Department of Justice · Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics
On June 30, 2006--
At yearend 2005 there were 3,145 black male sentenced prison inmates per 100,000 black males in the United States, compared to 1,244 Hispanic male inmates per 100,000 Hispanic males and 471 white male inmates per 100,000 white males.
In 2003 there were an estimated 650,400 State prisoners serving time for a violent offense. State prisons also held an estimated 262,000 property offenders and 250,900 drug offenders.
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|Most serious offense||Percent of sentenced
This list is in order of the most recent publication first. Additional titles are listed on other topical pages and a comprehensive list is contained on the BJS publications page. To see a full abstract of a publication with links to electronic versions of the publication, click on the title below.
HIV in Prisons, 2005, 09/07. Provides the number of HIV-positive and active AIDS cases among State and Federal prisoners at yearend 2005. NCJ 218915
Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2006, 8/07. Presents data from the Survey on Sexual Violence, 2006, an administrative records collection of incidents of inmate-on-inmate and staff-on-inmate sexual violence reported to correctional authorities. NCJ 218914
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006, 6/07. Presents data on prison and jail inmates collected from National Prisoner Statistics counts and the Annual Survey of Jails, 2006. NCJ 217675
Veterans in State and Federal Prison, 2004, 5/07. Presents data on the military and criminal backgrounds of incarcerated veterans, uses new measures to describe their substance abuse and dependence histories, and provides a detailed measure of their mental health problems. NCJ 217199
Medical Causes of Death in State Prisons, 2001-2004, 1/07. Describes the specific medical conditions causing deaths in State prisons nationwide during a four-year period. NCJ 216340
Prisoners in 2005, 11/06. Reports the number of persons in State and Federal prisons at yearend, compares the increase in the prison population during 2005 with that of the previous year, and gives the prison growth rates since 1995. NCJ 215092
Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004, 10/06. Presents data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities on prisoners' prior use, dependence, and abuse of illegal drugs. NCJ 213530
Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates, 9/06. Presents estimates of the prevalence of mental health problems among prison and jail inmates using self-reported data on recent history and symptoms of mental disorders. NCJ 213600
American Indians and Crime: A BJS Statistical Profile, 1992-2002, 12/04. Reports the rates and characteristics of violent crimes experienced by American Indians and summarizes data on American Indians in the criminal justice system. NCJ 203097
Profile of Nonviolent Offenders Exiting State Prisons, 05/02. Provides a description of the general characteristics of prison populations serving time for nonviolent crimes as they exit State prisons. NCJ 207081
Cross-National Studies in Crime and Justice, 09/04. Summarizes the results from a study that documents crime and criminal punishment trends from 1981 to 1999 in eight countries: Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. NCJ 200988
Data Collections for the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, 07/04. Reports on the status of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) efforts to measure the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within the Nation's correctional facilities. NCJ 206109
State Prison Expenditures, 2001, 06/04. Presents comparative data on the cost of operating the Nation's State prisons. The study is based on institutional corrections elements of the Fiscal 2001 Survey of Government Finances which State budget officers reported to the U.S. Census Bureau. NCJ 202949
Hepatitis Testing and Treatment in State Prisons, 4/04. Presents facility policies related to Hepatitis C testing and treatment and hepatitis B vaccinations, based on the 2000 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, which gathered data from 1,584 State institutions. NCJ 199173
Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released from Prison in 1994, 11/03. Presents, for the first time, data on the rearrest, reconviction, and reimprisonment of 9,691 male sex offenders, including 4,295 child molesters, who were tracked for 3 years after their release from prisons in 15 States in 1994. NCJ 198281
Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2000, 8/03. Presents information on facilities, inmates, programs, and staff of State and Federal correctional facilities throughout the Nation. NCJ 198272
Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001, 08/03. Presents estimates of the number of living persons in the United States, 1974 to 2001, who have ever been to State or Federal prison. NCJ 197976
Education and Correctional Populations, 01/03. Compares educational attainment of State and Federal prison inmates, jail inmates, and probationers to that of the general population. NCJ 195670
Correctional Populations in the United States, Presents data
on the number of persons in the United States who were under some form
of correctional supervision.
Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994, 6/02. Reports on the rearrest, reconviction, and reincarceration of former inmates who were tracked for 3 years after their release from prisons in 15 States in 1994. NCJ 193427.
Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983, 4/89. NCJ 116261
Firearm Use by Offenders, 11/01. Describes firearm use of State and Federal prison inmates including types of firearms used, characteristics of inmates using firearms, why and where inmates used their firearms, and where they obtained their firearms. NCJ 189369.
