Spreadsheet (24K)
    Male violators Spreadsheet (22K)
    Female violators Spreadsheet (22K)

Annual releases

  • Sentenced prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, 1977-98, 9/00
    All prisoners, Spreadsheet (22K)
    Male prisoners, Spreadsheet (23K)
    Female prisoners, Spreadsheet (25K),


  • Prisoners released unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, 1977-98, 9/00
    All prisoners, Spreadsheet (30K)
    Male prisoners, Spreadsheet (29K)
    Female prisoners, Spreadsheet (29K)


  • Prisoners released conditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, 1977-98, 9/00
    All prisoners, Spreadsheet (30K)
    Male prisoners, Spreadsheet (30K)
    Female prisoners, Spreadsheet (29K)


  • Deaths among sentenced prisoners, under State or Federal jurisdiction, 1978-98, 9/00, Spreadsheet (18K)

Persons incarcerated

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Also by BJS staff

Beck, Allen J. "Growth, Change, and Stability in the U.S. Prison Population, 1980-1995" Corrections Management Quarterly, forthcoming 1(2), 1-14.

Greenfeld, Lawrence A., Allen Beck, and Darrell Gilliard, "Prisons: Population trends and key issues for management," Criminal Justice Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996.

Langan, Patrick A., "America's soaring prison population," Science, 251, pp. 1568-1573, March 29, 1991.

Langan, Patrick A., "Racism on trial: new evidence to explain the racial composition of prisons in the United States," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 76, 3, pp. 666-683.

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Related sites

From BJS

Other relevant sites

BJS home page | Top of this page



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Page last revised on September 27 , 2007