Mental Health Treatment in State Prisons, 2000, 7/01. Reports on facility policies related to screening of inmates at intake, conducting psychiatric or psychological evaluations, and providing treatment (including 24-hour mental health care, therapy/counseling, and use of psychotropic medications). NCJ 188215.
Medical Problems of Inmates, 1997, 1/01 Presents survey data on offenders who were in prison who reported a medical problem since admission or a physical impairment or mental condition. NCJ 181644
Defense Counsel in Criminal Cases, 11/00. Examines issues of legal representation for defendants in Federal district court and large local jurisdictions, and inmates in local jails and Federal and State prison. NCJ 179023
Incarcerated Parents and Their Children, 8/00. Presents data from the 1997 Surveys of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities concerning inmates with children under the age of 18, whether or not inmates lived with their children prior to admission, and the children's current care givers. NCJ 182335
Profile of State Prisoners under Age 18, 1985-97, 2/00. Presents trend data from 1985 to 1997 on persons under 18 in State prison, focusing primarily on persons admitted to prison under the age of 18: their demographic characteristics, offenses, average sentence length, and expected time served. NCJ 176989
Veterans in Prison or Jail, 1/00. Presents data from the 1997 Surveys of Inmates in Adult State and Federal Correctional Facilities and the 1996 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails concerning inmates' prior military service. NCJ 178888
Time Served in Prison by Federal Prison by Federal Offenders, 1986-97, 6/99. Describes changes in sentences imposed and time served brought about by the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 by cohorts of offenders entering and exiting Federal prison between 1986 and 1997. NCJ 171682
Mental Health and Treatment of Inmates and Probationers, 7/99 Presents survey data on offenders who were in prison or jail or on probation and who reported prior treatment for a mental or emotional problem. NCJ 174463
DWI Offenders under Correctional Supervision, 6/99 Provides data on offenders in jail, in prison, or on probation for driving while intoxicated. NCJ 172212
Prior Abuse Reported by Inmates and Probationers, 4/99. Describes prior physical and sexual abuse reported by persons in prison, in jail, or on probation. NCJ 172879
Assessing the Accuracy of State Prisoner Statistics, 2/99. Compares two series of data on characteristics of State prisoners: State prison records and State court records. NCJ 173413
Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons, 1/99. Describes the development and use of truth-in-sentencing (TIS) laws and presents data on the growing number of States that have adopted TIS and the increasing amount of time offenders are serving in State prison. NCJ 170032
Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997, 1/99. Presents data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in Adult State and Federal Correctional Facilities concerning prisoners' use of alcohol and illegal drugs and the substance abuse treatment they received. NCJ 172871
State and Federal Corrections Information Systems , 10/98. Reports on a recently completed inventory of information systems in State and Federal departments of adult corrections. The inventory establishes a basis for improving the capacity to provide comparable data and to facilitate cross-jurisdictional research. NCJ 170016
Crime and Justice in the United States and in England and Wales, 1981-96, 10/98. Presents data that compares crime in the United States and England with respect to crime rates (as measured both by victimization surveys and police statistics), conviction rates, incarceration rates, and length of sentences. NCJ 169284
Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison, 3/97. Describes characteristics of persons admitted to prison for the first time, compares lifetime and one-day prevalence rates, considers changes in admission rates since 1991, and discusses the estimation techniques. NCJ 160092
Prison and Jail Inmates, 1995, 8/96. Reports that at the end of 1995, there were almost 1.6 million men and women in the Nation's jails and prisons. NCJ 161132
National Corrections Reporting Program, 1992, 10/94, NCJ 145862 Describes the demographic characteristics, offenses, sentence length, and time served of persons admitted to and released from the Nation's prison and parole systems.
Performance Measures for the Criminal Justice System, 10/93 . This compendium of Discussion Papers represents the work of the BJS-Princeton University Study Group on Criminal Justice Performance Measures. NCJ 143505Survey of State Prison Inmates, 1991, 5/93. Presents new data about State prison inmates: their background and families, criminal histories, gang membership, drug and alcohol use, HIV/AIDS infection, gun use and possession, sentence, time served, and participation in prison programs. NCJ 136949
Correctional Populations in the
United States - Statistical tables
1998 data are currently available, 9/02
Beck, Allen J. "Growth, Change, and Stability in the U.S. Prison Population, 1980-1995" Corrections Management Quarterly, forthcoming 1(2), 1-14.
Greenfeld, Lawrence A., Allen Beck, and Darrell Gilliard, "Prisons: Population trends and key issues for management," Criminal Justice Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996.
Langan, Patrick A., "America's soaring prison population," Science, 251, pp. 1568-1573, March 29, 1991.
Langan, Patrick A., "Racism on trial: new evidence to explain the racial composition of prisons in the United States," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 76, 3, pp. 666-683.
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